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CANADA 

THE 



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_ BOUR 
AZETTE 





Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Vol. LVII No. 7 
JULY 1957 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department 1 of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Michael Starr, Minister 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



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Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 

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Vol. LVII, No. 7 CONTENTS July 1957 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 785 

Notes of Current Interest 801 

Laval University's 12th Industrial Relations Conference 807 

86th Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association. . 812 

Professional and Technical Manpower 822 

U.S. Committee on Handicapped 833 

Why Married Women Work 834 

50 Years Ago This Month 835 

International Labour Organization: 

Canada's Worker Delegate Speaks 836 

Morse Given 5-Year Extension as ILO Director-General ... 838 

Teamwork in Industry 839 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification Proceedings 840 

Conciliation Proceedings 845 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Nova Scotia, 1957 851 

Labour Legislation in New Brunswick, 1957 853 

Labour Legistation in Saskatchewan, 1957 854 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 856 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 862 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 871 

Decisions of Umpire 872 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 874 

Wages, Hours, Working Conditions: 

Wage Rate for Labourers in Manufacturing 879 

Prices and the Cost of Living 881 

Strikes and Lockouts 883 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library . . 883 

Labour Statistics 890 



Correspondence— Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions— Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govci d- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 






THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 



Hon. Michael Starr, Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Cover Photograph 
Natibnal Film Board 



A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Vol. LVII, No. 8 CONTENTS August 


1957 


Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 


913 


Notes of Current Interest 


929 


Research Program on Training of Skilled Manpower 


940 


Annual Convention, Newfoundland Federation of Labour 


943 


First Ontario Conference on Aging 


944 


Industrial Fatalities in Canada during 1st Quarter, 1957 


946 


Fair Practices and Human Rights Conference, Winnipeg 


948 


Productivity, Earnings, Costs and Prices 


949 


State's Pilot Rehabilitation Program 


951 


Women Increase Role in Labour Force 


952 


50 Years Ago This Month 


953 


International Labour Organization: 




Conference Adopts Five International Labour Instruments 


954 


Government's Role in Labour-Management Relations — 


965 


Teamwork in Industry 


966 


Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 




Certification Proceedings 


967 


Conciliation Proceedings ., 


969 


Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 


975 


Collective Agreements: 




Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 


977 


Industrial Standards Acts 


979 


Labour Law: 




Labour Legislation in British Columbia, 1957 


980 


Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 


983 


Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 


987 


Unemployment Insurance: 




Monthly Report on Operations 


989 


Decisions of Umpire 


990 


Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 


992 


Prices and the Cost of Living 


997 


Strikes and Lockouts 


999 


Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 


1000 


Labour Statistics 


1005 







Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



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Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR 




CANADA 



LVII N 



AUGUST 1 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Cover Photograph 

Chris Lund 

from Canadian 

Government 

Travel Bureau 



Vol. LVII, No. 9 CONTENTS September 1957 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1 029 

Notes of Current Interest : . . . 1045 

Employment of Older Men and Women 1054 

International Association, Employment Security Personnel . . 1058 

The Working Life of Women 1060 

Women in Canadian Banking 1063 

Workers' Participation in Management in West Germany ... 1 065 

"Call It Rehabilitation" 1068 

Women Office Workers in 1880 1069 

50 Years Ago This Month 1070 

International Labour Organization: 

135th Session of Governing Body 1071 

136th Session of Governing Body 1072 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification Proceedings 1073 

Conciliation Proceedings 1075 

Collective Agreements: 

Statutory Holiday Provisions in Collective Agreements ... 1077 

Labour Law: 

Legislation Enacted by Parliament during 1957 Session . . 1079 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1084 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1089 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1094 

Decisions of Umpire 1 095 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1 097 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Vacations with Pay in Canadian Industry 1 103 

Strikes and Lockouts 1112 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1113 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library ... 1115 

Labour Statistics 1 120 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 




LABOUR 



iSP"* 




Published Monthly by the 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 






Hon. Michael Starr, Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Vol. LYII r No. 10 CONTENTS October 1957 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1 145 

Notes of Current Interest — 1161 

Merger Convention of N.B. Federation of Labour (CLC) 1 172 

McGill's 9th Annual Industrial Relations Conference 1178 

Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation 1189 

Canadian Vocational Training Advisory Council Meeting — 1191 

89th Annual Conference of British Trades Union Congress . . 1193 

Industrial Fatalities in Canada, Second Quarter, 1957 1198 

International Society for Welfare of Cripples 1201 

Task of Women Trade Unionists 1 202 

50 Years Ago This Month 1203 

Teamwork in Industry 1 204 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification Proceedings 1 205 

Conciliation Proceedings 1 208 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1214 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1217 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operations 1219 

Decisions of Umpire 1220 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1223 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1228 

Strikes and Lockouts 1 230 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library . .. 1230 

Labour Statistics 1235 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 




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Forest Products Industries (p. 1146) 



Published Monthly by the 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Vol. LVII N 
OCTOBER II 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Vol. LVII, No. 11 CONTENTS NOVEMBER 1957 
Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1 255 


Notes of Current Interest 


1271 


Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 


1278 


Skilled Manpower in Electronics, Heavy Machinery Industries 
Vocational Training for Girls and Women 


1281 
1284 


CLC Submits Annual Memorandum to Cabinet 


1289 


CCCL Memorandum to Cabinet 


1295 


Second Annual Convention, N.S. Federation of Labour 

Second Annual Convention, Man. Federation of Labour 

Second Convention, Sask. Federation of Labour 


1300 
1301 
1303 


International Union of Catholic Employers' Associations 

28th Annual Meeting, Canadian Chamber of Commerce 

Rehabilitation Institute of Ottawa 


1304 
1313 
1314 


Jobs for Older Women Workers 


1315 


50 Years Ago This Month 


1316 


Teamwork in Industry 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation 


1317 
1318 


Collective Agreements: 

Changes in Wages and Fringe Benefits, 1st Half 1957 ... 
Collective Agreement Act 


1347 
1349 


Industrial Standards Acts 


1363 


Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Alberta, 1957 


1351 


Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 


1354 


Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report 


1359 
1364 


Decisions of Umpire 


1365 


Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Plant Employees 


1367 
1372 


Office Employees 


1373 


Strikes and Lockouts 


1375 


Prices and the Cost of Living 


1376 


Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 

Labour Statistics 


1377 
1382 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions— Canada : $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



*s&if 



THE 



LABO 
GAZETTE 







Working Conditions of Office Employees (p. 1 



eoi-eoSDEs- 



Working Conditions of Plant Employees (p. 



d Monthly by the 

vAENT OF LABi 



CANADA 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister A- H. Brown, . Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 

Editorial Staff 

Editor 

Harry J. Walker 

Assistant Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

C. E. St. George 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Vol. Ml, No. 12 CONTENTS DECEMBER 1957 

Current Manpower and Labour Relations Review 1403 

Notes of Current Interest 1419 

Proceedings of Parliament of Labour Interest 1429 

New Year's Messages 1432 

Report on Pension Plans and Employment of Older Workers 1435 

Successful Rehabilitation 1439 

36th Convention, Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour 1441 

2nd Annual Convention of B.C. Federation of Labour 1451 

National Rehabilitation Association 1453 

Canada Elected to U.N. Commission on Status of Women 1454 

50 Years Ago This Month 1455 

International Labour Organization: 

6th Session, Iron and Steel Committee 1456 

137th Session of the Governing Body 1457 

Teamwork in Industry 1460 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification 1461 Conciliation 1463 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1469 

Collective Agreements: 

Number of Workers Affected by Collective Agreements, 1 957 1 473 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Manitoba, 1957 1480 

Labour Legislation in 1957 in Nfld. and P.E.I 1487 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1488 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1494 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Revoke Married Women's Regulation 1503 

1957 Report, Unemployment Insurance Advisory Committee 1505 

Monthly Report ... 1507 Decision of Umpire .. 1509 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1512 

Strikes and Lockouts 1517 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1518 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 1520 

Labour Statistics 1526 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing 
with subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. 

Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per 
year, single copies 50 cents each; special group subscription offer: 5 or more annual 
subscriptions, $1 per subscription. Send remittance by cheque or post office money order, 
payable to Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's Printer, % Superintendent of Govern- 
ment Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in advance. Bound Volumes — 
available at $5 per copy (delivered in Canada) and $7 per copy (other countries). Change 
of Address — please give both old and new addresses. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



CANAOA 

THE 

LABOUR 
GAZETTE 


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Pension Plans and Employment of Older Workers (1 






Published Monthly by the 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 


VOL. LVII n| 

DECEMBER f 



JULY 15, 1957 



CURRENT 

manpower and labour relations 

REVIEW 



Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 

1955-56 1956-57 



Current Manpower Situation 

THE increase in employment jrom May to June was virtually the same as 
last year but added to the preceding month's gain established a record 
for the two months. The increase occurred almost entirely in non-agricul- 
tural industries. During these two months the labour force also expanded 
at a record rate, so that unemployment continued to fall more slowly than 
usual. In mid-June persons without jobs and seeking work comprised 
2.7 per cent of the labour force, compared with 2.0 per cent a year earlier. 
Registrations for employment at National Employment Service offices also 
formed a higher proportion of the labour force than last year. 

The growing demand for labour 
during the last two months was fairly 
widespread. Employment in the services 
(embracing trade, finance, insurance, 
real estate, personal service and govern- 
ment) was expanding at an increasing 
rate and continued strength was appar- 
ent in some parts of manufacturing. A 
notable example w T as the fabricated iron 
and steel industry, in which employment, 
seasonally adjusted, rose 12 per cent 
between December and May. More 
moderate employment increases occurred 
in the production of machinery, aircraft, 
shipbuilding and chemicals. Non-resi- 
dential construction showed a greater 
increase than was expected earlier and 
there appeared to be some increase in 
house-building. 

The employment increases of the 
past two months represent a change from 
recent employment trends. The high 
rate of employment expansion that pre- 
vailed through most of 1955 and 1956 
began to slacken last fall. Through the 
winter months total employment showed 




A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



91463—1 



785 




little or no change, although there were 
substantial losses and offsetting gains in 
different sectors. At the same time, the 
labour force rose at an increasing rate, 
partly because of the high level of 
immigration. As a result, there was 
more unemployment last winter than 
during the preceding one, and this spring 
the decline proceeded more slowly than 
usual. As indicated above, unemploy- 
ment is still considerably higher than a 
year ago. 

These developments have had their greatest impact in Ontario, although 
unemployment, in relation to the labour force, was still lower there than 
in British Columbia or the regions east of Ontario. In Windsor and Oshawa 
particularly, the general slackness was accentuated by production cutbacks 
in motor vehicle and feeder plants. British Columbia also experienced a 
sharp year-to-year rise in unemployment as the result of the downturn in 
logging and lumbering. In the Prairie Provinces the labour requirements 
of resource development projects have minimized the rise in unemployment. 

An examination of NES statistics indicates that the increase in unem- 
ployment over the year has been much greater in metropolitan areas than 
elsewhere. In the 11 largest centres, the number of registrations for employ- 
ment at the end of June was 48 per cent higher than a year earlier. In the 
10 major agricultural areas the increase was 14 per cent and in the major 
industrial and minor areas, 37 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively. 

At July 1, areas classified in the labour surplus' categories accounted for 
25 per cent of all wage earners, compared with 10 per cent last year (see 
accompanying chart). Last July, 9 per cent of the wage-earner total was 
in labour shortage areas; there were no labour shortage areas this year. 



Industrial Trends 

The slowing rate of increase in employment during the early part of this 
year can be attributed to the reduction in housing, some slackening in forestry 
and reduced output in some industries producing consumer durables. Some 
of these industries have been in difficulty for more than a year, with only 
slight signs of improvement in recent months; in others marketing problems 
are of fairly recent origin. 

New residential construction declined steadily from the middle of last 
year through the first part of 1957, mainly because of a lack of mortgage 
funds. In the first quarter of the year, the seasonally adjusted annual rate 
of housing starts dropped to 75,000 compared with a 1956 total of 127,000. 
There was, however, a substantial increase in June which raised the rate 
of starts to more than 90,000. 

Labour requirements for other kinds of construction helped to offset the 
lack of hiring for house-building. Pipeline construction and the development 
of hydro-electric power and uranium mining sites provided more employment 
than was expected earlier. The revised estimate of non-residential con- 
struction for 1957 is now 17 per cent higher than last year's figure, compared 

786 



DISTRIBUTION OF PAID WORKERS IN THE j 
FOUR LABOUR MARKET CATEGORIES 



July 1, 
1957 



July 1, 
1956 



Substantial 
Surplus 

Balance 



^ 




Moderate 
Surplus 



Shortage 



with 13 per cent higher at the beginning 
of the year. 

During the first five months of 1957, 
construction employment was, on the 
average, 8 per cent higher than last year, 
a larger increase than for most other 
industries. The increase, however, is 
substantially lower than it was through 
most of last year and the number of 
hours worked per week is also down. 

It is apparent from XES statistics 
that there has been no full transfer of 
manpower from residential to other types 
of construction. At the end of June, 
45,000 skilled and unskilled construction 
workers were registered for employment, 
compared with 25.000 a year earlier. The 
increase in registered construction 
workers accounts for more than one- 
quarter of the total increase in NES 
registrations. 

The demand for lumber has not 
strengthened appreciably in recent weeks 
although there have been some encourag- 
ing developments. The first of these eoi 
was the settlement in early July of the labour dispute involving some 35,000 
workers on the West Coast. In addition, the competitive position of Canadian 
lumber in the United Kingdom market showed some signs of strengthening, 
mainly as a result of the recent drop in ocean shipping rates. For most of 
its output, however, the industry depends on consumption in Canada and 
the United States and in the first four months of 1957 the shipments of 
lumber to these markets was down by 9 per cent from last year. Employment 
in lumbering and logging showed a somewhat smaller decline. 

In the pulp and paper industry it seems fairly clear that output has 
finally caught up with world demand. Stocks of pulpwood and newsprint 
are now at an all-time high and, as a result, a number of mills are working 
five days a week instead of the usual six. Employment in pulp cutting this 
summer has been higher than last year, mainly because labour has been 
more readily available. Reports from many of the larger firms indicate 
that the size of the pulpwood cut in the coming season may be from 10 to 15 
per cent smaller than last year. 

Activity in the mining industry has continued to rise slowly through 
the first half of the year, with a considerable divergence among individual 
sectors. Coal mining declined further in both eastern and western coal fields. 
The decline in base metal prices forced a number of the higher cost mines 
to shut down and reduced the volume of development work. However, these 
employment losses have been more than offset by continued gains in the 
uranium mining areas. Gold mining appears to be holding its own. Employ- 
ment in the mining industry as a whole has been bolstered by the continued 
expansion of the oil and natural gas industry. In May employment in this 
part of the mining industry was 15 per cent higher than last year and two 
and one-half times the 1949 average. 



91463— u 



787 



Manufacturing employment— The slowdown in manufacturing during 
the first half of 1957 was largely attributed to reduced production of motor 
vehicles. Automobile sales were at a high level in the first two months of 
this year but fell off quite sharply in succeeding months. Sales in May were 
18 per cent lower than a year earlier and production figures indicate that 
there has been little improvement during June. In Oshawa and Windsor 
further layoffs occurred during the month in motor vehicle supplying firms. 
Unemployment in these centres was more than 50 per cent higher than a 
year earlier. 

Declines were reported in other manufacturing industries, although most 
of these were of a minor nature. Employment in textiles showed a slight 
downward tendency, chiefly in the cotton and woollen goods sectors. In wood 
products, employment declined fairly sharply, particularly on the West Coast. 
The fall in copper, lead and zinc prices resulted in lower employment in the 
smelting and refining industries; this, however, was partially offset by the 
continued growth of the aluminum industry. 

In the early part of this year the employment losses in these industries 
were offset by gains elsewhere in manufacturing, and current indications are 
that this is also true of the more recent months. From mid-April to mid-May 
the labour force survey showed a gain of 12,000 in manufacturing, which is 
about average for this period. The industrial distribution of employment for 
June was not available at the time of writing but the basic trend of total 
non-agricultural employment was still rising moderately. From this and 
other information from industrial firms it appears that there has been little 
change other than seasonal in manufacturing employment. 



CORRECTION 

In the June issue of this Review, page 667, the number of housing units 
started in 1956 was given as 217,000. This figure should have been 127,000. 



788 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of July 10, 1957) 



Principal Items 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Total persons with jobs 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours 

With jobs but not at work 

With jobs but on short time 

With jobs but laid off full week 

Persons without jobs and seeking work 

Persons with jobs in agriculture 

Persons with jobs in non-agriculture 

Total paid workers 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Claimants for Unemployment Insurance benefit 
Amount of benefit payments 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Strikes and Lockouts 

No. of days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non- Durables 



Date 



June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 

June 22 



June 20 

June 20 

June 20 

June 20 

June 20 

June 20 



June 
May 

May 
May 



1st 3 mos. 



June 
June 
June 



May 1 

May 1 

May 1 

May 1 

June 1 

May 1 
April 



April 
April 
April 
April 



Amount 



5,996,000 

5,834,000 

5,244,000 

413,000 

177,000 

37,000 
11,000 

162,000 

774,000 
5,060,000 

4,600,000 



33,400 
83,700 
93,000 
29,900 
30,800 
270,800 

250,283 
$26,269,582 

119.1 
115.8 



62,460 



220,720 

18,377 

42 



$67.39 

$ 1.60 

40.6 

$64.92 

121.6 

128.5 

1,217 



286.3 
286.9 
346.2 
248.9 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



+ 2.0 
+ 2.6 

+ 2.0 

- 3.7 
+52.6 

- 2.6 

- 8.3 

-16.5 

+ 0.1 
+ 3.0 

+ 3.2 



-40.6 
-30.6 
- 8.7 
-31.7 
-18.1 
-24.8 

-33.0 
-35.0 

+ 0.9 
+ 0.3 



- 0.3 

+ 0.8 

- 1.2 

- 0.5 
+ 0.4 

- 0.7 
+ 1.0 



+ 1.1 

+ 0.4 

- 1.1 

+ 1.8 



Previous 
Year 



+ 4.0 
+ 3.3 
+ 1.7 

+ 18.7 
+23.8 

+68.2 



+38.5 

- 3.7 
+ 4.5 

+ 3.9 



+31.5 
+27.4 
+66.1 
+25.6 
+46.7 
+41.1 

+32.5 
+37.1 

+ 3.4 
+ 1.5 

+229. 4(c) 



-27.6(c) 
-10.0(c) 
+30. 0(c) 



5.4 

5.8 
1.9 
3.8 
3.2 
0.1 
8.1 



+ 3.2 

+ 0.1 

- 1.9 

+ 2.0 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour Force, a monthly- 
publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also inside back cover, February Labour Gazette. 

(b) See inside back cover, February Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with total for same period 
previous year. 



789 



Labour-Management Relations 

The Bargaining Scene 

ALMOST half of the agreements covering 1,000 workers or more open 
for bargaining in 1957 were settled in the first half of the year. In total, 
62 such agreements, covering 175,000 workers, were reached. At the end of 
the six-month period, the prolonged strike of workers at the Arvida plant 
of the Aluminum Co., of Canada Limited remained unsettled but, on the 
whole, negotiations since January have been carried on without serious 
difficulties; only two other strikes occurred in the period. 

Settlements were achieved without conciliation assistance in more than 
half the disputes. Only 20 cases, affecting 70,000 workers, went to conciliation. 

Further indications of the trend in bargaining for large units so far 
this year is provided in the accompanying charts. Negotiations appear to 
have resulted in settlements in most instances without prolonged bargaining. 
In fact, only 17 of the cases remaining to be settled at the middle of July had 
been open for longer than two months and three of the contracts in this group 
are in final arbitration. 

Not many more large negotiations will be opened in the next few months. 
Some 20 agreements affecting 1,000 workers or more are still to be bargained 
this year. With the exception of the non-operating railway agreements 
which expire in December, none of these involves more than 5,000 workers. 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING TRENDS 

(In bargaining units of 1,000 or mora workers) 



Thousands /\ i TOTAL IN 

of worker* 180 | / V j NEGOTIATION • 




Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. 
15 15 15 15 15 15 



SETTLEMENTS, JANUARY 1 - JULY 15, 1957 

(In bargaining units of 1,000 or more workers) 



17 
CONTRACTS 



CONTRACTS 
20 



CONTRACTS 



a 



-90 
-80 
- 70 

-60 

13 
CONTRACTS 

50 

40 
30 
20 



CONTRACTS 



Workers affected by settlements In the month ending 

Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jon. Jul. 
15 15 15 15 15 15 



790 



THE BARGAINING SCENE JULY 15, 1957 

Bargaining Units of 1,000 or More Employees, 
June 1 to August 31, 1957 



In Negotiations and Terminating in Period: 47 agreements, 131,900 workers 



Bargaining carried over from May: 
Terminating in period June 1 — Aug. 



31: 



30 agreements, 
17 agreements, 



59,200 workers 
72,700 workers 



Settlements Achieved: 



June 15 — July 15 

13 agreements, 51,300 workers 



Major Terms of Settlements (preliminary information) 

• Wages and Duration — 

5, covering 39,300 workers, are 1-year agreements; 3 provide wage 
increases ranging from 5 to 10 cents an hour; 2 provide wage 
increases ranging from 10 to 20 cents an hour. 

5, covering 7,700 workers are 2-year agreements; 1 provides an 
immediate increase of 10 cents an hour; 3 provide increases totalling 
10 to 15 cents per hour spread over 2 years; 1 provides increases 
totalling 43 cents an hour spread over 2 years. 

2 covering 2,800 workers, are 3-year agreements; 1 provides an 
immediate increase of $5 a week; 1 provides increases totalling 
60 cents an hour, spread over 3 years. 

• Hours of Work — 

Reduced from 40 to 37J a week over a 3-year period under 1 contract 
covering 1,400 workers; reduced from 48 1 to 45 a week under 1 
contract covering 1,200 workers. 

• Vacations — 

1,000 workers under 1 agreement to receive third week after 11 years' 
service, fourth week after 15 years' service. Vacation pay range 
advanced by 1J% for 34,000 workers under 1 agreement. 

• Supplemental Unemployment Benefits — 

1 agreement, covering 1,000 workers, introduces a SUB plan. 



Negotiations Continuing : 



Bargaining in progress: 
Conciliation in progress: 
Post-conciliation: 
Arbitration in progress: 
Work stoppages: 



At July 15 
30 agreements, 

8 agreements, 
15 agreements, 
3 agreements, 
3 agreements, 
1, involving 



65,600 workers 

21,700 workers 

27,600 workers 

5,400 workers 

4,600 workers 

6,800 workers 



Other Agreements Terminating in Period: 4 agreements, 15,000 workers 



Expiring in July: 
Expiring in Aug: 



3 agreements, 11,400 workers 
1 agreement 3,600 workers 



791 



Current Negotiations 

The settlement of the dispute between the West Coast logging operators 
and 34,000 loggers highlighted the bargaining scene during the period from 
June 15 to July 15. The conclusion of these negotiations and 12 others 
in the period account for approximately half the total number of workers 
reported in negotiations one month ago. On July 15, only slightly more than 
65,000 workers were in negotiations, the lowest figure recorded during the 
past five months. 

The woodworkers' settlement followed conciliation and threatened strike 
action. It provided a 7i-per-cent wage increase, the introduction of a modified 
union shop and improvements in vacation pay. 

Many of the settlements followed the patterns of agreements reached 
earlier this year in related industries; for example the Supplemental Unem- 
ployment Benefit Plan, now common in the rubber industry, was included 
in the settlement of the B. F. Goodrich Rubber Company at Kitchener. 
Similarly, the agreement reached on the St. Lawrence Power Project with 
employees as represented by a Council of Building Trades' Unions followed 
settlements in the construction trades at Toronto. 

The two-month strike by employees of the Aluminum Company of 
Canada at Arvida continued, and the dispute between the steel workers 
and the employees of the same company at Kitimat, B.C., has now gone to 
conciliation. Rubber workers at St. Jerome and Granby, Que., are continu- 
ing negotiations. Contract negotiations in West Coast pulp and paper 
mills have been submitted to a conciliation officer. Construction workers' 
agreements across the country are being settled steadily but conciliation is 
in progress for several trades in Hamilton, Toronto, and Vancouver. 



Labour Organization 

Preliminary figures on union membership in Canada as at January 1, 
1957, are shown in the accompanying table. The information is derived from 
the Department of Labour's annual survey of labour organizations and 
membership is classified by Congress affiliation. The total membership is 
about 2\ per cent higher than in the previous year. 



Membership 



Congresses and Unaffiliated Union Groups 



May 1, January 1, 

1956 (1) 1957 



Canadian Labour Congress 1,030,000 1,070,000 

AFL-CIO/CLC 

CLC only 

Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 

American Federation of Labour and Congress of Industrial 

Organization, only 

Unaffiliated railway brotherhoods 

Other unaffiliated international unions 

Unaffiliated national, regional and local organizations 



827,000 


867,000 


203,000 


203,000 


101,000 


99,000 


1,000 


1,000 


44,000 


34,000 < 2 > 


81,000 


81,000 


94,000 


101,000 



1,351,000 1,386,000 



<i> Effective date of the merger of the former Trades and Labour Congress of Canada and the 
Canadian Congress of Labour to form the Canadian Labour Congress. 

< 2) The Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen affiliated with the AFL-CIO and with 
the CLC late in 1956. 

792 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS — JULY 1, 1957 







APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




WINDSOR ■« — 


Quebec-Levis 
— »-ST. JOHN'S 


Calgary 
Edmonton 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Vancouver-New 


Hamilton 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 




Westminster 


Montreal 
Ottawa-Hull 
Toronto 
Winnipeg 








Brantford 


Fort William- 








— ^CORNER BROOK 


Port Arthur 








Cornwall 


Guelph 








Farnham-Granby 


Halifax 








Joliette 


Kingston 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Lac St. Jean 


Kitchener 




(labour force 25,00(^75.000; 60 




Moncton 


London 




per cent or more in non- 




OSHAWA -< 


>-NEW GLASGOW 




agricultural activity) 




Peterborough 
— »-ROUYN VAL DOR 

Saint John 
— >-SHAWINIGAN FALLS 

Sherbrooke 

Trois Rivieres 


Niagara Peninsula 
>-SARNIA 

Sudbury 
— >-SYDNEY 

Timmins-Kirkland 
Lake 

Victoria 








Thetford-Megantic- 
St. Georges 


Barrie 
Brandon 
— >*CHARLOTTETOWN 
Chatham 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 






Lethbridge 




AREAS 






Moose Jaw 




(labour force 25.000-75,000; 40 






North Battleford 




per cent or more in agriculture) 






Prince Albert 
Red Deer 
Regina 


















— >-RIVIERE DU LOUP 










Saskatoon 










Yorkton 








Bathurst 


— >-BEAUHARNOIS 








— >-CAMPBELLTON 


Belleville-Trenton 








— >-GASPE 


Bracebridge 








— >-GRAND FALLS 


Brampton 








— >-MONTMAGNY 


Bridgewater 








Newcastle 


Central Vancouver 








— >-PRINCE GEORGE 


Island 








Quebec North Shore 


— >-CHILLIWACK 








— >-RIMOUSKI 


— >-CRANBROOK 








St. Stephen 


Dauphin 








Victoriaville 


Dawson Creek 

Drumheller 

>-DRUMMONDVILLE 

— >EDMUNDSTON 
— >-FREDERICTON 

Gait 

Goderich 

>-KAMLOOPS 

>-KENTVILLE 

Lachute-Ste. 
Therese 

Lindsay 

Listowel 

Medicine Hat 




MINOR AREAS 






— >-NORTH BAY 




(labour force 10.000-25,000) 






— >-OKANAGAN VALLEY 

Owen Sound 

Pembroke 

Portage la Prairie 
— >-PRINCE RUPERT 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Simcoe 
— »»STE. AGATHE-ST. 

JEROME 
— >-ST. HYACINTHE 

Sorel 

St. Jean 

St. Thomas 


















Stratford 










>-SUMMERSIDE 










Swift Current 










Trail-Nelson 










— >-TRURO 










— ^VALLEYFIELD 










Walkerton 










WEYBURN -< 










—> WOODSTOCK, N.B. 










Woodstock- 1 ngersoll 










— ^YARMOUTH 





-The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 
moved. 



793 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 

ATLANTIC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 

1955-56 



ATLANTIC 
— 1956-57 



500,000 



475,000- 



With Jobs: 
Non- Agriculture 




V..»^ 



25,000 



JASONDJFMAMJ 



EMPLOYMENT increased and unem- 
ployment declined in the Atlantic region 
during June. Persons with jobs at June 
22 were estimated at 543,000, an increase 
of 26,000 from the previous month and 
12,000 from the previous year. For the 
most part, employment increases were 
the result of seasonal influences but 
there were exceptions, such as staff 
increases at a steel plant in Sydney 
where approximately 150 workers were 
hired during June. High inventories and 
declining orders caused small layoffs in 
some manufacturing plants. Compared 
with last year, employment in the region 
continued to increase more slowly than 
the labour force, with a consequent rise 
in unemployment. This situation is 
reflected in the NES statistics, which show 5.5 per cent of the labour force 
registered for employment at the end of June, compared with 4.3 per cent a 
year earlier. 

Weakness in the forestry industry has been one of the major factors 
in the general slackness this year. In New Brunswick, employment in the 
industry has shown a more-than-seasonal decline as the direct result of a 
drop in sales. On the domestic market, demands for lumber in the first half 
of the year were down from the first half of 1956, largely because of a 
decline in residential construction. Accumulation of unusually heavy inven- 
tories was reported to be the main reason for reduced demands for pulpwood 
in the province. The export market for lumber and pulp was considerably 
weaker than last year, prices for these products being lower than in 1956. 
Forestry employment in Nova Scotia has followed much the same trend as 
in New Brunswick. Newfoundland, on the other hand, showed a sharp 
increase in forestry activity in June, making up for the loss that occurred 
earlier in the year. 

Activities such as trucking and stevedoring have been indirectly affected 
by the lower level of forestry operations this year. In some areas, consider- 
able unemployment resulted from the reduction in exports of wood products. 
At Bridgewater, for example, 17 ships were reported to have loaded lumber 
and pit props last year, compared with only three by the end of June this 
year; another three were expected to call later in the year. 

Coal mining was also slower than usual in increasing employment this 
year. After remaining fairly stable through most of 1956, coal mining employ- 
ment has fallen steadily since the beginning of 1957, mainly because of 
a loss of markets as a result of further conversions from coal to diesel engines 
on the railways. 

Seasonal fluctuations apart, employment in manufacturing has changed 
very little since the beginning of the year. Employment remained about 
the same as in the first half of 1956, though important differences occurred 



794 



from one province to another. In Nova Scotia, manufacturing employment 
as a whole showed considerable strengthening from last year as a result of 
increased activity in iron and steel and transportation equipment. In New- 
foundland and New Brunswick, on the other hand, it was lower than last 
year, pulp and paper accounting for most of the decline. 

Fourteen of the 21 areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month. At July 1, the area classification was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): moderate surplus, 9 (6); in balance, 12 (15). 

Local Area Developments 

St. John's (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group .2. Unem- 
ployment remained much higher than usual in this area as construction was 
very slow in getting under way this year. Suspension of operations at one 
of the fluorspar mines because of lack of contracts resulted in the release of 
165 workers during the month. 

New Glasgow (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Unemployment in this area was slightly higher than a year earlier but 
considerably lower than in June of the previous three years. The improve- 
ment over earlier years was largely the result of a pick-up in employment 
at Eastern Car Company following increased orders for railway rolling stock. 

QUEBEC 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 
1955-56 1956-57 



:1, 650,000- 



1,550,000- 



1,500,000- 




1,450,000 — "» ^»^* 
1,400,000- 



150,000- 



Persons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 



100,000- 
50,000 T'^'C" 



THE LABOUR force continued to 
expand in the Quebec region during 
June ; the increase from the month before 
was larger, both relatively and abso- 
lutely, than that which occurred during 
June 1956 or 1955. Employment rose 
sharply and at a greater rate than a 
year earlier. The decrease in unemploy- 
ment, though smaller than the corres- 
ponding decline in 1956, reduced the 
number of persons without jobs and 
seeking work to a proportion of the 
labour force only a shade larger than 
a year before. 

There was a slight decline in agri- 
cultural employment, although it was 
not so great as the corresponding 

decline last year. No shortage of farm eoi 

workers had developed yet, as the upswing in the seasonal industries that 
provide the rural areas with alternative employment to farming was lower 
than last year. 

Seasonal movements apart, employment in non-agricultural industries 
tended to level off after the third quarter of last year. Employment in 
forestry has been slightly lower, on the average, than in 1956. Demand for 
forestry products was less strong, the market for lumber and wood being 
weaker than last year and inventories higher, and forestry wages and working 
conditions were not proving incentive enough to a large number of potential 
loggers. Employment showed continuing strength in manufacturing gener- 
ally and particularly in the manufacture of iron and steel products and 



L_J I I ! I L_l I I I I I 

JASONDJFMAMJ 



795 



transportation equipment. Some weakness became evident in the textile and 
clothing industries earlier this year and no improvement has occurred in 
recent months. The marked increase in industrial and engineeering construc- 
tion over the year was largely offset by a reduction in residential and highway 
building. 

Registrations for employment at NES offices declined to 4.8 per cent of 
the labour force at the end of June compared with 3.9 last year. Registrations 
in clerical occupations increased sharply, reflecting the entry of students 
into the labour force. Owing to strikes in a number of industries, and layoffs 
due to strikes, some 9,000 workers in the region were idle. 

Eleven labour market areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month. At July 1, the 24 areas were classified as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in balance, 10 (14); in moderate surplus, 14(10). 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 3. Registrations declined during 
the month but by a much smaller number than last year. Far more construc- 
tion workers were registered this year than last and industries allied with 
construction were still slack compared with a year earlier. Demand for 
civil engineers, architects and architectural draughtsmen was somewhat 
smaller than last year. 

Quebec-Levis (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 2. This area was in balance 
last year. Registrations remained higher than last year in the seasonal 
industries. The estimated cut of pulp wood for the year is down from last 
year's by nearly 20 per cent. Some industries were feeling the pressure 
of high steel prices. 

Lac St. Jean (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. This area was in 
balance last year. The strike of 6,500 workers at the Arvida plant of the 
Aluminum Co. of Canada was having an adverse effect on the entire 
labour market area. Employment in the transportation occupations and 
in the construction industries was down. Many of the strikers took jobs 
in the woods and consequently logging vacancies were fewer than last year. 
The number of registrations in this area was nearly 50 per cent higher than 
last year. 

Rouyn-Val D'Or, Shawinigan Falls (major industrial). Reclassified from 
Group 1 to Group 2. Employment rose, with the logging drive in full swing 
and the pulpwood cut begun. The pulp and paper, iron and steel and 
aluminum industries were hiring workers. 

Riviere du Loup (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 3. 
Registrations dropped by some 60 per cent and were considerably lower than 
last year. Fine weather in the latter part of the month helped agriculture. 
The wood cut was underway and employment in peat cutting rose sharply 
during the month. Shortages of hotel and restaurant workers were registered. 

Gaspe. Montmagny and Rimouski (minor). Reclassified from Group 1 to 
to Group 2. 

Beauharnois. Drummondville, St. Agathe-St. Jerome, St. Hyacinthe and 
Valley field. Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

796 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ONTARIO 
1955-56 1956-57 



Labour Force 



ONTARIO 

THE MONTH of June brought some further improvement in the employment 
situation in Ontario. Persons with jobs at June 22 were estimated at 2,150,000, 
an increase of 38,000 from the previous month and of 56,000 from the previous 
year. About two-thirds of the month-to-month increase and all of the year- 
to-year increase was absorbed by non-agricultural industries and was largely 
due to increased activity in non-resi- 
dential construction, trade and services. 
Agricultural employment dropped by 
11,000 from last year. Unemployment 
declined slightly but was still much 
higher than at the same time during 
the past several years. 

The industries primarily respon- 
sible for the relatively high level of 
unemployment were residential con- 
struction, textiles, and the automotive, 
lumber and lumber products industries, 
but particularly construction. More than 
13,000 skilled and unskilled construction 
workers were registered with the 
National Employment Service, com- 
pared with fewer than 6,000 a year ago. 
The automobile industry, where pro- 




.2,050, 000^* 

! 2,000,000 — \, M ,»» -.v 

1,950,000 %— * 



100,000- 



Persons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 



JASONDJFMAMJ 



duction and employment have been at a low level for some time as a result 
of unsettled conditions in one of the leading automobile plants, appears 
to be adjusting to a lower demand. This is reflected in an 18-per-cent 
year-to-year drop in sales during May. Employment in the lumber and 
lumber products industries was reduced by a decline in domestic demand 
resulting from lower house-building activity and a considerable fall in 
exports. Declines in production were also reported in a number of other 
industries, including primary iron and steel, and heavy industrial machinery. 
Agriculture has benefited from the more ample labour supply; in contrast 
to last year when there were continuous farm labour shortages, the local 
supplies of farm help in most areas were ample. 

Four of the 34 areas in the region were reclassified during the month. 
At July 1, the area classification was as follows (last year's figures in 
brackets) : in substantial surplus, 1 (0) ; in moderate surplus, 4 (2) ; in 
balance, 29 (27) ; in shortage, (5) . 

Local Area Developments 

Hamilton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Unemployment among 
construction workers remained high. In addition, small layoffs occurred in 
other industries. A slight labour surplus developed in the primary iron and 
steel industry, although production of fabricated and structural steel remained 
at a high level. 

Ottawa-Hull (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 3. The employment situation 
improved. Except in the builders' supplies trade, the demand for labour was 
steady. Extensive non-residential construction absorbed many of the surplus 
construction workers but the number still registered at NES offices was 
considerably higher than last year. 

797 



Toronto (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 3. Increased construction activity 
and seasonal rises in processing and light manufacturing industries resulted 
in slightly higher employment. 

Windsor (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. The antici- 
pated seasonal increase in employment did not occur. A slight increase in 
non-residential construction was offset by layoffs at Chrysler Corporation 
and short-time work in a large automotive supplier plant. 

Oshawa (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. Small 
layoffs in most industries, particularly in the automobile and automotive 
supplier plants, brought the area into the moderate surplus category. The 
number of workers on short time also increased markedly. 

Saraia (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. The 
employment situation continued to improve, largely as a result of extensive 
industrial and commercial construction, including the construction of gas 
pipelines. All manufacturing plants were working at capacity. Skilled 
pipeline workers were in short supply. 

North Bay (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

PRAIRIE 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PRAIRIE 
1955-56 1956-57 



700,000- 
650,000- 
600,000- 



With Jobs: 
Non-Agriculture 




ECONOMIC conditions in the Prairie 
region showed further improvement dur- 
ing June as production and employment 
increased more rapidly than usual. By 
June 22, persons with jobs were esti- 
mated to number 1,030,000, an increase 
of 15,000 from the preceding month and 
of 30,000 from a year earlier. The 
rise in employment was accompanied 
by a rapid expansion of the labour force 
so that unemployment continued to be 
slightly higher than a year before. 
Nevertheless, labour supplies more 
closely approximated demand than in 
any other part of the country. At the 
end of June, the number of job vacancies 
listed at the NES offices in the region 
amounted to about 33 per cent of job 
registrations compared with 14 per cent for the country as a whole. The rise 
in employment was widely distributed throughout the region. 

Apart from Weyburn, which moved from the shortage to the balanced 
category because of an easing in the demand for farm labour, there were 
no changes in the area classification during the months. In many areas, 
however, the supply of available workers was being rapidly depleted as 
a result of the general pick-up in non-agricultural employment. At the 
beginning of July, the 20 areas in the region were classified as follows (last 
year's figures in brackets): in balance, 20 (13); in shortage, (4). 



250,000- 



JASONDJFMAMJ 



Local Area Developments 

Calgary (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Unemployment increased 
during June as a result of a steady influx of immigrants, workers from eastern 



798 



Canada, and students seeking summer jobs. Reports from the area 
indicated that demands for summer help were somewhat less than in June 
1956. On the whole, the local employment situation reflected a better balance 
between the demand and supply of labour than last year. Labour shortages 
were confined to certain types of office and service workers; a year earlier, 
shortages existed in a large number of occupations. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Employment expanded more 
slowly than last year with a consequent rise in unemployment. Registrations 
for employment amounted to 4.1 per cent of the wage earners at the end 
of June, compared with 2.7 per cent a year earlier. Job opportunities for 
bush workers have been sharply lower this summer than last. Oil drilling was 
curtailed during the month, falling to a lower level than last year. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Employment conditions 
at the end of June compared favourably with last year at the same date. 
Manufacturing employment showed a substantial year-to-year improvement. 
Auto and body mechanics and sheet metal workers were reported to be very 
scarce. 

Weyburn (minor) . Reclassified from Group 4 to Group 3. 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 

1955-56 1956-57 



500,000 
475,000 




450,000 * 



I I I 



_1 I I I I I I I 

JASONDJFMAMJ 



PACIFIC 

THE labour dispute in the lumbering 
industry was the main feature of the 
month in British Columbia. A strike 
was called, but agreement between the 
parties was reached before it became 
effective. The influence of the dispute 
on employment was consequently short- 
lived. The main result was a temporary 
reduction in logging and an increase 
in sawmilling as employers attempted 
to reduce log inventories and ship out 
the more urgent orders. 

Employment continued to rise 
slowly, mainly as a result of seasonal 
factors. Persons with jobs reached 
489,000, about 23,000 more than in June 

1956. As in other regions, the increase in job opportunities did not equal 
the expansion in the labour force, so that unemployment continued to show 
a year-to-year increase. The main causes for this rise are the depressed lum- 
ber markets, the slowdown in residential construction and the high level 
of immigration. 

Total manufacturing employment stood at about the same level as a 
year ago, in spite of lower employment in wood products. Construction 
employment data indicate a year-to-year increase of 15 per cent at May 1, 

1957. Housebuilding increased considerably in June but there still were 
large surpluses of construction workers, especially of carpenters and unskilled 
labour. - Other major industrial sectors, excluding mining and agriculture, 
showed marked year-to-year increases in employment. Nevertheless, unem- 
ployment was significantly higher among machinists, electricians, cranemen 
and shovelmen, blasters, powdermen and drillers, truck drivers, and office 
clerks. 

799 



Six labour market areas were reclassified during the month. At July 1, 
classification of the ten areas in the region was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets) : in balance, 8 (9) ; in moderate surplus, 2 (1). 

Local Area Developments 

Vancouver-New Westminster (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. This 
area was in balance last year. Unemployment continued to be much higher 
than in June 1956. The principal reasons for this increase are the same 
as for the region generally. Furthermore, workers from all parts of the 
region also tend to move to Vancouver when they become employed. Sawmill 
employment increased during the month as production was stepped up to fill 
orders before a strike occurred, but the total was still lower than a year ago. 
Manufacturing employment was slightly higher than last year. In agriculture, 
job vacancies were below normal for this time of year. The demand for 
construction workers was smaller than in 1956. 

Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 3. The possibility of a 
strike in the lumber industry caused unusual caution in hiring in other 
industries. Nevertheless, employment was a little higher than in June 1956. 
In the construction industry there was a surplus of skilled workers in most 
trades. Manufacturing industries, except those in the depressed wood 
products sector, employed approximately the same number of workers as a 
year earlier. In agriculture, the demand for berry pickers was exceptionally 
heavy but that for general farm help was small. 

Chilliwack, Cranbrook, Central Vancouver Island, Okanagan Valley and 
Kamloops (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Prince George (minor) . Reclassified from Group 1 to Group 2. 



800 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 





■:..-;../ 




Hon. Michael Starr 

Minister of Labour 



801 



91463—2 



Hon. Michael Starr 
16th Minister of Labour 

A native son of the Northern Ontario 
mining town of Copper Cliff, the Hon. 
Michael Starr, Canadian of Ukrainian ex- 
traction who first entered politics in 1940, 
became the 16th Minister of Labour for 
Canada on June 21, 1957. 

Now a resident of Oshawa, he was that 
city's mayor over a four-year period, 
beginning in 1949. 

Prior to his tenure as Mayor, he had 
served Oshawa as alderman and chairman 
of the Board of Works. During that period 
his municipal service became outstanding, 
for it was under his direction that the city 
of Oshawa developed its modern and effi- 
cient Works Department and its lighting 
system. The Mayoralty followed as a 
natural result. 

Michael Starr entered the Federal poli- 
tical arena in the 1952 by-election when he 
won the Ontario riding vacated by Walter 
Thompson. In the 1953 election he won 
again and repeated his success in the recent 
election. 

Probably the factor in his career that won 
him recognition in municipal service and 
as a Parliamentarian was his own identity 
with the cause of the "little people" who 
have made Canada known throughout the 
world as the land of opportunity blessed 
with a high standard of living. His own 
experience exemplifies this completely. 

Though a promising student, he quit 
school at 15 years to add his wage earning 
capacity to the necessities of a large family. 
Accordingly, Michael Starr got his first 
job with the Oshawa Times-Gazette as a 
"printers devil", receiving $5 for a 54-hour 
working week. Later, he sampled making 
picture frames at 16 cents an hour. 

Determined to improve himself and 
increase his earning capacity, he took a 
commercial course before joining the staff 
of Pedlar People Limited, manufacturers of 
sheet metal equipment. He has been con- 
tinuously with this firm for 24 years, and 
at his election to Parliament he had pro- 
gressed steadily to executive status and 
managerial responsibility. Thus his back- 
ground of labour-management experience 
should now be a major asset in his Cabinet 
post as Minister of Labour. 

A son of the late Matthew Starr, and 
his wife, the late Mary Matechuk, he was 
born November 14, 1910. His parents were 
Ukrainian immigrants, who lived and worked 
successively at Copper Cliff, Ont., Montreal, 
and Oshawa, Ont. 

Hon. Michael Starr was married Septem- 
ber 9, 1933, to Anne Zaritsky. They have 
two children, Robert, 22, and Joan, 17. 



A member of the Rotary Club and Cham- 
ber of Commerce of Oshawa, the new Minis- 
ter of Labour attends the Ukrainian 
Orthodox Church. 



Demands on Colleges 
To Be Much Greater 

Demands upon the capacity of Canadian 
universities during the next 10 years will 
be much greater than had been anticipated, 
in the opinion of the Conference of Learned 
Societies which met in Ottawa recently. 

Two years ago Dr. E. S. Sheffield, of the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, presented a 
paper to the National Conference of Cana- 
dian Universities, comprising the heads of 
Canada's 32 degree-granting institutions, in 
which he predicted that judging by the 
number of births 18 to 21 years earlier 
enrolments would probably rise from about 
64,000 in 1954-55 to about 123,000 in 1964-65. 
It was this prediction which started the 
university administrators on their present 
expansion plans. 

At the recent meeting, however, a revision 
by Dr. Sheffield of his earlier estimate sug- 
gested that it might be far too low. Enrol- 
ment figures for the past two years were, 
respectively, two per cent and six per cent 
higher than had been anticipated. This 
would be consistent with enrolments of 
170,000 to 180,000 students by 1964-65. 

Dr. Claude T. Bissell, president of 
Carleton University, suggested that Cana- 
dian enrolments, which are now seven to 
nine per cent of the 18 to 21 age group, 
may be moving in the direction of those in 
the United States, which are 30 per cent of 
the group at present, and are expected to 
rise to 50 per cent. At the 30 per cent 
level attendance by 1964-65 would be 370,000 
students, and at the 50 per cent level 
600,000 students. 



Named Vice-President 
Of /Veti? Organization 

Pat Burke, United Steelworkers of 
America (CLC) representative for Rouyn, 
Que., was elected a vice-president of the 
Inter-American Miners' Federation, when 
that organization was formed at the first 
Inter-American Conference of Mine Work- 
ers, held at Lima, Peru, April 25 to 30. 



Trade Standardization 
Wearing Reality 

Important steps towards standardization 
in designated trades across Canada have 
been taken, it was agreed by delegates' to 
the seventh meeting of the Apprenticeship 
Training Advisory Committee held in 
Ottawa in June. 



802 



The Committee, consisting of represen- 
tatives of industry, organized labour and 
provincial governments, under the chair- 
manship of Herbert C. Nicholls of Toronto, 
discussed plans whereby trade analyses com- 
piled by expert teacher-tradesmen could be 
used as bases for national standards in 
apprenticeship training. 

A resolution by provincial directors 
recommending that a single placement test 
in the motor vehicle repair trade be 
used during the next 12 months by all 
provinces — in addition to each province's 
own examination — was approved by the 
Committee. 

Comparison of results established by these 
tests, it was felt, could produce a standard 
placement test in the motor vehicle repair 
trade suitable to nation-wide application. 

Trade analyses of a similar character have 
been completed for bricklaying, carpentry, 
machine shop work, plastering, plumbing 
and sheet metal work. 

The provincial directors advised the Com- 
mittee that they had endorsed a report 
of S. R. Ross, supervisor of trade training, 
Department of Labour, Canada, in which he 
announced progress being made in negotiat- 
ing with the Canadian Automobile Chamber 
of Commerce to have the latter prepare a 
national course of study for use in training 
apprentices in this trade. 

Reduction in terms of apprenticeship from 
five to four years, and in some trades from 
four to three years in others was a pos- 
sibility discussed by the Committee. 

More co-operation is urgently needed 
from employers, the Committee felt, in 
the matter of employing apprentices. Im- 
proved school training, it was noted, has 
resulted in greater numbers of apprentices 
and reduced numbers of dropouts after 
the first year of training. 

L. J. Sparrow, supervisor of apprentices, 
Canadian General Electric Company, Peter- 
borough, urged that some means be found 
to assist smaller manufacturers to set up 
apprentice training systems. On his motion, 
a committee was appointed to look into the 
matter. The committee was made up of 
Mr. Sparrow, George P. Schollie, vice- 
president, Canadian Labour Congress, and 
S. R. Ross. 

The Economics and Research Branch, 
Department of Labour, Canada, reporting 
on research programs involving the training 
of skilled manpower, noted that industry 
indicated that some firms believe better 
integration is needed between in-plant 
apprenticeship and school courses. 

Lack of technical schools near industrial 
plants in some localities is presenting a 
problem. Many firms favour establishment 



in Canada of more schools of the Ryerson 
Institute type for training technicians, while 
others feel Canada needs a type of training 
program similar to that leading to the 
Higher National Certificate in the United 
Kingdom. 

The next meeting of the Committee is 
scheduled for October, 1957. 



Bargaining Settlements 
In New YorU State 

Wage increases negotiated in April in 74 
collective bargaining settlements, affecting 
more than 40,545 workers in New York 
State, averaged 11.7 cents an hour, according 
to a report issued by the Department of 
Labour of the State. 

In March an increase of 10.6 cents an 
hour was reported in 69 settlements. These 
averages are unweighted mediums. When 
weighted by number of workers the average 
is 10.4 cents an hour for April and 11.3 
cents for March. 

All except two of the 74 April agree- 
ments provided general wage increases. 
Deferred wage increases due one year or 
more after the effective date of the con- 
tract were not included in the calculation. 



Three Reasons Given 
For Labour Shortage 

The fact that elderly workers who are 
still capable of earning a living are being 
pensioned off in large numbers, is seen as 
one of three reasons why there is a labour 
shortage in Canada by Gilbert Jackson, 
Toronto economist. 

As the other two reasons, Mr. Jackson 
gives the lengthening of the educational 
process now occurring and the trend to 
shorter work weeks. 

Mr. Jackson says that these three in- 
fluences are creating a serious economic 
problem at a time when Canada is entering 
on a period of unparalleled economic pro- 
gress, which promises to double within 
15 years. 



Reconsideration Urged 
Of Labour Immunities 

The immunities that have been developed 
in the United States to absolve trade unions 
from the duties and liabilities which the 
law imposes on other organizations and 
individuals should be reconsidered, Roscoe 
Pound, former dean and professor emeritus 
of Harvard Law School, in a booklet, 
Legal Immunities of Labor Unions, recently 
published by American Enterprise Associa- 
tion, Inc., Washington, D.C. 



91463— 1\ 



803 



The author begins by sketching the his- 
tory of legal immunities which have been 
conferred in the past in order to meet a 
real or fancied need to secure rights to 
certain groups, in the public interest and 
in the interest of justice. The recipients of 
these privileges and immunities have in- 
cluded the sovereign, various public officials 
and legislators, the clergy, the nobility, 
hospitals and charitable organizations, 
soldiers, husbands and parents, landlords 
and occupiers of land. 

The book deals with trade union immuni- 
ties under the heading of torts, contracts, 
restraint of trade, duties of public service, 
the right to work, racketeering, and cen- 
tralized power and irresponsibility. 

In regard to torts the writer shows that 
the unions enjoy immunity in two ways: 
exemption from injunction, and the use of 
the unincorporated organization as a device 
for escaping the doctrine of respondeat 
superior. State and federal anti-injunction 
acts, he says, have largely prevented the 
use of the injunction against unions; while 
the use of the other legal remedy against 
torts, action for damages, has been ren- 
dered ineffectual by the way in which 
unincorporated labour organizations are able 
to escape the liability which usually attaches 
to those who act through agents or em- 
ployees. 

Employers, on the other hand, are respon- 
sible for the acts of their agents and 
employees in the course of their employ- 
ment. 

Companies are also subject to anti-trust 
laws, while labour unions, through interpre- 
tations of the U.S. Supreme Court, are con- 
sidered to be exempt from the operation of 
the anti-trust laws, as long as the union 
acts in its own interest and does not com- 
bine with non-labour groups. 

"It is not merely, therefore," the author 
says, "that labour unions are exempted 
from the provisions of the statutes against 
combinations and agreements in restraint of 
trade. They may actively interfere with 
trade and commerce with immunity from 
what is often the only effective remedy." 

The present power of the unions to make 
union membership a condition of obtaining 
or holding employment is severely criticized 
by the author. 

He contrasts the protection afforded to 
the public by certain federal administrative 
agencies against immunities available to 
other organizations with the way in which 
the National Labor Relations Board often 
acts to secure the immunities of labour 
organizations and labour leaders against 
the public. 



"It is not a legitimate purpose of labour 
law to free unions to do whatever their 
leaders conceive to be to the general advan- 
tage of organized labour in the way of 
restraining trade and commerce and destroy- 
ing competition," the author asserts. "A 
general policy against concentration of un- 
checked power has always been regarded as 
at the foundation of our policy." 



Publication of Wages 
Requested By UPWA 

As a means of protecting their union 
from corruption, the United Packinghouse 
Workers of America asked at their recent 
convention for "an estimated statement of 
the salaries and expenses of all employees of 
District 10 (Canada) of the UPWA annually 
be published" in the Packinghouse Worker, 
Official publication of the union. 

As such figures are not available in 
Canada it was suggested that the matter 
be referred to the next international con- 
vention. This suggestion was rejected, and 
a new resolution was framed which con- 
tained the demands of the delegates for 
presentation to the international convention. 

The delegates agreed on the making of 
a survey of unorganized shoe factories in 
Canada with a view to bringing the em- 
ployees of these plants into the trade union 
movement. Jurisdiction in this field was 
inherited by the UPWA from the National 
Shoe and Leather Workers in 1951 when 
many Canadian shoe manufacturers were 
bought out by Canada Packers, Ltd. 

The meeting was addressed by M. J. 
Coldwell, MP, and by Tony Stephens of 
Chicago, Vice-president of the union. Mr. 
Stephens said that the UPWA would ask 
for a voice in plans for automation in the 
meat-packing industry. Twelve months' 
notice by management would be demanded 
before a plant was closed, he said, and a 
meeting with management would be sought 
in order to investigate means of avoiding 
a shutdown. He pointed out that 2,000,000 
jobs had been abolished in the United 
States during the last five years— 18,000 of 
these in the meat-packing industry. Unions 
must be given a greater voice in the opera- 
tion of industry, he contended. 



Unionists From Abroad 
Will Meet in Canada 

More than 80 union members from 35 
different countries will make up the student 
body of a world seminar being held in 
Canada in September by the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions in 
co-operation with the Canadian Labour 
Congress. 



804 



Canadian unions are assisting the visitors 
from abroad to attend the seminar by 
providing $1,200 scholarships to them to 
defray their expenses. 

The seminar will be held at the Banff 
School of Fine Arts, September 8 to 22. 
It will be followed by trips by the visitors 
to various centres in Canada where they 
will live with Canadian union members, and 
be shown the conditions under which they 
work. 



Urged Study be Made 
U.K. Wages, Costs 

In Great Britain a government court of 
inquiry recently urged that consideration 
should be given to setting up an "authori- 
tative and impartial body" to study on a 
national scale the economic questions 
involved in the relationship between wages, 
costs and prices. The Government welcomed 
this suggestion, and said that it was pre- 
pared to discuss it with both sides of 
industry. 

The court remarked that a similar recom- 
mendation had been made by another court 
of inquiry in 1954, but that little action 
had been taken about it. It pointed out 
that the problem of wages had in recent 
years become an integral part of a larger 
inflationary tendency which both sides of 
industry were anxious should be effectively 
dealt with; and the court urged "in the 
strongest possible terms" that the idea 
should be implemented now as a means of 
combatting inflation. 

The court of inquiry, which was estab- 
lished to investigate the wage disputes 
which led to strikes earlier in the year 
in the engineering and shipbuilding indus- 
tries, recommended as a means of bringing 
about a settlement in those industries that 
wages should be increased either by 5 
per cent without conditions, or by 6£ per 
cent if the unions would agree to make 
no further claims for wage increases for 
a year, and to co-operate with the em- 
ployers in eliminating restrictive practices 
which hamper the introduction of new 
machinery and methods. The unions had 
originally demanded a wage increase of 
10 per cent. 

No attempt was made by the court to 
justify the increases it recommended on the 
ground of comparable rises either in living 
costs or in productivity; but it used the 
argument that industries which were not 
paying, or barely paying, their way (having 
in mind the railway settlement, it appeared) 
had accepted a 5-per-cent increase, and that 
the engineering and shipbuilding industries, 
therefore, could hardly refuse an increase 



of this magnitude without endangering 
industrial peace. It recognized, however, 
that an increase of 5 per cent or more 
might be inflationary. 

The court noted that the employers had 
attached great importance to the conditions 
about elimination of restrictive practices, 
and said that if these conditions were 
accepted they should offset wholly or in 
part the rise in labour costs. 



"Hot" Cargo Clauses 
Valid, Court Rules 

"Hot cargo" clauses in collective agree- 
ments were recently decided by the United 
States Court of Appeals to be valid and 
not against public policy. The Courts 
described "hot cargo" as "products received 
by a secondary employer from a primary 
employer" with whom local unions have a 
labour dispute. 

The Court's decision reversed the findings 
of the National Labor Relations Board 
which had held that two Teamsters Union 
locals were guilty of unfair labour practices 
in directing their members to refuse to 
handle products covered by "hot cargo" 
clauses. 

The decision of the Court was stated as 
follows: "The statutory language is clear: 
there is no violation . . . unless the union 
encourages the employees to coerce the 
secondary employer. Where the employees 
are encouraged only to exercise a valid 
contractual right to which the employer 
has agreed there is no coercion. 

"Normally the second employer receives 
something at the bargaining table in 
exchange for granting the hot cargo clause, 
and he is no more coerced when the em- 
ployees subsequently exercise their privi- 
leges than a land owner is coerced when 
those to whom he has granted licenses 
cross his land. 



Tait Montague Article 
Reprinted in Roohlet 

An article on "International Unions and 
the Canadian Trade Union Movement" 
which recently appeared in The Canadian 
Journal of Economics and Political Science 
has been reprinted in booklet form by the 
Univeisity of Toronto Press. The article 
was written by J. Tait Montague of the 
Economics and Research Branch, Depart- 
ment of Labour. 



805 



Majority Unnecessary 
To Union Recognition 

A union in Quebec province does not 
have to retain a majority membership of 
the working force throughout its contract 
term to enjoy recognition, the Quebec 
Superior court has ruled. 

In a judgement handed down by Mr. 
Justice Ignace Deslauriers, a request for 
a writ of prohibition against the Quebec 
Labour Relations Board, made by a Quebec 
firm, was dismissed. 

The company had launched an appeal 
from a QLRB ruling which upheld certifi- 
cation of the International Printing Press- 
men's Union (CLC) as bargaining agent 
for the company's employees. 

The company had asked that the union's 
certification be cancelled because it no 
longer represented the majority of the em- 
ployees. The QLRB ruled that the com- 
pany's application was premature. 

Mr. Justice Deslauriers agreed with a 
defence counsel contention that to cancel 
a certification every time a company said 
the union no longer represented the 
majority of employees would give rise to 
a great degree of instability of labour 
relations. 



Employers Responsible 
For Non-Unionists 9 Dues 

An arbitration board in Quebec province, 
headed by Jacques Fournier, QC, has 
handed down a judgement ordering that 
employers be held liable for union dues 
which an employee refuses to pay "for 
personal or other reasons". 

The new decision, possibly to become 
known as the Fournier Formula, could have 
far-reaching effects in the province in the 
future since it is intended as a variation 
of the Rand Formula, which has been 
declared illegal by Quebec courts. 

Phil Cutler, union nominee on the board, 
concurred in the majority report, while 
Gilles Filion, employer nominee, disagreed. 

The "Fournier Formula" provides that 
an employee may object to a union "for 
personal reasons" and the employer may 
hire him, knowing his attitude, but in such 
a case the employer will have to pay the 
employee's union dues. 

The Rand Formula is a form of union 
security by which union dues are deducted 
from the pay of all employees working in 
a contract shop, whether or not they belong 
to the union. Those who refuse to join 
the union must still pay their dues or be 
dismissed from the shop. 



More Firms Operating 
Training Programs 

Between 1951 and 1956 there was an 
increase of 74 per cent in the number of 
manufacturing establishments which had 
organized programs for training of workers 
in skilled trades, and during this period 
the proportion of establishments in manu- 
facturing with such programs increased from 
16 per cent in 1951 to 29 per cent in 1956. 

This fact was brought out in a series of 
surveys conducted by the Economics and 
Research Branch of the Department of 
Labour, the results of which have recently 
been published in a booklet entitled 
Training and Recruitment of Skilled Trades- 
men in Selected Industries in Canada 1951- 
1956. Copies of the publication may be 
obtained from the Queen's Printer, price 
25 cents. 

The surveys conducted in 1951, 1953 and 
1954 were part of the Department's annual 
Survey of Working Conditions in Canada. 
In 1956, however, the survey was part of a 
broad research program in the field of 
skilled manpower training and utilization. 
The earlier surveys covered only manu- 
facturing establishments, but the 1956 sur- 
vey also included mining, transportation 
and communication, and public utilities. 
The construction industry does not form 
part of the Working Conditions Survey, 
and was not included. In all, 7,360 estab- 
lishments were covered in the 1956 survey. 

The report deals with two types of 
organized trade training — apprenticeship and 
non-apprenticeship programs. It is stated 
that in 1956, 90 per cent of all the estab- 
lishments which had apprenticeship training 
in the four industries covered were in 
manufacturing, and were concentrated 
mainly in three industries. These indus- 
tries were: printing, publishing, and allied 
industries; transportation equipment; and 
iron and steel products. 

"In 1956 non-apprenticeship training pro- 
grams were much less common than appren- 
ticeship programs, and once again most of 
them were in manufacturing," the report 
says. "... Establishments with apprentice- 
ship training far outnumbered those with 
non-apprenticeship programs in the four 
industries surveyed, but the number of 
apprentices was not much greater than 
that of non-apprentices — three apprentices 
for every two non-apprentices." 

The report is divided into three parts: 
Part I, Highlights of Survey Results; Part 
II, Extent and Growth of Organized Trade 
Training, 1951-1956; and Part III, Recruit- 
ment of Skilled Tradesmen. A number of 
tables and charts are included. 



806 



Laval University's 12 th Annual 

Industrial Relations Conference 



Effects of recent changes in Canadian economy on labour movement's 
structure and aims is theme of conference. Attendance numbered 350 



The 12th industrial relations conference 
held at Quebec on May 6 and 7 under the 
auspices of the Department of Industrial 
Relations of Laval University dealt with 
present-day economic changes and organized 
labour. 

Some 350 heads of concerns, union leaders 
and labour officials examined the reper- 
cussions of economic transformations on the 
life of the trade union. 

During the closing banquet, the Rev. 
Gerard Dion, Assistant Director of the 
Department of Industrial Relations, em- 
phasized the power of trade unionism as a 
factor in the cultural revival of the workers 
in a civilization in which technique and 
leisure time are assuming ever-increasing 
importance. 

Opening Speeches 

Msgr. A. M. Parent 

Welcoming the delegates, Msgr. Alphonse 
Marie Parent, Rector of Laval University, 
said : "The economic transformations taking 
place at an accelerated rhythm in our 
modern world, and especially in our prov- 
ince, cannot fail to have repercussions, not 
only on our social life in general, but on 
that relatively recent, but more and more 
important element of our economic life 
which is the labour movement." 

Msgr. Parent added that it is important, 
therefore, "to be well acquainted with the 
paths into which Canadian trade-unionism 
has a tendency to enter, and to proceed to 
make a wise and enlightened review of its 
trends, its positions and its structures". 

He also expressed the hope that certain 
formulae might be discovered, thanks to 
a spirit of co-operation and mutual under- 
standing, "which would make it possible to 
establish better and more fruitful employer- 
union relationships in our society". 

Jean Marie Martin 

The Dean of Laval University's Faculty 
of Social Science, Jean Marie Martin, stated 
that this 12th industrial relations conference 
wanted to stress the repercussions which 



recent economic transformations have had 
on union life itself, especially in Canada. 

"Recent modifications in Canadian union 
structures show quite clearly," he said, "the 
high degree of interdependence and integra- 
tion which exists between the forces of 
transformation in the economic field and 
the evolution of social life itself." 

Drawing the attention of the delegates to 
the root of the problem under consideration, 
Mr. Martin stressed the fact that the Cana- 
dian economy has progressed at a rapid 
pace and that new types of concerns have 
appeared, some of which entail revolu- 
tionary processes of production and dis- 
tribution. 

"Trade unionism has had to evolve too," 
he said, "and to enlarge its compass, while 
a whole pleiad of skilled workers has 
become necessary to study all the problems 
arising from these great changes." 

While pointing out that no one can 
remain indifferent to this economic or com- 
munity transformation, the Dean stated, 
however, that thinkers and searchers who 
consider these problems "must remain 
independent of governments and of groups". 

Rev. Gerard Dion 

Noting that trade unionism is one of the 
most important social phenomena of our 
age, the Rev. Gerard Dion, Assistant Direc- 
tor of the Department of Industrial Rela- 
tions of Laval University, stated that the 
conference intended to study organized 
labour in its relations with economic, social, 
legal and cultural development. 

"If it rests exclusively with union groups 
to determine their own policies and trends," 
said Father Dion, pointing out that public 
opinion is following with a great deal of 
interest the CCCL's attitude towards the 
new Canadian Labour Congress, "it is 
nevertheless true that every one, especially 
those who are involved in labour relations 
problems, is under an obligation to try to 
understand unionism. 

"Even if we reject that historic material- 
ism according to which the development of 
institutions and ideas is accomplished in 
accordance with absolute determinism, it 



807 



must be admitted," he said, "that trade 
unionism upholds essential relations with its 
causes: industrialization, capitalist economy, 
the wage-earning classes, the condition of 
the workers. It is also made up of members 
who come from a particular circle and who 
belong to other institutions. Finally, it 
develops within a political framework and 
in a legal system." 

Father Dion also stated that the time 
when each union expected to settle the 



economic problems of its members within 
a relatively restricted geographical area 
"seems to be definitely over". 

"The union has not only identified itself 
with the life of the concern, but also with 
the life of the different communities, if 
not of the nation itself. However, each 
community transformation compels the la- 
bour movement to make a constant review 
of its trends, its positions and its struc- 
tures." 



Interdependence between Economics, Society and Union Structures 



According to Emile Gosselin, economic 
integration calls for union integration, and 
it matters little what method is used to 
attain it, whether it be by way of fusion 
or by way of a cartel in a pluralist union 
system. 

Mr. Gosselin, Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of Industrial Relations, was entrusted 
with introducing the problem of economic 
changes and organized labour. 

His address, which was necessarily of a 
theoretical nature, showed that, in view of 
the nature of trade unionism and its 
economic and social purposes, its integration 
into society must be adapted to the various 
forms which find expression in the economic 
system. 

Having shown that society implies rela- 
tions of complementarity and interdepend- 
ence, and that our capitalist economic 
system is essentially an evolutionary system 
centred on the role of the employer, Mr. 
Gosselin dwelt on the specific purpose of 
unionism. 

"An effective union seeks primarily to 
control the supply of labour," he explained, 
"leaving it to the employer to play his 
part in the field of demand, factors of 
production and sale of the products. It is 
through the economic machinery playing on 
the supply that the union inserts itself as 
an integral and integrated part of the 
economic body." 

It is by exercising control over the 
supply of labour, the speaker stated, that 
the union must try to advance the well- 
being of the worker "to the highest possible 
degree". 

Mr. Gosselin went on to say that effective 
union action must be based on as perfect 
knowledge of markets and the economic 
situation as can be attained. 

"For only then," he explained, "will the 
union be able to estimate to what level it 
can raise wages in comparison with the 



other costs of production. The union will 
then be in a position to determine with 
what employer or what group of employers 
it will be able further to increase the 
economic welfare of its members to a maxi- 
mum. It will also wonder, and for the 
same reasons, whether industrial unionism 
will prevail, at a given time and at some 
point in the labour market, over trade 
unionism." 

In closing, Mr. Gosselin stated that he 
was in favour of union integration in rela- 
tion to economic integration caused by 
industrialization. 

"If the labour movement is to play an 
effective role in an integrated economy," he 
said, "it is necessary to proceed to a wage 
policy national and even international in 
its application. And," he added, "because 
of the effect of such a policy on the level 
of the national income and the repercussions 
of this national income on the economic 
objectives of the union, it is necessary for 
union organizations to play a really posi- 
tive part in formulating the economic 
policies of governments." 

Mr. Gosselin's talk was followed by a 
panel discussion, participants being Fer- 
nand Dumont, Fernand Jolicoeur, Yves 
Dube and Rene Tremblay. During the 
discussion the fact was brought out that 
trade unionism, if it has an effect on 
economics, is also the expression of a social 
class which has no other means of expres- 
sion. 

Moreover, Mr. Jolicoeur, Director of 
the Canadian and Catholic Confederation 
of Labour's Education Service, attributed 
a more extensive role to trade unionism 
than did the speaker. He also stressed the 
fact that the unions recognize not only that 
the Government should establish economic 
machinery, but that it should "help this 
machinery to play its normal part". 



808 



Economic Structures and Organized Labour 



The Canadian economy has reached a 
stage where the industrial sector is losing 
in importance to the services sector, accord- 
ing to Harry C. Eastman, Professor of Poli- 
tical Economy at the University of Toronto. 

Analyzing the changes in the economic 
structure and their effect on union organiza- 
tion, the speaker pointed out that the 
increasing importance of the services sector 
is going to create serious problems for 
unions. 

"In order to attract workers who are only 
slightly interested in union activities," he 
said, "they will have to develop new organi- 
zational techniques." 

The introduction of technological innova- 
tions, according to Mr. Eastman, tends to 
curtail the workers' share in production and 
to change the quality of labour. 

"It is this change in the quality of labour 
which will make new approach techniques 
necessary on the part of unions ; as a matter 



of fact, the interests of this new class of 
workers will not always be compatible with 
those of ordinary labour. A considerable 
effort at diplomacy will be necessary in 
order to avoid conflict within a single 
union." 

Moreover, Mr. Eastman is not of the 
opinion that the tendency towards medium- 
sized establishments — while the concerns 
themselves continue to grow — will not 
change the position of local unions in 
relation to national or international unions. 

"The concern," he said, "will have a 
greater number of establishments from now 
on, but it will continue to bargain with 
the upper ranks of the union, and on this 
plane the importance of the local union will 
not increase." 

A discussion followed Mr. Eastman's talk 
in which Marius Bergeron, Maurice Bou- 
chard, Jean Jacques Gagnon, Jean Guerin- 
Lajoie and Jacques St. Laurent took part. 



Social Changes and Organized Labour 



Guy Rocher, Secretary of the Department 
of Sociology at Laval University, analyzed 
changes in the Canadian social structure 
and their effects on the labour movement. 

He pointed out that trade unionism is a 
social movement bearing new values: 
respect for the autonomy of the industrial 
worker, employee's rights, more equitable 
distribution of income. 

Mr. Rocher reminded the delegates that 
trade unionism has made and is still seeking 
to bring about changes in the existing social 
order, whether it be in the legal field, in the 
field of management of the concern, or 
even, on a wider plane, in that of the 
evolution of class consciousness. 

Among the other characteristics which 
make trade unionism a social movement, 
the speaker mentioned the fact that it 
developed under favour of a condition of 
economic and social "stress" affecting em- 



ployees in the modern concern and capi- 
talist society, as well as the fact that it 
is quite closely linked with a "leadership" 
which serves as a symbol for it and guides 
its policy. 

"Thus defined as a social movement," he 
said, "trade unionism appears to us in a 
twofold light. On the one hand, it must seek 
efficiency within a given social-economic 
system; it therefore seeks to identify itself 
with that system as it finds it, and to carry 
on within the system in accordance with 
established rules. At the same time, on 
the other hand, it is opposed, more or less 
strictly as the case may be, to certain 
aspects of the social system and of the 
established order. Then it no longer appears 
to us as being identified with the social 
system, but rather as being at variance 
with it." 



Tendency towards Standardized Legislation 



L. P. Pigeon, QC, Professor in the Facul- 
ties of Law and of Social Science at Laval 
University, stated that "to-day's expansion 
and standardization of union forces brings 
up the problem of defining the limits of 
that economic power which proceeds from 
the freedom of labour coalition". 

He pointed out that trade union mergers, 
on the one hand, lead towards uniformity 
in Canadian legislation, but that provincial 
jurisdictions, on the other hand, are against 
this tendency. 



However, Mr. Pigeon went on to say, 
the big unsolved problem in the legislative 
field today is the problem of defining the 
limits of the power of the labour organiza- 
tion. 

"How far can the trade-union coalition 
go," he asked, "in the way of economic 
coercion, in obliging each member of the 
labour group to pay in part of his earnings 
to the common fund used for union action?" 

On the national scale, said Mr. Pigeon, 
the labour coalition implies economic power 



91463—3 



809 



which is just as formidable as that of the 
coalition of capital ; the State cannot remain 
indifferent to the problem which arises 
therefrom, and it will have to be solved 
other than by arbitrary intervention, with- 
out, however, affecting fundamental liberties. 
"On the federal level in Canada," the 
speaker explained, "we have not even a plan 
for a solution. At the time of the first 
railway strike, compulsory arbitration was 
imposed by a special law; but when it came 
to settling the firemen's strike on the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, arbitration was 
accepted which will not be binding on the 
parties, and which, therefore, will not settle 
the dispute." 

According to Mr. Pigeon, we cannot 
remain indefinitely with the "present system 
of trial and error". Sooner or later, the 
limits of the right of labour coalition will 
have to be concretely defined, just as the 
limits of other rights have been defined. 



"Democratic freedom cannot exist with- 
out restrictions," Mr. Pigeon explained, 
"because no democratic regime can continue 
to exist if it surrenders any sphere of 
economic activity to the regime of arbitrary 
intervention: freedom is the reign of pre- 
established law, not the despotic reign of 
the head of the State. This is no less true 
when the head of the State is elected than 
when he is not elected. 

"Trade unions are afraid of a definition 
of the restrictions on freedom of coalition 
and the right to strike," he said, "because 
these two rights are the very foundation 
of their economic strength." 

These two speeches were followed by a 
panel discussion in which, in addition to 
the speakers, the following delegates took 
part: Jacques Archambault, J. C. Falardeau, 
Alfred Charpentier and Marie Louis Beau- 
lieu. 



Is Union Regionalism' Out-of-Date? 



The last afternoon was devoted to a 
forum on the subject, "Is union regionalism 
out-of-date?" Taking part were Rene 
Belanger, President of the National Federa- 
tion of Employees of Municipal and School 
Corporations of Canada (CCCL) ; Raymond 
Parent of the United Steelworkers of 
America (CLC) ; Philippe Vaillancourt, 
Director of Education in Quebec Province 
for the CLC; Roger Provost, President of 



the Quebec Federation of Labour; and the 
Rev. Gerard Dion, Assistant Director of 
the Department of Industrial Relations. 
Emile Gosselin, Secretary of the Depart- 
ment, acted as moderator. 

As a general rule, the participants, with 
the exception of Mr. Belanger, agreed that 
regionalism is out-of-date where trade 
unions are concerned, even if it is desirable 
to preserve it in cultural matters. 



Trade Unionism and Culture 



"In a civilization in which technique and 
leisure time may constitute a threat to the 
emancipation of the workers, as to the 
development of their personality, trade 
unionism because of its economic power, 
its organizational strength and the un- 
deniable influence which it exerts over 
a large part of the population, reveals itself 
as a tremendous means of cultural revival 
for the working classes and for the develop- 
ment of a labour culture which respects 
all values." 

These words were spoken by the Rev. 
Gerard Dion, Assistant Director of the 
Department of Industrial Relations, in his 
talk at the banquet which brought the 
conference to a close. 

Emphasizing the power of technique and 
the importance of leisure time, Father Dion 
pointed out that these two factors may 
serve in the emancipation of man, enabling 
him to gain greater domination over 



creation, or, on the other hand, may con- 
tribute to his debasement. 

"Faced with these two outstanding prob- 
lems of our industrial civilization, tech- 
nique and leisure time," the speaker said, 
"it is the fate of man himself which is 
at stake, with his dignity, his personality, 
his liberty. The whole thing reduces itself 
to the question of knowing whether one 
or the other is going to carry man along 
to his destruction, or whether, thanks to 
the unsuspected possibilities which they 
also present, they will provide the masses 
with opportunities for culture." 

Noting that the traditional vocation of 
the labour movement has always been to 
aspire to freeing men from inhuman con- 
ditions and bringing them an income and 
security, Father Dion specified that it coulcf 
play an irreplaceable part in correcting 
the evil consequences of the domination 
of technique and poor use of leisure. 



810 



"The specific objective of trade unionism," 
the speaker reminded the delegates, "is 
primarily economic. But it is not merefy an 
association of material interests of one part 
of the population. It represents a mode of 
life, a method of expression and of evolu- 
tion of the human person in its moral 
as well as economic exigencies. As a matter 
of fact, by its very nature, it is a reaction 
against individualism, it appeals to soli- 
darity, it calls for an orderly social life 
in which respect for the dignity of man, 
the fair distribution of goods and the 
progress of the individual are the conditions 
in labour relations and even in the whole 
of society. It constantly brings up the 
problem of liberty, justice and solidarity." 

Moreover, according to the speaker, trade 
unionism which confined itself to complete 
conformity with whatever is accepted 
around it would soon become "indurated, 
and would no longer have any reason for 
existence". 

Father Dion also pointed out that the 
amalgamation of labour organizations may 
involve a great danger — the risk of reducing 
union members to mere ciphers, as certain 
mass-production concerns have been blamed 
for doing. 

He stressed the fact, nevertheless, that 
the labour organization, properly speaking, 
is the most natural grouping of the workers, 
in the sense that it is made for them and 
that in it they are most at home. 

"It is a medium which is capable of 
satisfying their human aspirations and 
developing their individual and collective 
conscience. If it is really democratic in its 
acts, the individual worker will be led, in 
accordance with his desires and ability, to 
assume social responsibilities, to experience 
community life, and, in this way, to serve 
the whole of society better." 

Father Dion also stressed the fact that 
union activity has an undeniable poten- 
tiality for the development of culture. 

"As a matter of fact," he said, "just as 
union activities, while remaining specifically 
economic, run over into the social and poli- 
tical fields, so they cannot fail to reach 
the cultural, the human sphere." 

Father Dion paid tribute to the labour 
movement for its efforts in the field of adult 
education. 

"Up to the present time," he said, "the 
labour movement in our country has not 
completely ignored the education of its 
members. It can even be stated that, of all 
professional groups, it is certainly the one 
which has put forth the most effort in 
this field." 



Trade Unionism and Education 

The labour movement has always been 
interested in raising the cultural level 
of the people. At its very beginning, in 
all countries, in America, and even in 
the Province of Quebec, it was seen not 
only to call for an opportunity for all 
children to attend primary school, but, 
and in this it made the first move, as 
in many other fields, to the great scandal 
of many people, it asked the State for 
free education and compulsory school 
attendance. It took many years before 
this claim was satisfied. Today the trade 
unions have allies in other circles who 
advocate an opportunity for secondary 
and even university education for all 
who have talent, regardless of their finan- 
cial means. As we all know, a great 
deal of ground remains to be covered 
before this legitimate wish is realized in 
our country. Unfortunately there are 
still people who, although they do not 
put it quite so bluntly, consider money 
as a valuable criterion of selection to 
open the way to the higher levels of 
education. — The Rev. Gerard Dion. 



In closing, the speaker mentioned the 
co-operation which trade unionism can offer 
to institutions engaged in cultural activities 
in any sphere whatsoever. 

"For that reason, however," he specified, 
"all such institutions should begin by 
accepting organized labour as a respectable 
movement which has its normal place in our 
society and should recognize that it has a 
part to play other than that of demanding 
wage increases and regulating working con- 
ditions. 

"Unfortunately," he added, "it is far from 
certain in our circles that we are really 
ready for such co-operation. It is to be 
hoped that prejudice will disappear in the 
not too distant future and that we wilt 
even go so far as to ask the unions for 
this co-operation." 

The speaker was introduced to the mere 
than 400 listeners by Jean Marie Martin, 
Dean of the Faculty of Social Science, and 
was thanked by E. C. Desormeaux, Secre- 
tary of the Unemployment Insurance Com- 
mission. 

During the dinner meeting Mr. Martin 
also paid tribute to Gerard Tremblay, Pro- 
vincial Deputy Minister of Labour, who was 
the founder and first Director of Laval's 
Department of Industrial Relations. 



91463— 3£ 



811 



86th Annual General Meeting of 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Employer-employee relations conference, one of seven making up program, 
discusses personnel practices and white collar employees, government 
social security measures and company benefit plans, labour legislation 



Close to 1,900 industrialists from all parts 
of Canada attended the 86th annual general 
meeting of the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association in Toronto June 5, 6 and 7. 
The theme of this year's meeting was 
"Industry — Leader and Servant". 

The program consisted of six conferences : 
employer-employee relations, education, 
public relations, management, world trade, 
marketing, and transportation. 

His Excellency, Sir Saville Garner, High 
Commissioner for the United Kingdom, 
delivered the annual dinner address, and 
Hon. Leslie M. Frost, Prime Minister of 
Ontario, was the first evening's dinner 
speaker. 

A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister of Labour, 
delivered the opening address of the 
employer-employee relations conference. 

In the election of officers for 1957-58, 
Harold V. Lush, President and General 
Manager of Supreme Aluminum Industries 
Limited, Toronto, was named President. 

President's Address 

There is a danger "that the final result 
of misguided zeal to protect our economic 
well-being could be the sacrifice of the 
pioneering spirit and the drive of enterprise 
upon the altar of security," said J. N. T. 
Bulman in his presidential address. 

"Exclusive dependence on the benevolence 
and paternalism of government to provide 
our personal security would seem to me 
to be not merely undesirable, but positively 
fatal to our enjoyment of it," he continued. 
"Such absolute dependence would inevitably 
result in the individual abdicating his per- 
sonal responsibility and initiative to a 
bureaucratic elite." 

The CMA President said that he did not 
wish to deprecate the human desire for 
security as wrong in itself, and he spoke 
with approval of "that security which is 
born of the knowledge that we have money 
in the bank and that it is safe there, a 
steady job, some protection against possible 
adversity, such as insurance, and the pros- 
pect of a comfortable old age. But surely," 
he went on, "it is the means we employ to 
achieve this very desirable state which are 
all-important." 



He warned that if words like adventure, 
incentive, opportunity and freedom become 
outmoded, as they easily might, then 
"creeping paternalism will have taken over 
the assets of a still young country, if not 
by outright control of the stock, at least 
by the proxy of complacency." 

We have before us the same choice open 
to every other nation, namely the choice 
between individual freedom and collectivist 
compulsion. The issue may not seem to be 
posed quite so starkly as that here in 
Canada; but the trend of human affairs, 
established over the last quarter of a century 
especially, is full of warning. 

Mr. Bulman reminded his audience that 
"government handouts are a poor sub- 
stitute" for personal endeavour, and that 
"there is no security to compare with that 
which is born of the knowledge that there 
is recognition and just reward for individual 
merit". 

Speaking of the danger which "lurks in 
taxation that saps incentive on the part 
of the individual and hinders private 
industry in its rightful effort to expand, not 
only in terms of competitive growth but 
in employment potential," he said that the 
voice of the Association should make itself 
heard more loudly in impressing this danger 
upon the authorities, if the advantage of 
private enterprise were to be retained. 

The President referred to the time when 
Canada with a population of 10,000,000 had 
50,000 federal civil servants; he contrasted 
this with the 180,000 civil servants in 
Canada now, when the country has a 
population of 16,000,000. "Our population 
has gone up 60 per cent and the Civil 
Service 260 per cent," he said, "indicating, I 
might suggest, a somewhat disproportionate 
growth." 

Most Canadians either don't care about, 
or in some cases are not even aware of this 
swelling of government. They accept the 
fact that everything is bigger — and govern- 
ments are no exception. But they should be 
taught before it is too late that it is not 
the function of government to do for us 
what we should be doing for ourselves. 

"Make no mistake about it," said Mr. 
Bulman, "this growth in government is 
attributable, at least in part, to the demands 
of selfish interests for additional services, 



812 



and unless these interests curtail their 
demands we must be prepared to pay for 
this growth and, what is more, witness its 
further expansion." 

Speaking on the question of the tariff, 
he referred to the brief presented to the 
Gordon Commission by the Association, in 
which "we underlined the necessity of a 
tariff structure which would be fair, just, 
reasonably balanced, impartial and in the 
national interest". He said that the Com- 
mission in its preliminary report had agreed 
with the CMA that "Canada has demon- 
strated world leadership in this matter of 
reducing tariffs" and he applauded the 
Commission's suggestion "that it is now up 
to the other signatories of GATT to fall 
in line with Canada". 

The CMA, the president said, had long 
advocated an adequate tariff structure which 
would help to rectify the "huge imbalance" 
in Canada's external trade account. But 
he emphasized that the Association did not 
"envisage a tariff structure which is designed 
to protect the manufacturer from the 
consequences of inefficient or obsolescent 
methods". Rather it should "provide insur- 
ance against unfair competitive conditions, 
and give encouragement and incentive to 
those enterprisers interested in stimulating 
our import replacement program". 



The Association has repeatedly urged the 
pursuance of policies which would enable us 
to meet a larger proportion of purchasers' 
requirements from Canadian production, and 
which would encourage a greater degree of 
Canadian processing content in our exports. 

Later Mr. Bulman said: 

The tremendous volume of Canadian im- 
ports is, in large part, merely one symptom 
of the inflationary pressure to which our 
economy is subject. But, in the opinion of 
many, the monetary and fiscal measures 
which are being employed to combat inflation 
are proving so unpleasant as to leave the 
patient wondering whether the cure is not 
worse than the disease. 

In regard to immigration the president 
said: "In view of its long-time advocacy 
of a liberal immigration policy to further 
the development of the Canadian economy, 
the Association was indeed pleased to see 
the sharp upsurge in immigration to 165,000 
in 1956 from 110,000 in 1955. The picture 
will be even better in 1957 if the expected 
inflow of a quarter of a million is realized. 

"One of the things that has pleased me 
particularly — and I am sure you share my 
reaction — has been the speed with which 
Canadians responded to the needs of the 
Hungarian people who, with nothing but the 
ingrained love of freedom to back them, 
challenged the police state of Moscow," Mr. 
Bulman said. 



Employer- Employee Relations Conference 



A. H. Brown 



"I believe management, by and large, 
is making steady progress in its adaptation 
to collective bargaining as an institution," 
said A. H. Brown, Deputy Minister of 
Labour, in his address opening the employer- 
employee relations conference. 

"Fundamental to this," he continued, "is 
recognition of the nature of the task which 
unions are trying to carry out in our 
society." That task, he explained, has two 
basic aspects: to protect the interests of 
individual members in grievance disputes, 
and to seek for their members a higher 
standard of living. 

"I believe management is accepting the 
validity of this two-fold union objective 
and is in the process of working out a 
constructive attitude towards it." 

But, the Deputy Minister pointed out, 
the development of this attitude on 
management's part will depend partly "on 
the ability of unions to come more and 
more to appreciate the responsibilities that 
necessarily devolve only on management". 



As progress is made in this "difficult" 
process, Mr. Brown declared, "I see manage- 
ment becoming more confident in its accept- 
ance of the principle of joint discussion of 
problems. 

Management is now, I believe, giving a 
great deal of thought to the problem of 
how to retain full responsibility for those 
decisions it ought to make itself, and yet 
to obtain the informed co-operation of 
responsible unionism on these issues. This 
is, of course, a complex problem for unions 
as well. 

The Deputy Minister began his address 
by commenting on the theme of the 
employer-employee relations conference : 
"Management Looks Ahead in Labour 
Relations". It is highly desirable, he said, 
that management should look ahead in 
labour relations and bring concerted think- 
ing to bear towards the development of 
sound and constructive policies. 

The Department of Labour, he told the 
meeting, had shortly before taken such a 
look ahead because the Canadian delegation 
to this year's International Labour Con- 
ference had been invited to lead off a 
discussion on the role of government in 
the improvement of labour-management 
relations. 



813 



"We seem to have achieved a reputation 
elsewhere in the world of having developed 
relationships in this field of a substantial 
nature, worthy of consideration," he com- 
mented. 

In preparation for the ILO panel discus- 
sion, Mr. Brown explained, the Department 
was looking for something to say that would 
be meaningful to representatives of other 
countries, particularly from those less 
industrially developed than Canada. As 
examples he cited first the "emphasis that 
in this country is placed on collective 
bargaining as compared with legislation as 
a means of achieving economic objectives". 

There are not many countries, even in the 
English-speaking world, in which labour and 
management are quite so free as they are 
in Canada, to develop their own wage or 
salary systems, hours of work and conditions 
of employment without restrictions imposed 
by considerations of Government economic 
policies. 

The Deputy Minister also pointed out 
that there were few countries in which 
collective bargaining was so decentralized 



or the employer-employee relationship at 
the plant level was so important; that the 
role of Government in Canada has been 
substantially a background role. "The 
Government has striven to establish and 
maintain the essential conditions of free- 
dom under which collective bargaining can 
work." 

He then listed some of the "ground rules" 
that government in Canada has laid down: 
the certification procedure, the definition 
and prohibition of certain unfair practices, 
the procedure for final settlement of dis- 
putes during the life of an agreement. 
Another function of government is to pro- 
vide conciliation services and information 
on wage rates and other collective bargain- 
ing matters, he said. 

These government activities are designed 
to protect the public interest by assisting 
the parties in developing sound relation- 
ships and by doing whatever is possible to 
avoid industrial disputes, Mr. Brown pointed 
out. 



Personnel Practices and White-Collar Employees 



A. C. Harrop 

The panel discussion on personnel prac- 
tices and white-collar employees was intro- 
duced by A. C. Harrop, Manager of 
the Department of Employee Relations, 
Imperial Oil Limited, Toronto. 

The topic for discussion was chosen, he 
explained, because many consider the white- 
collar employee to be industry's "forgotten 
man". 

"So many of our efforts and achievements 
in the field of industrial relations have been 
geared to the requirements of plant workers 
that the traditional differentials between 
the treatment afforded white-collar people 
and wage-earners have, in most companies, 
been all but eliminated," he said. 

Mr. Harrop commented on the growth 
during the past 20 or 30 years in the 
number and proportion of white-collar em- 
ployees. 

Coupled with the increase in numbers of 
clerical people has come a change in the 
character of office work. Mechanical proce- 
dures, specialization of function, and large 
open offices have tended to make a great 
deal of clerical work as repetitive, and there- 
fore as monotonous, as work in the factory. 
In fact, many offices function on the assembly 
line principle. 

The introduction of electronic data pro- 
cessing has created many questions in the 
minds of office workers who feel they may 
be affected, he continued. Management in 



the future will be required to devote greater 
effort to achieving good employee relations 
within its growing white-collar group. 

It is not simply a matter of satisfying 
economic needs; there is a much larger 
area of needs — the need for participation, 
for recognition, for making the most of 
one's talents, in other words, the need for 
personal growth. 

"I think we might ask ourselves whether 
or not management is going to face up 
to the white-collar problem and take a 
leadership position or whether it will lose 
the initiative by default," he said. 

R. F. Lane 

"The conviction that he is being treated 
as an individual provides the best motiva- 
tion to an employee to improve his per- 
formance and capacities," said R. F. Lane, 
salary administrator for Canadian General 
Electric Company Limited, Toronto. 

"It also encourages him to act individually 
and not seek alliance with other employees 
in order to bargain with management," he 
declared. Mr. Lane was speaking on 
"Salary Administration". 

"Once an employee accepts the feeling 
that, from the management point of view, 
he is only a classification, a necessary cog in 
a chain of wheels, rather than an individual, 
he loses the sense of identification of his 
own interest with company well-being," he 
added. 



814 



In his address, Mr. Lane spoke of the 
place and function of salary administration 
in the organization structure, the bases of 
salary rate determination, relationship of 
salaries to community rates, the evaluation 
of positions, the salary schedule, and per- 
formance appraisal. 

Summarizing his remarks, he stressed that 
the thing to emphasize in salary adminis- 
tration is that the employee must be treated 
as an individual. "The most valuable 
employee to any organization is the one 
who identifies his own interest with that of 
the organization, and that identification is 
not possible if the employee is treated other 
than as an individual," he said. 

Clarence H. Fraser 

Speaking on "Performance Appraisals and 
Career Planning," Clarence H. Fraser, Place- 
ment Supervisor, Bell Telephone Co. of 
Canada, Toronto, said that, to be useful, 
performance appraisals should move the 
individual forward and the organization 
forward to realize on potential. 

Information gathered through performance 
appraisals should be such that the super- 
visor and employee can talk things over 
and then take action to move forward as 
a two-man team, he said. 

Mr. Fraser placed four questions before 
the meeting: 

1. What can the individual clerical em- 
ployee contribute to his or her own per- 
formance appraisal and career planning? 

2. What can the immediate supervisor 
do? 

3. What can specialized services do? 

4. What can management do through 
effective administration? 

W. Donald Wood 

"Job Security, Grievance Procedure and 
Information Sharing" was the title of an 
address by W. Donald Wood, Department 
of Employee Relations, Imperial Oil Li- 
mited, Toronto. 

A discussion of white-collar job security 
must make reference to office automation, 
he said. Many office employees see this 
new development as an "alarming threat" 
to the security of their jobs. Although based 
mainly on misunderstanding — a misunder- 
standing for which management, in many 
instances, must assume the blame — this 
fear has an adverse effect on morale. 

Despite the benefits to employees that 
have actually resulted in automated offices — 
reduction of monotonous, routine work; 
upgrading of many jobs; little, if any, 
reduction in the number of jobs — the intro- 
duction of automation has created many 



dissatisfactions when there has been no 
adverse planning by management. 

Mr. Wood then listed six guides that 
companies have found useful in smoothing 
the transition to an automated office: 

1. Make the necessary advance planning 
and studies of transition problems and their 
potential solution. In this respect, pay- 
particular attention to the possible impact 
of automation on the seniority system, job 
titles, classification, and wage rates. 

2. Tell employees early of the coming of 
automation and keep them fully informed 
during each step in the planning, introducing, 
and carrying through of changes. 

3. Have employees participate with man- 
agement in working out the various problems 
that may arise. 

4. Give employees the guarantee that no 
one will be laid off or asked to accept a 
lower paying job as a result of the new 
equipment. 

5. Wherever possible, select present em- 
ployees to operate the new machinery and 
have them receive the necessary training 
for their new responsibilities. 

6. And finally, retrain workers who can't 
adjust to the changed job content of their 
operations and relocate them in jobs as 
good as, or better than, the jobs from which 
they were displaced. 

Turning to the handling of grievances, 
Mr. Wood pointed out that grievances, 
whether they be real or imaginary, trivial 
or serious, do occur in the office as well as 
in the plant. Therefore an adequate program 
for handling grievances in the office should 
be developed, he said. The essential features 
of an effective program he listed as: (1) the 
avoidance of grievances; (2) the develop- 
ment of mechanisms for the airing of griev- 
ances. 

The prevention of grievances implies well 
publicized, written personnel policies, and 
procedures, and requires supervisors to take 
the initiative in remedying conditions that 
might be the basis for complaint before the 
dissatisfaction grows into a "full-blown" 
grievance. 

The effective handling of grievances 
requires the development of definite 
mechanisms and procedures for the airing 
of employee complaints. The immediate 
supervisor is the key person in the successful 
handling of grievances; but when he fails 
to resolve a complaint, "it is important 
that aggrieved employees have the right 
of appeal to higher levels of management". 

On the subject of information sharing, 
Mr. Wood said "a basic job satisfaction 
for office workers is derived from having 
their management share information with 
them". Morale and efficiency will be 
adversely affected if management does not 
make a continual effort to share information 
with employees and to explain its implica- 
tions for the worker, he declared. 



815 



Labour Relations Legislation 



L. Hemsworth 



"We have been in a legal stage of active 
union promotion for many years and it is 
time to obtain a proper balance by neces- 
sary legislative amendments," said L. Hems- 
worth, Personnel Manager, Industrial Rela- 
tions Department, Canadian Industries 
Limited, Montreal. He was the first of five 
speakers in a symposium on labour relations 
legislation. 

"Today," he continued, "unions wield 
great economic power... Moreover, union 
leaders are apparently entitled to practise 
with impunity acts illegal or clearly immoral 
when committed by other groups." 

Mr. Hemsworth spoke on two areas in 
which "legislative correction is clearly 
needed". These were: (1) the use of the 
boycott and (2) "interference by unions 
with the right of an individual to work 
at his job". 

He gave several examples of "how unions 
work the boycott". This was one of them: 

Building materials arrive on a construction 
site, for example, prefabricated piping. The 
pipefitters' union hasn't been able to get 
the employees of the shop where the pipe 
was made to join their union; the employees 
may even have exercised their rights under 
the Labour Act to join another union. So the 
construction pipefitters refuse to handle the 
pipe. The pipe manufacturer is being sub- 
jected to a secondary boycott. The contractor 
is expected to change suppliers, diverting his 
business to a so-called "fair" shop... In 
any event, the non-union supplier can be 
forced out of business. 

All these practices cost the public a great 
deal of money and serve only one purpose: 
the "narrow organizational interests of a 
particular union," he declared. 

It is no answer to say that employers 
should not accede to these tactics, Mr. 
Hemsworth added. "An employer usually 
has no choice — except to go out of business." 

The remedy he suggested was "to apply 
the same standards to trade unions and 
trade union leaders with respect to restraint 
of trade as are applied to business groups". 
Also, he said, the Labour Relations Acts 
should be enforced, with respect to strikes 
and illegal picketing, "in the same way 
that the Criminal Code is enforced with 
respect to breaking and entering". 

Turning to the "right to work," Mr. 
Hemsworth pointed out that at the time 
existing labour legislation was drafted the 
only threat of loss of employment for union 
activity anticipated by the Legislatures was 
thought to emanate from employers; the 
Acts therefore include a prohibition against 
discharge by an employer for union activity. 



But while the Acts prohibit discrimination 
for reasons of membership or non-membership 
in a union, they permit, nay encourage, the 
inclusion of compulsory membership clauses 
in collective agreements. Compulsory mem- 
bership provisions have as their purpose 
discrimination against non-members — forcing 
their discharge. A non-member, or a person 
expelled from membership, loses his right to 
work by virtue of a compulsory membership 
clause. 

While union security originally implied 
security against employers, he went on, 
"today its purpose is security of the union 
officialdom against its members: member- 
ship can be withheld or withdrawn to keep 
members 'in line', to silence opposition, or 
to ensure the re-election of the incumbent 
leadership". 

There is no effective remedy for individ- 
uals expelled, because the courts pursue a 
"hands-off" policy, telling an aggrieved 
member to "exhaust the remedies inside his 
union," which means that the discharged 
employee "has to go back to the very union 
officers who pushed him around in the first 
place," Mr. Hemsworth said. 

Calling attention to the 18 states in the 
United States that have recently banned 
any form of compulsoiy union membership, 
he urged that in Canada the necessary 
action be taken now "to eliminate this 
modern form of serfdom". 

Patrick Draper 

Second speaker in the symposium was 
Patrick Draper, Vice-president of the 
Pressure Pipe Company, Montreal, who 
described the activities of labour relations 
boards. 

Commenting on Labour's suggestion that 
a simple majority of those voting, and not 
a majority of those eligible to vote, be 
sufficient to determine the choice of a 
bargaining agent, he said that the analogy 
between a representation election and a 
political election may be unsound. "The 
disinterested employee who does not vote 
obviously does not want to change the 
status quo," he said. 

Edward Benson 

Edward Benson, of the Consolidated Min- 
ing and Smelting Company of Canada, 
Limited, Trail, B.C., spoke on strike votes, 
the check-off, and illegal strikes. 

He noted that the report of the Ontario 
Federation of Labour (L.G., March, p. 269) 
did not cover strike votes in any great 
detail, the major reference being that of 
Prof. J. C. Cameron, who said that govern- 
ment-supervised strike votes might hasten 
the advent of government-supervised votes 



816 



on other collective bargaining issues (L.G., 
Aug. 1956, p. 987). Mr. Benson disagreed 
with Prof. Cameron. 

Two criticisms of government-supervised 
strike votes that he had heard from em- 
ployers, Mr. Benson said, were : 

— That a "yes" result in such a vote 
tends to create the impression with the 
public that the union's cause is just; 

— That employees who would not normally 
turn out for a strike vote will turn out for 
a government-supervised vote and, the odds 
are, will vote in favour of striking. 

Perhaps both these apprehensions are 
justified, Mr. Benson said. 

One thing is certain: I think it would be 
poor legislation which does not provide for a 
government-supervised vote and at the same 
time removes the mandatory conciliation pro- 
ceedings between commencement of bargain- 
ing and time of the vote. As a personal 
preference, I would much rather be faced 
-with the task of persuading employees and 
the public generally of the merits of my 
case, assuming I were facing a government- 
supervised strike vote, than have to deal 
with the possible consequences of a strike 
vote, the validity of which might be ques- 
tionable. 

The lack of implied restraint which a 
government-supervised vote imposes, he 
continued, makes the use of the strike 
vote a weapon, not to be used as a last 
resort but "dragged from the arsenal in 
the very early stages" of negotiations. He 
once experienced the calling of a strike 
vote after only four hours' direct bar- 
gaining. Continued use of the strike vote 
in this way reduces everyone's awareness 
of its great significance until it is too late, 
he believed. 

"I think that a government-supervised 
strike vote is in everyone's interest most of 
the time," he said. 

Turning to a discussion of the check-off, 
Mr. Benson noted that the OFL brief 
used different reasoning in arguing for a 
check-off than that used in recommending 
changes in the conciliation procedure. On 
the one hand, great stress is laid on 



measures designed to permit the greatest 
freedom for collective bargaining to work, 
and on the other, when the unions are 
unable to obtain the check-off through free 
collective bargaining, relief is sought 
through the legislative process. 

Such reverse reasoning, he said, reminded 
him of the man who murdered his mother 
and father and then demanded clemency on 
the ground that he was an orphan. 

He could see no reason why the check-off 
should be introduced into the legislation; 
but one had to recognize that in many 
provincial labour statutes it was already 
there. 

"If any government decides that it will 
provide some such legislation, it should 
certainly never do so without providing 
proper restraints," Mr. Benson declared. He 
suggested provisions that a sizeable part 
of the employees in the bargaining unit 
must endorse the principle before any 
individual assignments are honoured; that, 
periodically, interested parties can ask for 
a demonstration that a majority remains 
in favour; that an employer is protected 
in connection with the use to which the 
deducted monies are to be put. 

I consider a check-off provision unnecessary 
legislation. I consider that a check-off pro- 
vision without restraints is unfair legislation. 

On the subject of illegal strikes, he said 
he considered that in Canadian labour legis- 
lation generally, "one of the greatest 
features working for labour peace is that 
which obliges employers and trade unions 
to provide some machinery in their collec- 
tive agreements for the final and binding 
settlement of disputes. 

"It seems to me that in the essen- 
tials the provincial labour laws in Canada 
are fairly well uniform and have proved to 
be pretty successful in the main. I admit 
the desirability of certain refinements but 
I see no reason why either management or 
labour should feel the need for major 
revision in the substance," Mr. Benson 
concluded. 



Government Social Security Measures and Company Benefit Plans 



R. S. Whyte 

"Pension benefits are becoming so expen- 
sive that it would be unfortunate and cer- 
tainly wasteful if the expenditure did not 
result in increased productivity," said R. S. 
Whyte, Supervisor of Pension Trusts, The 
Royal Trust Company, Montreal. The first 
speaker in the panel discussion on govern- 
ment social security measures and company 
benefit plans, he was speaking on "Pen- 



Although "reasonably adequate" pensions 
are being provided by a combination of 
government old age security benefits and 
company pension plans, "the drive is on 
for larger pensions". Inflation aggravates 
the argument for larger pensions, he said. 

"Before adding further to the already 
substantial pension bill paid by industry, 
we should strive to find ways of making 
pension cost pay off in added incentive to 
work more productively," Mr. Whyte said. 



817 



He then listed some of the ways that 
have been tried with some success to 
stimulate incentive through a pension plan. 

— Employees should be kept constantly 
aware of the benefits they are to receive 
and approximately what they cost. 

— Employees should be retired at the 
normal retirement age. 

— A profit-sharing formula can be intro- 
duced into the pension plan. While profit 
sharing is not a cure-all, it does seem to 
have a much wider successful application 
than has been tried so far in Canada. 

— Cost of living adjustments to pensions 
after retirement have been experimented 
in Europe; they seem to offer a workable 
solution. 

The value of the dollar has been going 
downwards ever since the white man settled 
in North America, Mr. Whyte said. As 
more persons accept this trend as inevitable, 
more and more may seek a kind of pension 
arrangement that gives some protection 
against changes in the price level after 
retirement. "We can reasonably expect that 
more and more interest will be shown in 
Canada in the ways of finding both depres- 
sion-and-inflation-proof pension arrange- 
ments." 

William D. Welsford 

William D. Welsford, Executive Vice- 
president, William M. Mercer Limited, 
Toronto, who was the second speaker on 
the panel, spoke on union-negotiated pen- 
sion plans and the older worker problem 
as related to the pension plan. 

"Every employer, whether he has a 
union or not, is or will be greatly affected 
by the gradual permeation of union- 
negotiated plans through a substantial seg- 
ment of industry," he stated. "Whether or 
not we wish to recognize the situation," he 
added, union-negotiated plans are setting 
the pace for pension plans in industry as 
a whole, for both union and non-union 
employees. 

"The simple fact is that the pension 
plans being negotiated today are better 
than the majority of the unilateral plans 
established by managements." 

Mr. Welsford then pointed to some of 
the improvements in union-negotiated plans 
in the seven years since the first such plan 
was introduced into Canada in 1950: higher 
amounts of pension, increased disability 
pensions, the introduction of vesting. Pen- 
sion amounts have increased at a faster 
rate than the rise in the cost of living. 

Mr. Welsford predicted many further 
improvements in the future. 



The superiority of union-negotiated plans, 
he said, could not but place many manage- 
ments in a somewhat embarrassing position, 
especially when such plans were operated 
side by side with plans established by the 
employer. In such cases management must 
continually raise its sights on its own plans 
in order to keep pace with plans of the 
other type. 

Tax laws in Canada regarding pensions 
were more favourable towards employee 
contributions than was the case in the 
United States, Mr. Welsford pointed out. 
This fact was ignored by international 
unions in their influence on bargaining 
policies, and in this, he said, he believed 
the unions to be wrong in principle. The 
result was that while most employer- 
sponsored plans were contributory, most 
union-negotiated plans were "unfortunately" 
non-contributory. 

The industry-wide plan, Mr. Welsford 
said, had developed more slowly than the 
union-negotiated plan, of which it was 
simply an extension to cover the union 
employees of a number of companies 
instead of those of one employer only. The 
industry-wide plan had one main advantage, 
which was that it allowed employees to 
transfer from one employer to another 
without loss of pension rights. This advan- 
tage, the speaker remarked, made it almost 
certain that such plans would become 
increasingly common. 

"It is inevitable that there will be con- 
tinuing conflict between the union- 
negotiated plan and the company-sponsored 
plan for non-union employees. This cannot 
be avoided. Most certainly it cannot be 
ignored," Mr. Welsford said. 

Statements which have appeared in the 
press to the effect that the cost of pension 
plans to the employer is a leading factor 
which deters companies from hiring older 
workers were described by Mr. Welsford as 
"utter nonsense". When such a plea was 
used by an employer it was merely an 
excuse for not hiring older people. 

It could be said, the speaker admitted, 
that the cost of a dollar of pension, 
beginning at age 65, payable for an em- 
ployee now age 50, was almost exactly 
twice the cost for an employee age 30; and 
that to provide an employee with a pension 
of 1 per cent of average earnings up to 65 
the annual contribution required for an 
employee age 50 was about 50 per cent 
greater than the cost for an employee 
age 30. 

"These cost factors, however," he main- 
tained, "are completely misleading. Think- 
ing of increased pension costs for hiring 
older workers of 50 or 100 per cent is only 



818 



valid if an employer hires only employees 
over age 45. This, of course, would not be 
a prudent employment policy." 

Mr. Welsford pointed out that "the 
only cost factor that is significant is the 
extra cost of hiring older workers as applied 
to the company's over-all pension costs." 
He had calculated, he said, that under a 
typical pension plan which provided a non- 
contributory pension of 1 per cent of 
average earnings times years of service "the 
effect of an employer hiring, as a permanent 
policy, 4 per cent of his work force at 
an average age of 50 would only increase 
the employer's pension costs by a maximum 
of about one-tenth of 1 per cent of the 
total earnings of the eligible employees". 

This cost factor, he said, was completely 
insignificant. On the other hand, there 
were many other factors which were 
strongly in favour of the older workers. 
These included: greater emotional stability 
than younger workers, a greatly superior 
safety record, less absenteeism, and virtually 
no turnover. 

With the present employable unemployed 
over age 40 estimated at only about 2 per 
cent of our working population, this group 
nevertheless represented about one-third of 
the employable unemployed. "It is there- 
fore apparent," Mr. Welsford said, "that 
all employable unemployed over age 40 
could be absorbed by industry with negli- 
gible effect on pension costs." 

The speaker insisted that "the decision 
on hiring of older workers should, therefore, 
be based on the company's employment 
policy entirely divorced from the pension 
policy." 

Asking the question: Why then are em- 
ployers so reticent about hiring the older 
workers? Mr. Welsford said: "I'm sure I 
don't know what the real answer is — but 
this I do know, it is not attributable, to 
the cost of pensions." 

A. J. Swanson 

"We are in a wage economy and people 
are finding it increasingly difficult to pay 
for hospitalization. It was felt that no 
one should be crippled by large hospital 
bills. . . and that no one should be deterred 
from seeking the necessary attention for 
some disability which could be helped by 
hospitalization," said A. J. Swanson, Chair- 
man of the Ontario Hospital Service Com- 
mission, in a review of the proposed hospital 
care insurance plan for the Province. 

As a first step in developing a provincial 
insurance plan the Hospital Service Com- 
mission had been appointed by the Ontario 
Legislature in 1956, the speaker said. The 
Commission's function, he pointed out, was 



"not hospitalization, but insurance against 
the cost of hospitalization. 

"It is the raising of money to pay for 
hospitalization by premium collection and 
government contribution, both federal and 
provincial. It involves the" payment to 
the hospitals, on behalf of the patients, 
the costs of hospitalization. It should be 
noted here," Mr. Swanson said, "that there 
will be no interference with the autonomy 
of hospitals such as some people have 
suggested. Hospitals will not be taken over 
or administered by the Commission." 

Hospital standards would continue to be 
set under the Public Hospital Act and the 
regulations, and the speaker said that the 
Commission had no intention of compromis- 
ing on the present high level of care being 
given in the hospitals as a result of the 
institution of an insurance plan. 

"There has been some suggestion that 
the present voluntary insurance programs 
through Blue Cross and other carriers were 
meeting the needs." These plans, however, 
did not cover the whole cost of basic care 
and were limited as to time and services 
paid for, Mr. Swanson remarked. 

The proposed insurance program must 
make insurance available to all who are 
able to buy it, including individuals as well 
as those employed in groups. Old people 
and indigents must also be provided for, the 
speaker explained. The program as at 
present designed was without limitation as 
to age, disability or length of stay. The 
calculation of adequate premiums was there- 
fore a very complex problem. 

The Commission has the legal power to 
make participation in the hospital care 
program mandatory for any group; but it 
had been suggested, Mr. Swanson said, that 
this mandatory feature should at first apply 
to groups now insured and to other em- 
ployed groups, but not to individuals. 
Although some people were opposed to 
compulsion he pointed out that 3,750,000 
persons in the province, representing a 
group of a little more than 4,000,000 people, 
were already voluntarily insured for much 
less comprehensive coverage than that which 
will be available under the proposed provin- 
cial plan. The speaker argued that it there- 
fore seemed reasonable to assume that they 
would not object to getting a fuller coverage 
for less than they were now paying for the 
present limited coverage. 

Besides the coverage prescribed in the 
bill recently passed by the federal Parlia- 
ment, which called for standard ward care 
and normal ancillary services, Mr. Swan- 
son said that he had no doubt that "it 
will also cover emergency service in out- 
patient departments within 24 hours of an 
accident". 



819 



Out-patient diagnostic service had already 
been discussed and, Mr. Swanson said, "we 
feel that we must continue to study this 
matter in order that we shall arrive at a 
mutually satisfactory solution to some of 
the problems which will present themselves. 
It is felt that out-patient diagnostic service 
will materially relieve the demand for 
in-patient care." 

Great changes are evidently pending in 
the hospital and medical fields, the speaker 
said, "but we must make sure that before 
any changes in established custom are 
brought about these changes are given long 
study with patience and understanding. We 
must be sure that we are not discarding 
practices which have stood the test of 
time for something less satisfactory." 

Many people have asked what the rates 
will be, but there was a sound reason for 
not giving out any possible rates at present, 
said Mr. Swanson. If rates were announced 
for the very comprehensive coverage which 
would be given by the plan, unfavourable 
comparisons might be made with rates 
charged now by the Blue Cross and other 
carriers for a much less full coverage. 

The calculation of rates was also a 
very complicated matter; and the speaker 
remarked that, with 5,500,000 persons and 
an outlay of from $150,000,000 to $170,000,- 
000 involved, even a slight miscalculation 
might be a very serious thing. 

With regard to mental illness and tuber- 
culosis, which would be included under the 
plan, Mr. Swanson said that since the 
federal Government did not share in the 
cost of treatment the provincial Govern- 
ment must bear the whole cost. 

"It is anticipated that a very small token 
charge will be included in the premium, 
and this money will be utilized for research 
and other studies in the mental hospitals in 
an effort to improve methods of treatment 
and service," Mr. Swanson said. 

In the matter of indigent patients, "which 
has been a bug-bear for the hospitals, the 
municipalities and the provinces... it has 
been decided that in the case of the social 
assistance group who are a known quantity 
the province will purchase the insurance 
tickets for these people. In the case of the 
medical or hospital indigents who are an 
unknown quantity in numbers, and who 
are a changing group by virtue of the fact 
they may be out of employment today and 
well employed tomorrow and able to pay 
their way, this group will as in the past be 
screened by the municipality as to means." 

The arrangement in these latter cases 
would be that the provincial Government 
would make an unconditional per capita 



grant to the municipalities to relieve them 
of any expense they might otherwise have 
had to pay, Mr. Swanson said. The 
municipalities would in this way have an 
inducement to screen thoroughly because, 
the grant being unconditional, any money 
they saved by screening they would be 
free to use for other purposes. 

C. A. L. Murchison 

In applications for approval of supple- 
mentary unemployment benefit plans the 
practice of considering each case on its 
merits "will be continued until we have had 
sufficient experience to enable us to make 
satisfactory general regulations to govern 
in such cases", said C. A. L. Murchison, 
Commissioner of the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission, in a brief discussion on 
Government Social Security Measures and 
Company Benefit Plans. 

In Canadian agreements approval of 
supplementary unemployment benefit plans 
by the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion is a condition of their coming into 
effect, Mr. Murchison said. 

After giving a short outline of the main 
provisions of agreements on such plans, 
the speaker continued. 

"There has been some opposition to 
integration. It has been argued that the 
level of benefits provided in major SUB 
contracts destroys the incentive to find 
other employment. It is much too soon to 
say whether any weight can be given to 
such agreements. The incentive to find 
other employment depends upon the eligi- 
bility provisions of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act, the prospect of recall, the 
availability of other employment oppor- 
tunities and the level of unemployment 
insurance benefits. Under our system a 
worker is disqualified from receipt of bene- 
fits when he rejects an offer of suitable 
employment. The SUB agreements recog- 
nize the statutory conditions concerning 
availability for employment." 

Mr. Murchison stated that "on the 
administrative side the agreements have in 
no way changed the incentive to seek or 
accept other work, but there is no reason 
to assume that under all conditions no 
malingering will occur. 

"It is here appropriate to point out that 
there is some evidence to show that manage- 
ment would not be unhappy if a worker 
held himself in readiness for recall, par- 
ticularly in short lay-offs," he said. 

Among the factors which restrict a 
workers' opportunities for getting other 
employment during a temporary lay-off, Mr. 



820 



Murchison mentioned the self-interested 
reluctance of other employers to hire a 
person who may leave his new employment 
when recalled from lay-off and the fear 
a worker might have of losing seniority 
rights, fringe benefits and other personal 
gains derived from unbroken employment. 
"There are other factors which may have to 
be reviewed in due course by management, 
labour and the Commission," he added. 

"Under our Act the rate of benefit is 
higher for a claimant with a dependent 
than for a single person. Under SUB con- 
tracts single persons receive a larger SUB 
payment than do persons with dependents, 
and as a result take home as much money 
from unemplo3mient insurance and SUB 
as do people with dependents. This result 
is not desirable, having regard for the social 
aspects of unemployment insurance," Mr. 
Murchison said. 

"May I also remind you," he remarked, 
"that under SUB plans employees with 
higher seniority are indirectly subsidizing 
employees with lower seniority. However, 
if any issue develops on this point it will 
no doubt have to be settled by the 
workers.' ; 

Mr. Murchison also pointed out that "it 
is possible for a recipient to receive as 
much as $25 a week supplement benefit, 
as well as the full amount of his unem- 
ployment insurance benefit. On the other 
hand, an unemployed worker not covered 
by SUB may while on unemployment insur- 
ance obtain casual employment and earn, 
say $25 in a week. In the latter case $13 
of the earnings would be allowed to the 
claimant, but $12 (the excess over $13) 
would be deducted. In other words, the 
man who worked to earn the $25 would be 
S12 worse off than the other fellow who 
did not work. A serious anomaly is thus 
created." 



The importance of finding out the rela- 
tionship between the level of benefits and 
the incentive to seek new employment was 
emphasized by the speaker. At present 
we know little about this. "High benefits 
might encourage short term loafing," he 
said. However, he thought that such state- 
ments as: "people would rather loaf than 
work," lacked substantiation. 

With bills to specify the conditions under 
which supplementation will or will not be 
permitted under consideration in some 
American states, Mr. Murchison suggested 
that "we in Canada would be well advised 
to stand by and await the results of the 
deliberations under way in other jurisdic- 
tions". 

"I would argue that much is to be gained, 
and little lost, by postponing restrictions 
on supplementation until we have had an 
opportunity to observe the impact of the 
high benefit levels on the incentive to seek 
re-employment. If the present benefits, or 
future benefits, prove to be excessive the 
chances are that we will be given authority 
from Parliament to regulate and control 
them," he said. 

"We should not overlook the possibility 
that any unfair or unreasonable decision 
on our part concerning the integration of 
SUB with unemployment insurance, might 
result in the abandonment of such plans in 
favour of a guaranteed annual wage," Mr. 
Murchison concluded. 

"The cost to the employer of a guaran- 
teed annual wage plan would be much 
greater than that of a SUB plan for many 
reasons, chiefly because the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund could not be used to supple- 
ment or subsidize a scheme where wages in 
excess of certain specified amounts were 
being paid." 



State Federations Merge in Half of United States 



In the United States, mergers of AFL 
and CIO organizations have now been 
completed in 24 states. Only formalities 
stand in the way of unification of two 
others. 

During last month a new Connecticut 
State Labour Council (AFL-CIO) was 
formed to represent 200,000 unionists, while 
Mississippi labour groups also merged into 
a council representing 30,000. 

R. J. Thomas, special assistant to AFL- 
CIO President George Meany, said he 



expects mergers at a faster pace in August 
but acknowledges that "major problems" 
are ahead in big industrial states. 

Two deadlines are important. Unions 
not merged by August must report their 
progress; if needed, the AFL-CIO will 
then appoint trouble-shooters. If not 
merged by December, existing, rival 
organizations will be dissolved by the AFL- 
CIO biennial convention and new, unified 
councils set up to replace them. 



821 



Professional and Technical Manpower 

Texts of remaining six addresses on supply and demand of professional man- 
power, broadcast on "Canada at Work" program, are published here 



Texts of the remaining six broadcasts in 
the Department's weekly "Canada at Work" 
program dealing with the supply and 
demand of professional manpower are given 
below. Digests of the first five broadcasts 
appeared in the June issue, page 691. 

The speakers and their subjects were: 

H. H. Kerr, Principal, Ryerson Institute 
of Technology, "The Engineering Tech- 
nologist". 

W. H. Evans, Chairman, CMA Special 
Committee on Education and Manpower, 
"Industry's Role in Producing Professional 
Manpower". 



Dr. F. T. Rosser, Vice-president (Ad- 
ministration), National Research Council, 
"Canada's Position in the World of Pro- 
fessional Manpower". 

Dean Geoffrey C. Andrew, Deputy to the 
President, University of British Columbia, 
"Is a University Degree Important?" 

Prof. M. D. Parmenter, Director, Guid- 
ance Centre, Ontario College of Education, 
"Vocational Guidance Is the Key to More 
Professional Manpower". 

Dr. O. M. Solandt, Vice-president, Re- 
search and Development, Canadian National 
Railways, "The Importance of Scientists 
in the Development of Canada". 



The Engineering Technologist 
H. H. Kerr, Principal, Ryerson Institute of Technology 



It is generally recognized that a great 
many engineers are at present being used 
on tasks that are less creative and less 
important than those that they are capable 
of doing. It is here that the well trained 
engineering assistant or engineering tech- 
nologist can be used to alleviate the 
shortage of engineers by relieving the more 
highly trained men of most of the routine 
work, thus setting the latter free for 
the duties for which they are especially 
educated, Mr. Kerr said. 

He then went on to discuss the definition 
of a technologist and a technician. Although 
at one time such terms were fairly clearly 
understood, more recently, he said, they 
had become enveloped in a "maze of con- 
fusion," some firms having as many as 
six or eight categories of what they called 
"technicians". 

One helpful definition has emerged, he 
said, which concerns a comparatively new 
term, "engineering technician". The defini- 
tion had been adopted by the European and 
United States Engineers' Conference at a 
meeting in Geneva about two years ago, 
and had subsequently been approved by the 
Conference of Commonwealth Engineering 
Institutions, of which the Engineering In- 
stitute of Canada was a member. The 
definition he quoted in part as follows : 

An Engineering Technician is one who can 
apply in a responsible manner proved tech- 
niques which are commonly understood by 
those who are expert in a branch of engineer- 
ing, or in those techniques especially pre- 



scribed by professional engineers. The tech- 
niques employed demand acquired experience 
and knowledge of a particular branch of 
engineering combined with the ability to 
work out details of a task in the light of 
well-established practice. 

"A few months ago the Association of 
Professional Engineers of the province of 
Ontario appointed a committee to study 
the situation, and as a result of the deli- 
berations of that committee the Association 
has instituted a voluntary scheme for the 
classification and grading of this type of 
engineering personnel. Five grades were 
established — Engineering Technician, Grade 
I, Grade II, Grade III, Grade IV, and 
Grade V," said Mr. Kerr. 

"The highest category— Engineering Tech- 
nician, Grade V — ," he continued, "consists 
of persons who have passed the inter- 
mediate examination, or equivalent, of the 
Ontario Association of Professional Engi- 
neers. Because of the recognized standards 
of attainment they must meet, and because 
of the responsibilities they are thus able 
to assume, individuals in this grade and 
in the grade immediately below (Engineer- 
ing Technician, Grade IV) are frequently 
categorized as 'engineering technologists'. 

"The qualifications for the remaining 
grades are progressively lower, both as to 
academic qualifications and practical exper- 
ience, but provision is made for the ambi- 
tious technician to progress from one grade 
to another, provided he is willing and able 
to qualify himself. For a small fee the 



822 



Association is prepared to issue certificates 
to members of each grade. This scheme 
is considered to be a forward advance in 
the training and standardization of non- 
professional engineering personnel and the 
move has been enthusiastically received by 
both the engineering profession and indus- 
try at large." 

Mr. Kerr then went on to describe the 
training of an engineering technologist, with 
particular reference to the courses offered 
by the Ryerson Institute. 

"The first source of recruitment . . . ," he 
said, "is from the pool of able secondary 
school graduates for whom this tj^pe of 
curriculum has a basic appeal, or who for 
one reason or another do not wish to 
undertake a full engineering course. A 
second source is from industry itself. There 
are always a number of persons who, 
through circumstances beyond their control, 
are forced to leave school at the end of 
Grades XII or XIII and seek employment. 
A few years later they may find themselves 
financially able to resume their education." 

The Ryerson Institute, which was estab- 
lished in 1948, is a provincially owned and 
administered institution. Its "engineering 
technology courses — electronic, electrical, 
chemical, mechanical, metallurgical, instru- 
ment, architectural, and aeronautical tech- 
nology — are of three years' duration, and 
the minimum entrance requirement is the 
Ontario Secondary School Graduation Di- 
ploma obtained at the end of Grade XII," 
the speaker said. "The first six of these 
courses have been accredited for technical 
institute purposes by the Engineering Insti- 
tute of Canada. 

"Although almost two-thirds of the total 
enrolment is in the engineering technology 
curricula," he continued, "Ryerson offers 
courses on the same level in such non- 
engineering fields as the graphic arts, 



business, hotel administration, radio and 
television arts. The number of courses listed 
in the day school calendar is 22 and the 
1956-57 registration was 1,982 students. The 
evening school consists largely of upgrading 
courses for employed persons, and this 
year's enrolment was 5,200." 

The demand for graduates from the 
Institute far exceeds the supply, Mr. Kerr 
said. In a number of courses the ratio is 
four to one. 

"Ryerson maintains a close contact with 
the industrial and business world by means 
of advisory committees. These committees 
are composed of prominent individuals in 
various firms connected with the industries 
served. The members periodically review 
the technological curricula. They assist 
in securing scholarships and equipment, in 
establishing standards of attainment, and 
in organizing new courses to meet the 
needs of the industry concerned. Acting as 
liaison officers between the Institute and 
the business and industrial world, they 
endeavour to interpret the work of the 
Institute to industry and obtain support 
for it in a variety of ways. The number 
of scholarships and bursaries provided the 
students by various firms is a source of 
pride and satisfaction to the Institute," 
Mr. Kerr said. 

He pointed out that Ryerson is serving 
a wide field. Of the total enrolment 45 
per cent comes from Metropolitan Toronto, 
49 per cent from other centres in Ontario, 
and 6 per cent from outside the province. 
Of those from outside the province, 
24 students come from British Columbia, 13 
from Alberta, 10 from Saskatchewan, 13 
from Manitoba, 14 from Quebec, 13 from 
New Brunswick, seven from Nova Scotia, 
four from Newfoundland, one from the 
Yukon, and one from the Northwest Terri- 
tories. 



Industry's Role in Producing Professional Manpower 

W. H. Evans, Chairman, CMA Special Committee on Education and Manpower 



"We should ask ourselves to what extent 
industry is interested in professional man- 
power," Mr. Evans began, "for it seems 
logical that the degree of interest would 
have a marked bearing on the support 
and participation in the production of 
professional men that might be expected 
from industry". 

Mr. Evans referred to the national con- 
ference held last Fall at Saint Andrews, 
N.B., to discuss the extent of the technical 
manpower shortage, causes contributing to 



the shortage, and remedial action that 
could be taken to overcome the situation 
(L.G., Dec. 1956, p. 1520). 

"As an outgrowth of this conference," 
Mr. Evans said, "the Industrial Foundation 
on Education was established, financed by 
industry, as a fact-finding body and as an 
adviser to industry on educational matters. 

"Industry — and in referring to industry 
I mean specifically the manufacturing 
industries — is a large employer of scientists 
and engineers; but industry does not by 



823 



any means employ the majority of these 
people as some groups would try to have 
us think. Canadian industry, in fact, em- 
ploys about 44 per cent of the engineers 
and only 25.7 per cent of the scientists 
who are registered in Canada today. 

"Industry has established a means of 
obtaining expert advice on educational 
matters through the Industrial Foundation 
on Education, and as a major employer of 
technical manpower must, for its own pro- 
gress and the well-being of the hundreds 
of thousands of other people employed by 
industry, have an adequate flow of tech- 
nical graduates from our universities and 
colleges." 

Industry, Mr. Evans said, was vitally 
interested in all aspects of education, 
because industry depended upon people. 
"Our secondary schools, technical institutes 
and universities must produce an adequate 
flow of people to man and manage technical 
industry." 

Professional manpower, Mr. Evans said, 
meant "not only the professional manage- 
ment people who are the administrators of 
modern business and who are skilled in 
the handling of men, money and machines" 
but also the engineer, the lawyer, the 
accountant, the medical man, the scientist, 
the Librarian, the researcher, the adver- 
tising specialist, the writer, the designer — ■ 
all highly trained, skilful people — that the 
manufacturing industry makes use of. 

"They are the pilots of modern industry — 
without them our present economy could 
not exist." Professional manpower is pro- 
duced first of all by our educational system. 
Universities, Mr. Evans noted, produced 
at one time only teachers, doctors, lawyers, 
writers and pure scientists. Then modern 
technology required industry, and govern- 
ment, too, to provide opportunity for the 
pure scientist to grow into a research 
chemist or a physicist; and for the men 
who had learned English and languages at 
university to become an advertising writer. 
The mathematics student found scope for 
becoming a statistician or accountant. 

"In short, within the limit of their capa- 
bilities, the universities did a magnificent 
job in supplying the men and women needed 
in past years. The only trouble is, they 
haven't done it fast enough in recent 
years — and for a very good reason. 

"Universities today consider that the 
maximum they can charge the student 
is 50 per cent of the cost of teaching him; 
the rest of the money has to come from 
somewhere else. Industry has recently been 
attempting, in greater measure than ever 
before, to help take up this slack. 

"Some companies grant scholarships to the 
children of their own employees, as does 



the Canadian Pacific Railways. Others have 
given large sums as grants in aid of univer- 
sity projects. Many are awarding annual 
scholarships and bursaries to enable people 
to go to university or to continue once 
they are there; and some, when granting 
scholarships, award a sum equal to the 
scholarship to the university. 

"Industry is also extending opportunities 
for higher education to key personnel by 
sending them to summer management train- 
ing courses that the universities provide. 

"The efforts which managements across 
Canada are putting into in-plant training 
and development of personnel is, in some 
companies, on the level of a university 
training course. An example of this is the 
Staff Training College of the Canadian 
National Railways. More and more com- 
panies are engaging in continuous employee 
development programs such as the Bell 
Telephone Company with its employee 
development plan called A Career for 
Every Man." 

Such plans, Mr. Evans said, were "designed 
to develop the employees from the lowliest 
to the highest during their working lives. 
They help him to exploit his abilities to 
the greatest advantage for himself and the 
company, even going so far, in some cases, 
as to move him out of the company for 
further training in other industries in order 
to develop him." 

This is what industry has done and is 
doing to meet the professional manpower 
crisis, he said. But, at the same time, 
industry is losing good men through inflex- 
ible retirement policies. 

"There is no single answer to the problem 
of producing professional manpower," Mr. 
Evans stated. There was no doubt that 
the shortage was affecting growth. 

"Some companies have had to cut back 
plans for production and expansion as a 
result of the technical manpower shortage. 
Research and development have been cur- 
tailed. Some businesses fear that there 
will be a future shortage of executives. 

"What can we do to alleviate the situation 
in view of the survey recently conducted 
by the Department of Labour in Ottawa, 
which predicts, for example, that there will 
be need for an increase of 11.4 per cent a 
year in the number of engineers over the 
next few years, ranging from 6.5 per cent 
for mining engineers to 17.4 per cent for 
aeronautical engineers? 

"What can we do to solve the problem 
in view of the 50-per-cent increase in 
requirements for professional people over 
the next 10 years; or some 200,000 people in 
actual numbers? 



824 



"The responsibility, of course, is not 
wholly ours. Government, too, has a major 
role to play in this time of crisis. But," 
Mr. Evans said, "we can help." 

He suggested five ways in which industry 
could help: 

1. By learning as accurately as we can 
what our present needs are, and what our 
requirements are likely to be. 

2. By finding out what we have in the 
way of potential manpower and through 
helping to train technicians we can free 
professional manpower for jobs of greater 
importance in which their training will be 
used to greatest advantage. 



3. By creating a climate of opinion, in 
which the wisdom of choosing a completed 
education will grow among high school 
students, many of whom in their haste to 
get out of school cannot appreciate the 
need for further education. 

4. By co-operating on a neighbourhood 
basis, especially in smaller communities and 
also within industries, by sharing men and 
know-how. 

5. By making fuller use of our woman- 
power. 

Concluding his talk, Mr. Evans said that 
while the problem of supplying professional 
manpower in Canada was a major one, he 
was confident it would be overcome. 



Canada's Position in the World of Professional Manpower 
Dr. F. T. Rosser, Vice-President (Administration), National Research Council 



This is a discussion of the position of 
Canada, relative to that of other countries 
in the world as regards the supply and 
development of professional manpower, so 
first, "let us be clear about what we mean 
by professional manpower," said Dr. Rosser. 

"Most of us are average individuals, with 
no two exactly equal in our abilities. There 
are a few who, unfortunately, are handi- 
capped in various ways. Much is done in 
Canada to help these cope with the prob- 
lems of living. 

"Then, there is a small group of intel- 
lectually gifted people, among whom the 
very best may possess real genius. It is 
from these clever people of above-average 
intelligence that our scientists, engineers, 
doctors, lawyers, economists, clergymen, 
business leaders, teachers and other pro- 
fessionals must be drawn. 

"Mental superiority has no boundaries 
and is not limited to wealth or privilege. 
It is well known that gifted children may 
be born into any home, from the lowliest 
to the most lavish. Our professional man- 
power, therefore, is drawn from all kinds 
of homes and is made up of those gifted 
people who have received specialized train- 
ing in either the arts or sciences and are 
actively practising the profession for which 
they are qualified. Now we can move on 
to consider first, the supply; and second, 
the development of professional manpower 
in Canada as related to other countries... 

"In the field of education Canada has, 
for nearly a century, been among the world 
leaders by providing free education for all 
children up to the university level. For 
the most part our schools have been geared 
to meet the needs of the average child, 



and it is only recently that serious attention 
has been given to the importance of provid- 
ing special educational facilities for the 
gifted children. We do need to give greater 
attention to early recognition of superior 
children and to the improvement of educa- 
tional programs for them in both public 
and high schools. It is, however, at the 
highest educational level that a crisis is 
fast approaching. 

"Without immediate expansion of facili- 
ties, there is very grave danger that in 
the near future our universities may not be 
able to handle all the students qualified 
for a university education and desirous of 
training for a professional career. If such 
a situation were allowed to develop we 
would certainly be in an unfavourable posi- 
tion as compared to other countries. There 
is every indication, however, that the public 
has been awakened to the need, and that 
steps are being taken to prevent Canada 
from falling behind . . . 

"We are, of course, short of scientists and 
engineers because of the enormous indus- 
trial development that has taken place in 
Canada since the end of World War II and 
for which large numbers of engineers and 
scientists are required. 

"Whenever full use is made of the 
resource of gifted people the number in 
one group can be increased only at the 
expense of other groups. A changing society 
demands such constant and continual adjust- 
ments. . . If the percentage of scientists and 
engineers in our society must be increased 
still further it must be accomplished by a 
relative decrease in the numbers in other 
professions. Some countries have made 
engineering so attractive that religious 



825 



leadership, for example, has almost been 
eliminated, a result that Canadians would 
not fancy. 

"In connection with our scientific man- 
power shortage, alarming comparisons are 
sometimes made between the number of 
engineers being produced in Canada and 
in other countries. Such comparisons can 
be very misleading. . . In Canada, the term 
'engineer' is applied almost exclusively to 
those who have obtained an engineering 
degree from a university. This is not so 
in Europe... Boys (there) wishing to 
become ordinary engineers leave school 
at 15 or 16 and become apprentices in 
industry. 

"A few years of practical training is fol- 
lowed by about three years in a technical 
school. When such a course is completed 
a man may be given an engineering diploma 
and have the right to call himself an 
engineer. There is nothing comparable to 
this in the Canadian educational system . . . 
Canada graduates 1,350 engineers per annum. 
Some other country of comparable size may 
produce 3,000 engineers per annum but it 
is meaningless to compare them unless the 
educational standards of the two countries 
are evaluated. . . 

"The most serious problem concerning the 
future of science and engineering in Canada 
is the shortage, in both the secondary 
schools and the universities, of well-qualified 
teachers . . . Industry in particular should 
insist that a reasonable number of graduates 
be diverted to the teaching profession, 
otherwise, the supply of professional engi- 
neers and scientists could be dried up at 
the source. 

"...In Canada more could be done to 
acquaint science teachers with the latest 
scientific and industrial developments by 
expanding the number of vacation courses. 
Again, industry could help by providing 
financial assistance to both universities and 
teachers, thus encouraging universities to 
establish summer institutes and the teachers 
to attend them. 

"The co-operation between universities, 
industry and research institutes in Canada 



is well ahead of that in many other coun- 
tries but still more could be done to make 
full use of the abilities of outstanding 
research people. 

"Industries could sponsor more funda- 
mental research work at the universities so 
long as such sponsorship did not interfere 
with the professional freedom of the univer- 
sity professor or the research worker. They 
could also help by providing funds to endow 
special chairs or to purchase expensive 
apparatus, and by making available for 
teaching purposes plant facilities not in 
constant use. 

"Both government and industrial labora- 
tories might help by loaning outstanding 
men in specialized fields to lecture or direct 
research projects for the universities. 

"... Workers at all levels in industry 
should be encouraged when they are young 
to improve their training and so to fit 
themselves for work at higher levels. This 
should be done particularly in the engineer- 
ing field. 

"In many other countries much greater 
use is made of women in all fields of science, 
medicine and engineering... In thinking 
that engineering is socially less creditable 
and less suited to women than other careers, 
perhaps we are neglecting a potential supply 
of good engineers that would help to solve 
the shortage. (Less than 1 per cent of 
the engineering force in Canada and the 
United Kingdom is female.) We have a 
reserve of trained women above the age 
of 40 whose children have grown up and 
whose housekeeping duties are light. It is 
possible that much greater use could be 
made of them in laboratories and teaching. 

"The crisis brought about by the shortage 
of scientists and engineers in Canada is 
very similar to that of other countries. In 
order to maintain ourselves on a par with 
others we must recognize our weaknesses 
and take quick action to overcome them . . . 

"By far the most important (action neces- 
sary) is to give our teachers a higher stand- 
ing in the community in keeping with their 
real worth, since, in this respect, we are 
already far behind as compared with many 
other countries." 



Is a University Degree Important? 
Dean Geoffrey C. Andrew, Deputy To the President, University of British Columbia 



The roles played in Canadian life by men 
and women in professional fields other than 
technical, such as the arts and humanities, 
social sciences and other related professions, 
are the subjects of this broadcast. 

"As a university teacher, I have frequently 
young men and women come to me to 



discuss their programs of study and their 
future aims when they are not sure in their 
own minds that their interests coincide 
exactly with established professional studies. 
They may be preparing for a university 
program leading to engineering, law, or 
medicine. They are interested, perhaps, in 



826 



some aspect of the practice, but they may 
also be very much interested in research or 
administration or politics, or in interpreting 
the findings of these professions to the 
public at large. They want, in short, a 
career that is not entirely professional 
practice. 

"Sometimes it would appear that the 
answer is that they should start with pro- 
fessional practice, and branch out into 
other aspects of their interests as time and 
opportunity afford . . . There is in a free 
society and a free economy such as ours a 
very considerable freedom to move around 
within related kinds of work, and this 
makes possible the use of a general educa- 
tion in a variety of fields of activity. 

"The general education must not, of 
course, be so general that it does not add 
up to any body of knowledge, and the 
person who pursues this kind of education 
has to be willing to take a chance of finding 
the job to fit his particular qualifications." 

Three examples illustrate the dean's 
meaning. A Minister of the Crown studied 
history and played a lot of baseball at 
college. He became a university professor, 
then entered the Civil Service, and then 
became a Cabinet minister; another trained 
in law and economics, became a university 
professor of social sciences before becoming 
president of a large public utility; and still 
another had a satisfying career in newspaper 
work, teaching and politics, all based on a 
general arts education in the social sciences. 

"These people had in common a demon- 
strated interest in human and social rela- 
tionships . . . There are many satisfying 
careers to be carved out, based on the 
liberal arts program at the university. 

"My own tendency as a university teacher 
is to advise young people to find out what 
gives them most satisfaction in their studies, 
to find out what they do best at, to pursue 
those studies, and then and only then find 
out how they make a living at what they 
like to do. This advice will lead a great 
many people into a clearly defined profes- 
sional field, technical or otherwise . . . 

"They still have to prove that their skills 
are a marketable commodity, and as a 
consequence they are likely to be a little 
later rinding their niche in life than those 
who have worked for a straight professional 
ticket. Most frequently people with such 
qualifications gravitate for a time into one 
or other of what might be called the inter- 
pretative - professions — those that I have 
referred to in my case histories — teaching 
in the university or high school, working 
on a newspaper, or in radio or television, 
in the Civil Service, politics, or other 



aspects of public affairs, or business and 
industry, on the human or public relations 
side. 

"One reason why universities have been 
slow to develop schools of journalism or 
schools of communication, or- indeed many 
applied fields of humanistic and social 
scientific studies, is because there is no 
general agreement on what kind of academic 
training best leads to a career within these 
interpretive professions. Both the require- 
ments and the qualifications are very 
various. 

"A good newspaper reporter or a good 
politician, or for that matter a good high 
school teacher, should know something of 
history, economics, philosophy and litera- 
ture. He should be able to express himself 
accurately, clearly, and if possible, colour- 
fully. He should in addition have some 
special field of interest. The rest he can 
learn on the job. What I call the interpre- 
tive professions are to a considerable extent 
interchangeable. They are also in a very 
real sense the group that binds society 
together, that interprets each to other — 
they are, in fact, our social cement. 

"Today there are very strong social 
influences tending to make young people 
feel that they should have decided on their 
profession by the time they come to univer- 
sity, and the profession should be one 
clearly recognized because they cannot 
afford to 'shop around' — as they say — during 
the process of their university career. This 
point seems to me essentially anti-educa- 
tional. A certain amount of shopping 
around and a good deal of self-discovery 
is an essential prerequisite to an educa- 
tion... 

"There are, in short, lots of opportunities 
in the gaps between the professions for 
those who want to focus their education on 
their own personal intellectual curiosity, 
and their own sense of social need. It's a 
commonplace to observe today that we are 
living in an age of great technological 
change. It is less frequently noted that we 
are also living in an age where social and. 
human implications of technological change 
are equally revolutionary. 

"This year the federal Government has 
set up a Canada Council for the encourage- 
ment of the Arts, Letters, Humanities and 
Social Sciences, and it is expected that as 
a result of this move there will be more 
money available in the form of scholarships, 
loans and grants, to encourage young people 
to risk a career in these areas, and also to 
provide them with some minimal support 
such as has been provided to young scien- 
tists by the National Research Council 
Awards. 



827 



"Quite apart from the encouragement of 
creative and artistic activity there is at the 
present time an urgent need for more 
people to devote themselves to study about 
the social and human implications of indus- 
trial change, the social and human implica- 
tions of modern systems of communication, 
and the social and human implication of 
the shrinking world society. These areas 
of study are still too new to be regarded 
as professional studies, though some of the 
established professions are expanding their 
offerings to try to embrace some of the 
more urgent aspects of these studies. 



"Our young people, as anyone who is 
teaching in the university will be glad to 
corroborate, are still as willing to accept 
the challenge to explore new areas of 
interest and activity as ever they were, 
provided society at large and the coun- 
sellors in schools in particular do not 
impress on them the need to make up 
their minds about their future professional 
activity before they have had a chance to 
explore these new areas which have not yet 
become professionalized. To many of our 
young people the best career advice we can 
possibly give is: Don't choose a profession, 
but follow your interest and find your 
profession." 



Vocational Guidance is the Key to More Professional Manpower 
Prof. M. D. Parmenter, Director, Guidance Centre, Ontario College of Education 



"Vocational guidance is concerned with 
achieving a reasonable fit between indi- 
viduals and occupations, and so with cutting 
down on the tremendous waste which ensues 
when individuals select unsuitable career 
goals, pass up opportunities for the type 
of training they should obtain, in terms of 
their academic intelligence, special aptitudes 
and basic interests, and land in occupations 
for which they are ill-suited," said Prof. 
Parmenter. 

"With some understanding of himself, of 
occupations and their requirements, and of 
opportunities for training, a student is in 
a better position to do, with his parents, 
a better job of career planning than would 
otherwise have been the case," he added. 
"With such understandings there is less 
likelihood of the boy who, by virtue of his 
special pattern of talents, could probably 
become a competent geologist becoming 
instead a street car conductor." 

The most important and most promising 
source of supply of professional and tech- 
nical workers, Prof. Parmenter said, is the 
young people who are now in elementary 
and secondary schools and universities pre- 
paring to take their places in the world of 
work. In view of the current shortage of 
such workers it was of the utmost impor- 
tance to make the most of this source of 
supply, he pointed out. 

"Gone are the days when we cut down our 
forest trees without regard for waste and 
future requirements . . . Gone, too, should 
be complacency about the boy with the 
necessary talents to become, with training, 
a scientist, a physician, a teacher, who 
drops out of school and enters some occupa- 
tion where his special gifts will not find 
expression. 



"This problem of selecting a suitable 
occupation, planning towards it, preparing 
for it, entering upon it, and making pro- 
gress in it, is something with which young 
people usually need considerable assistance. 
To render some of the assistance needed, 
programs of guidance services have been set 
up in most secondary schools, and to some 
extent in elementary schools and other edu- 
cational institutions. 

"Through such programs we try to do 
many important things. First of all, we try 
to help the student, his parents and his 
teachers to a better understanding of the 
student's strengths and weaknesses. Such 
an understanding is essential as a first step 
in career planning. To aid in this con- 
nection, schools now obtain over the 
years detailed information concerning each 
student — information about his hobbies, 
vocational ambitions, spare-time jobs held, 
study habits, academic intelligence level, 
special aptitudes, temperament, direction 
and strength of his interests, and so on. 

"Student information forms, psychological 
tests, interest inventories and many other 
special tools are used to bring in such 
helpful data," continued Prof. Parmenter. 
"Information obtained through the use of 
these tools is recorded in systematic fashion 
on the student's cumulative record card or 
folder. On these same cards or folders, 
grades obtained on school subject examina- 
tions are accumulated and a record is kept • 
of significant behaviour observed, or per- 
tinent data assembled, through individual 
interviews with students and parents." 



828 



This procedure, the speaker said, "helps 
in spotting those students who seem to 
possess potentialities which, if properly- 
developed, should lead to success in the 
professional and technical area". Individual 
interviews, special group work and other 
methods are used to help and encourage 
students to take stock of themselves and 
to discover their personal strengths and 
weaknesses. 

The many devices used in this connection, 
the speaker said, include : classes in occupa- 
tions and careers; planned use of occupa- 
tional information files, including a number 
of "excellent monographs" on occupations 
published by the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour, and 
117 separate monographs issued by the 
Guidance Centre, Ontario College of Edu- 
cation; films and filmstrips on occupations, 
which are becoming more plentiful, some 
being produced for and circulated to schools 
by professional associations, and some being 
produced by, and obtainable from, the 
National Film Board. Prof. Parmenter also 
mentioned "career days" held at schools, 
which are occasions on which special 
speakers address groups of students on 
particular occupations; and visits to indus- 
tries. 

In enumerating a number of rather im- 
portant points which "should be kept in 
mind in connection with this whole process 
of educational and vocational planning," 
Prof. Parmenter mentioned, first, that in 
our democracy the individual, with some 
qualifications, has the right to make his 



own decision about a career, although 
guidance workers could help him to make 
up his mind; second, parents shared with 
guidance workers and teachers the duty of 
helping each student to a "better under- 
standing of his strengths and weaknesses" 
and of the occupational world; and, third, 
that planning for a career includes planning 
education. 

"Sound, adequate training is necessary for 
most occupations and certainly for those in 
the professional and technical area," the 
speaker continued. "This matter of adequate 
training, particularly for the gifted student, 
is causing much concern these days. One 
thing is certain, however, namely that an 
educational program, no matter how set up 
on paper, can be only as good as the 
teachers who take part in it. This means 
that we must do everything possible to 
increase our supply of able teachers in 
mathematics, science, languages and other 
subjects. And we must try to retain as 
teachers those able individuals who have 
been quite understandably leaving teaching 
during recent years to accept more lucra- 
tive positions in industry. 

"Finally," he said, "we should keep in 
mind that many, many students are gifted 
in one way or another. Present emphasis 
on the need for engineers and scientists, and 
on the importance of mathematics and 
science in our modern world, should not 
blind us to the genuine need which also 
exists for those educated chiefly through 
the humanities." 



The Importance of Scientists in the Development of Canada 

Dr. O. M. Solandt, Vice-President in the Research and Development Department, CNR 



In concluding the series on the role of 
the scientist, engineer and technician in 
modern society, Dr. Solandt said he would 
attempt to give a general picture of the 
structure of the scientific community in 
Canada in the hope of unifying "in your 
minds all the presentations that have gone 
before". 

Dr. Solandt said he would invent some 
definitions which need not be agreed with 
but just accepted for the purpose of the 
discussion. 

"The first is that science is a body of 
knowledge which contains the accumulated 
and organized results of man's observations 
of, and thinking about, the physical world. 
The second is that a scientist is anyone 
whose days are mainly occupied in making 
direct use of a part of this body of knowl- 



edge. This is obviously an unconventional 
definition of a scientist, but I think that it 
results in a more complete picture of the 
role of science in the modern world than 
does the more usual definition. Using these 
definitions of science and scientists, we find 
scientists scattered in all sorts of places in 
a modern nation. It is interesting to think 
of them all as the scientific community and 
to study the structure of this community 
and its relationship to the rest of society." 

Dr. Solandt noted from the point of view 
of history and of social organization the 
foundation of science lay in the univer- 
sities. 

"At one time they were the sole reposi- 
tories of the knowledge that goes to make 
up science. In them is done a great deal 



829 



of the research that is continually expand- 
ing the boundaries of scientific knowledge, 
and their professors pass on both the old 
and the new knowledge to the students 
who will use it during their working lives. 

"However, from the point of view of 
the individual boy or girl who seeks a 
career in science, the first — and often the 
most important — member of the scientific 
community is the public or high school 
teacher who first creates for them an 
interest in science. In addition, industry is 
beginning to challenge the universities both 
as a repository of scientific knowledge, and 
as the scene of new scientific discoveries; 
in fact, nowadays many well-trained scien- 
tists never do attend a university. None- 
theless it is still correct to say that the 
scientific community has its roots in the 
universities. 

"Scientists can be classified into three 
groups — teachers, applied scientists and pure 
research scientists. Strictly speaking, teachers 
should be regarded as applied scientists, 
but they are so important that they deserve 
a special classification. Without adequate 
teaching of science in the high schools, the 
scientific community could wither and die, 
and without a few inspired and inspiring 
teachers of science in the high schools, we 
would fail to attract to a scientific career 
a sufficient proportion of first-rate minds. 
Such a failure would threaten the con- 
tinued development of our highly mechan- 
ized civilization. 

"To follow the high school teachers we 
must have in our universities, as professors 
of science, some of our very best scientists. 
One essential characteristic of science is 
that it is a living and growing entity. The 
student of science must early learn that 
his student days will never end. He must 
come to welcome the thought that he will 
never achieve complete mastery of his 
subject. 

"In addition, some of the best scientists 
in each generation must be encouraged to 
devote their lives to the task of adding to 
man's store of fundamental scientific knowl- 
edge. The urge to explore new avenues of 
investigation, to perform new experiments 
and to peer more deeply into the workings 
of the physical world is infectious, and can 
be transmitted from generation to genera- 
tion. Hence the need to have good research 
work going on in universities. It is essential, 
not only as a training ground for a new 
generation of research workers, but also 
to give to all the scientists, including even 
the most practical engineers, some apprecia- 
tion of the dynamic and ever-changing 
nature of their subject. 



"In recent years there has been a ten- 
dency for pure research to migrate away 
from the universities to government and 
industrial laboratories where pay and work- 
ing conditions are better. There is a real 
danger of this movement going too far. 
We must retain a proportion of our very 
best fundamental research workers in our 
universities." 

A dual role was played by university 
professors, Dr. Solandt pointed out. "He is 
both a teacher and a fundamental research 
worker." 

Research done by the professors, simi- 
larly, had a dual significance, he said, 
because it not only formed an essential 
background for their teaching, but per- 
. formed an essential part of the nation's 
contribution to the advancement of scien- 
tific knowledge. 

In earlier days, Dr. Solandt said, Canada 
imported "most of its pure and applied 
research and most of its engineering". But 
now, he said, Canada was emerging as a 
full-fledged and independent industrial 
nation and was rapidly developing a self- 
sufficient scientific community of its own. 
"This community must be strong and well- 
balanced if it is to give adequate support 
to a rapidly growing economy and to the 
needs of defence." 

All parts of such a community must grow 
in proper proportion, Dr. Solandt said, in 
order for it to be "healthy and effective". 

"Consequently," he said, "in our pre- 
occupation with the teaching of science, 
and with the application of science in 
industry, we must not lose sight of the 
essential role of this fundamental research 
which is done partly in the universities and 
increasingly in government establishments 
and in industry. Spectacularly new fields 
of industrial activity such as electronics 
and nuclear power have come, not from 
the work of applied science, but entirely 
from the results of the most academic 
scientific research, done mainly in univer- 
sities." 

Some argued, Dr. Solandt recalled, that 
in a country such as Canada fundamental 
research was a luxury, and all energies 
should be directed towards applied research. 
"I am sure that this reasoning is wrong. 
Experience all over the world has shown 
that only a very small proportion of the 
population have the genius to do important 
and creative fundamental research work. 
The people with these special qualities seem 
to occur with about the same frequency in 
different nations; therefore, it is reasonable 
to believe that we in Canada have our fair 
share of geniuses such as Einstein. If this 
is true, then it is part of Canada's respon- 
sibility to mankind to see that these 



830 



geniuses have an opportunity to develop, 
and to make discoveries of importance. 

"The cost of providing adequate facilities 
for fundamental research, to all those in 
any country who are really qualified to 
become independent fundamental research 
workers, is surprisingly small, and is one 
that will pay larger dividends than almost 
any other national expenditure. I think our 
real problem in fundamental research is to 
see that we give adequate support to those 
who are qualified by heredity and training 
to do it, and avoid supporting in fundamen- 
tal research a great many people whose 
abilities would be far better used in applied 
research or in engineering. This does not 
mean, of course, that only geniuses can do 
fundamental research; in any exploration 
there is a great deal of work to be done 
clearing trails and bridging rivers, and so 
it is in fundamental research. Many first- 
class research workers can be usefully 
occupied in following up and expanding the 
discoveries of the explorers, but there are 
always only a small number of real 
pioneers." 

The difference between fundamental and 
applied research Dr. Solandt pointed out, 
"was never very sharp and is becoming 
less and less well defined". He said the 
motives of the research worker probably 
gave the clearest distinction. 

"The fundamental research worker is 
seeking new knowledge without thought of 
application. He is often followed by one 
(who is coming to be called a basic research 
worker) who is exploring defined areas to 
find applications for new knowledge, or 
alternatively to seek new knowledge within 
a defined field such as electronics. After 
him comes the applied research worker who 
seeks to apply new knowledge to the solu- 
tion of specific industrial problems or to 
the design of a specific bit of equipment. 
Finally come the great body of applied 
scientists who use their scientific knowledge 
for purposes other than teaching and 
research. This includes, for example, medical 
doctors, doctors, chemists, physicists, mathe- 
maticians, geologists, biologists and — most 
of all — the engineers. These are the ones 
who apply the knowledge and experience 
of the whole scientific community to the 
solution of the practical every-day problems 
of building and managing our modern indus- 
trial society." 

Applied scientists in Canada, Dr. Solandt 
said, "are needed not only to keep our 
industrial economy abreast of the changes 
that result from scientific discoveries, but 
also to cope with the expanding needs of a 
rapidly growing country. 



"Because of the increasing demand for the 
services of engineers, Canada has become 
increasingly aware of the growing shortage 
of engineers. This shortage is as much due 
to a rapidly increasing demand as to a 
shortage of supply. The demand arises not 
only from our increasing population and the 
rapidly expanding exploitation of our natural 
resources, but also from the vastly increas- 
ing complexity of modern industry. A few 
years ago Canada had no highly complex 
industries such as the aircraft industry, 
electronics and nuclear engineering." 

Dr. Solandt drew attention to a "striking 
example" from the aircraft industry showing 
"both the change in requirement for skilled 
engineering in a single industry and of the 
change in the nature of industry. 

"The American P-51 fighter was brought 
to its first flight in 1940 with approximately 
42,000 man-hours of engineering. The 
XP-86, the forerunner of the Sabre, flew 
in 1947 after 620,000 man-hours of engineer- 
ing. The YF-100, which can be regarded as 
a supersonic successor to the Sabre, first 
flew in 1953 after 1,440,000 man-hours of 
engineering. This is a staggering increase 
in the engineering effort required to produce 
a series of aircraft, all of which have a 
similar purpose and each of which was of 
similar standard of performance in relation 
to its contemporaries. The same process is 
occurring throughout industryand will con- 
tinue and accelerate. ' 

"Thus, atomic power plants will require 
design teams many times the size of those 
used for steam or hydro plants. New elec- 
tronic devices will be vastly more complex 
than the ones that they replace, and so on." 

A factor adding to the shortage of 
engineers, Dr. Solandt said, was the con- 
tinual invasion of new fields by scientists 
and engineers. "Engineers, in particular, are 
now frequently appearing in top manage- 
ment jobs. It is idle to suggest that these 
people should be kept at strictly engineer- 
ing work. They are superior executives 
in technical industries because of their 
engineering training and we cannot afford 
anything but the best in top management. 
Consequently, as Canada grows the supply 
of engineers must grow or the pattern of 
our social evolution will be seriously 
altered." 

Dr. Solandt said he had described the 
scientific community "in a general way as 
consisting of high school and university 
teachers, pure and applied research workers 
and applied scientists and engineers of a 
variety of kinds". He said another way of 
looking at the scientific community which 
would help in understanding its structure 
was to consider how the community was 



831 



built up within an individual industry. He 
cited the aircraft industry. 

"At the basis of the scientific success of 
the Canadian aircraft industry lie the public 
and high school teachers who first attracted 
competent people into a career in science 
and gave them their early education. Fol- 
lowing them are the university teachers and 
research workers who have given the 
students advanced knowledge and, above 
all, have inspired them to continue learning 
and exploring throughout their lives. 

"These university research workers also 
form the basis of the scientific research 
organization that underlies the aircraft 
industry. They work on general principles 
without thought of immediate application. 
Next come the basic research workers who, 
in Canada, are mainly in the National 
Research Council and the Defence Research 
Board ; they attempt to apply new scientific 
knowledge to the solution of general rather 
than specific aeronautical engineering prob- 
lems. 

"Finally, in the aircraft companies them- 
selves are the applied research workers and 
the design and production engineers who 
seek to combine all this knowledge with 
industrial know-how to meet the practical 
needs of the RCAF and of the commercial 
airlines." 

Dr. Solandt said he had given emphasis 
to the branches of the scientific community 
that spread into the manufacturing industry 
but it was "obvious that there are equally 
important branches spreading into almost 
every part of our national life. 



"Scientists and engineers play an essential 
role in agriculture, mining, forestry and 
fisheries, transportation and other public 
utilities. The whole development of our 
natural resources and primary industries 
depends upon their work. On reflection, it 
is evident that the work of the scientist 
pervades every aspect of our economic life, 
and has a profound effect on the health and 
material well-being of every Canadian. 

"Members of the community will be 
found playing essential roles, not only in 
research for defence and in the defence 
industry that produces our weapons, but 
also in the armed forces themselves. With 
the increasing complexity of weapons and 
the accelerated pace of development of 
new weapons systems, it will require our 
very best efforts in all these fields just 
to keep abreast of the armament of poten- 
tial aggressors." 

Dr. Solandt said he hoped that his outline 
of the structure of the scientific community 
in Canada had given additional understand- 
ing of the place of science in the modern 
community. In conclusion, he added a word 
of warning: 

"In our enthusiasm to increase the num- 
ber of scientists and engineers that are 
trained in our universities, we must not 
weaken or destroy any of the other similar 
professional communities that are so essen- 
tial to the welfare of the nation. We must 
try to foster a balanced and healthy growth, 
not only within the scientific community 
but throughout the nation as a whole." 



An application by members of the 
Association of Professional Engineers of 
Saskatchewan to be excluded from the 
Saskatchewan Civil Service Association, 
which had been their certified bargaining 
agent for a number of years, was recently 
granted by the Labour Relations Board of 
Saskatchewan. Some 35 engineers were 
affected. 

Some of the "compelling considerations 
that led the majority of the Board to 
that conclusion" were given in the Board's 
report in part as follows: 

The applicants were all duly enrolled 
members of the Association of Professional 
Engineers of Saskatchewan and of the 
Dominion Council of Engineers ; they repre- 
sented and included all the professional 
engineers in the certified unit; and they 
constituted a "clearly distinguishable 
'fringe' group of employees", with special 
skill and training, and performing work 
of a distinctive character which gave them 



a special interest separate from the main 
body of employees in the bargaining unit. 

Professional engineers were excluded from 
the operations of the Trade Union Acts of 
every other province in Canada except 
one, and out of about 25,000 registered 
professional engineers in the country these 
35 were the only ones included in any 
Trade Union Act. 

Other professional engineers in the service 
of the same employer, such as those in 
one of the crown corporations, were 
excluded from the unions in their respec- 
tive departments or plants. 

Professional engineers, rightly or wrongly, 
were in general strongly opposed to belong- 
ing to unions, and with the present short- 
age of engineers this hampered the employer 
in securing competent engineers. 

The exclusion of a few professional 
engineers would not disturb the appro- 
priateness of the bargaining unit or 
adversely affect the union which had been 
certified as the bargaining agent. 



832 



Civilian Rehabilitation 



U.S. Committee on Handicapped 

President's Committee on Employment of the Physically Handicapped 
in report of accomplishments of past ten years, notes two encouraging 
trends and urges continuation of vigorous program of public education 



The President's Committee on Employ- 
ment of the Physically Handicapped, 
designed to focus attention in the United 
States on the employability of persons with 
serious disabilities and to elicit the support 
of leaders of business, government and 
industry in a year-round campaign, has 
issued a report on its accomplishments dur- 
ing the past ten years. 

At a meeting in Washington in late May, 
attended by representatives from the 48 
states and U.S. territories, the report was 
formally presented to President Eisen- 
hower by Major-Gen. Melvin J. Maas, 
Chairman of the Committee. Observers 
from Canada were present at the meeting. 

Highlights of the report were: 

1. An increasing number of employers in 
the United States are becoming aware of 
the abilities of handicapped workers and 
each year are hiring more men and women 
with disabilities. 

2. Most able-bodied workers have over- 
come outmoded prejudices and are accept- 
ing handicapped workers as fellow members 
of the labour force. 

3. A vigorous program of public education 
on behalf of hiring the handicapped must 
be continued. 

The report also stated that many major 
industries were becoming more liberal in 
their employment practices, eliminating 
overly rigid requirements of pre-employ- 
ment medical examinations and that at all 
levels of government there was increasing 
co-operation. 

The report indicated that Governor's 
committees on employment of the handi- 
capped, as well as several hundred Mayor's 
and community committees, were co-operat- 
ing in the national campaign. The prime 
objective in the year ahead is to organize 
additional community committees. 

During the two-day session, the Com- 
mittee heard speakers representing govern- 
ment, industry, organized labour, and 
voluntary agencies. They examined the 
problem of placing the handicapped in 
suitable employment, described successful 
experiments, and discussed what should be 
done to overcome the problem common to 
all: the many employers who have yet to 



91463—4 



learn that a properly-placed handicapped 
person can equal or better the work record 
of a so-called normal person. 

Outstanding among the speeches was that 
of Peter J. Wacks of the Chance-Vought 
Co., Dallas, Texas, who described the steps 
his company had taken to overcome some 
of the basic problems in hiring seriously 
disabled persons. Of a work force of 18,000,. 
his company employs 2,270 who are seriously 
handicapped. 

Mr. Wacks made it clear that it was 
worth the effort and expense to a firm in 
a highly competitive field — aircraft manu- 
facture — to have a positive program for 
integrating large numbers of handicapped 
men and women into its work force. 

Chance-Vought has made special provi- 
sions so that their physical handicaps will 
not interfere with their productivity. For 
325 employees with poor mobility, six of 
whom are double leg amputees, the com- 
pany has reserved parking space close to 
the plant entrance and provides bus trans- 
portation to their places of work. For those 
with weakened heart conditions, the com- 
pany provides sitting-down jobs — bench or 
office jobs — issues them with special elevator 
passes and permits them to use the plant 
hospital's beds for resting during the lunch 
hour. 

A special rest room, with a private toilet, 
has been set up for wheel chair cases. 
Diabetic employees, of whom there are 28, 
are provided with insulin and shin guards, 
and are put on jobs where they are least 
likely to receive bruises, so dangerous to the 
diabetic. 

For amputees, the company, when neces- 
sary, relocates foot pedals and hand con- 
trols on machinery. For the eight totally- 
deaf employees, to whom vehicular traffic 
is a hazard, the company has found jobs 
away from the aisles. 

For seven years Chance-Vought has em- 
ployed nine persons with double leg ampu- 
tations on cutting and grinding jobs; 12 
epileptics hold down time-keeping jobs. 

The unions in the plant have agreed 
to waive the seniority provisions in collec- 
tive agreements for the seriously handi- 
capped workers in times of layoff. 

833 



With the Women's Bureau 



Why Married Women Work 



National Council of Women in Great Britain finds through survey of 
members that reason married women go out to work is "overwhelmingly" 
economic. Council to seek equal pay for women formed in New Zealand 



The motive that induces married women 
fco go out to work is "overwhelmingly 
economic," a recent survey in Britain dis- 
closed, according to Women in Council, 
publication of the National Council of 
Women of Great Britain, April 1957 issue. 

The findings noted in the magazine, 
copies of which are available from 36 
Sloane Street, London, S.W. 1, were based 
on a questionnaire distributed to all local 
branches of the Council. 

The rising cost of living, higher standards 
expected in the home and higher rents were 
all mentioned as factors contributing to the 
necessity for women to go to work. 

Many women expressed satisfaction at 
having some degree of economic independ- 
ence. Having earned their own money 
before marriage, they do not wish to depend 
upon their husbands for every item of 
personal expenditure. 

A few of the women replying to the 
questionnaire, mostly in the professional 
classes, are motivated by a wish to use 
their talents and training, some for the 
good of the community, others for economic 
reasons. 

Regarding the social effects of the em- 
ployment of married women, says the report, 
no case was made that the mere fact of 
a woman working is detrimental to home 
and family. 

Opinion overwhelmingly endorsed the 
proposition that there has been no increase 
in juvenile delinquency as a result of 
women taking employment outside their 
homes. Most replies express concern as to 
the effects of deprivation of a mother's 
care for very young children. 

The general opinion was that except in 
cases of absolute necessity, mothers of 
children under three years of age should 
take only part-time work. In relation to 
older children, the problems that arise 
are those that occur when the mother 
returns from work after school hours, leav- 
ing children for a period without supervision. 

The report suggests two possibilities for 
offsetting the disadvantage created when 
the mother is outside the home: 

1. Planned supervision of school children 
after school hours and during school 
holidays ; 



2. Greater effort on the part of industry 
to adjust the hours of work for wage-earning 
mothers to correspond to the hours children 
are in school. 



Equal pay and equal opportunity with 
men for the women of New Zealand will 
be sought by the newly-organized Council 
For Equal Pay And Opportunity, con- 
stituted April 10, 1957. 

Council membership is open to all 
organizations subscribing to the objects of 
the Council. Some 20 organizations, includ- 
ing several trade unions, have shown 
interest in the project to date. 

The Council will further its objective 
through study of problems related to equal 
pay and opportunity in New Zealand and 
abroad. 

It is explicitly stated that the Council 
does not intend to control the activities 
of member organizations and that member- 
ship does not preclude any organization 
from undertaking any activities in its own 

name. 

* * * 

Equal pay for equal work for both men 
and women must prevail throughout West 
Germany, the German Federal Labour 
Court in Kassel recently ruled. 

The ruling carried the provision that 
retroactive pay must be given to women 
who have suffered wage discrimination, and 
represents a decisive victory for the German 
Trade Union Federation. 

* * * 

An analysis of women working in plants 
is made in a 14-page article appearing in 
Factory Management And Maintenance for 
February 1957. 

The article quotes the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics as predicting that women 
"will make up over half of the increase in 
our work force in the next decade". 

Why women like to work in industry, 
what they require to make it possible for. 
them to work in plants, and the difference 
in dealing with women are a few of the 
phases considered in the report. 



834 



From the Labour Gazette, July 1907 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Settlement reached in dispute between Montreal longshoremen and group 
of steamship companies. Annual report on labour organization by the 
Department for 1907 showed 1,681 labour groups of all kinds in Canada 



A dispute between longshoremen and 
shipowners in Montreal was the subject 
of investigation by a conciliation board 
appointed under the new Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act in June 1907. The 
report of the board, a description of the 
action taken in the case and of the manner 
in which a settlement was finally reached 
were published in the Labour Gazette for 
July 1907. 

The dispute originated with a demand by 
1,200 men out of a total of 1,600 longshore- 
men employed at the Port of Montreal for 
a wage increase of 5 cents an hour, to bring 
the day rate per hour to 30 cents and the 
night rate to 35 cents. The employees were 
represented by the International Longshore- 
men and Marine Transport Workers of 
America, Local 373. The employers, who 
were represented by the Shipping Federa- 
tion of Canada, comprised 14 steamship 
companies and the Nova Scotia Steel and 
Coal Company. The Canadian Pacific 
Steamship Lines was also involved. 

It was reported in the June issue of the 
Labour Gazette that the men had gone 
on strike on May 13, apparently in ignorance 
of the provisions of the Act which forbade 
such action until certain procedures had 
been complied with. The companies had 
then applied for a conciliation board. In 
the absence of the Deputy Minister, F. A. 
Acland, Secretary of the Department, was 
sent to Montreal to try to bring about a 
settlement. 

Partly as a result of Mr. Acland's efforts, 
the men returned to work on May 21, after 
the Federation had withdrawn its request 
for a conciliation board and had offered 
an immediate increase of 2\ cents an hour. 
The longshoremen then applied for a board 
to conciliate the question of a further 
increase of 2\ cents to bring the total 
increase to the 5 cents an hour they had 
demanded. 

The conciliation board appointed by the 
Minister was under the chairmanship of 
Paul Brushesi, Archbishop of Montreal. 
The board, which submitted its report on 
June 14, recommended — an alternative set- 
tlement having been rejected by the 
parties — that the 2^-cent increase already 
granted by the companies be continued 



for the season, and that a further 2| cents 
be paid as a bonus to all employees who 
engaged to work for the shipping companies 
after July 1, and who continued to do so 
until the close of navigation. 

For the 1908 season the board recom- 
mended that 30 cents an hour be paid for 
day work, and 35 cents for night work; and 
that an agreement to this effect be entered 
into by the parties to be effective until the 
end of the 1908 season. 

The companies agreed to this award but 
the union refused to accept it. The upshot, 
however, was that the companies put the 
board's recommendations into effect and 
the men individually signed agreements 
accepting the arrangement for the rest of 
the 1907 season. 

A report on labour organization in Canada 
in 1907, published in the Labour Gazette 
for July, showed that there were 1,681 
labour organizations of all kinds, of which 
eight were congresses and national associa- 
tions issuing charters, 49 were trades and 
labour councils, 31 were federations of trade 
unions, and 1,593 were trade unions or other 
local associations of employees. 

The main congresses listed were: the 
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, 
with 450 branches consisting of interna- 
tional trade unions and trades councils; the 
National Trades and Labour Congress of 
Canada, with some 28 chartered branches; 
and the Provincial Workmen's Association, 
of Nova Scotia, which had 47 lodges. 

Of the 1,593 local organizations, Ontario 
had 752, Quebec had 256, British Columbia 
175, and Nova Scotia 123. In each of the 
other provinces the locals were numbered 
in tens or fewer. 

In reference to an act passed by the 
General Assembly of Nova Scotia relating 
to the registration of motor vehicles and 
their use of public highways, the Labour 
Gazette said: "The speed limit is fixed at 
one mile in eight minutes in cities, towns 
or villages where the territory contiguous to 
the highway is closely built up, or a rate 
of one mile in five minutes elsewhere in 
cities, towns, and villages. Outside of cities, 
the limit is placed at one mile in four 
minutes." 



91463— 4£ 



835 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



Canada's Worker Delegate Speaks 

Claude Jodoin, elected a Vice-president of 4Cth International Labour 
Conference, outlines Canadian Labour's attitude towards automation 



Canadian Labour's attitude towards auto- 
mation was outlined to the 40th ILO 
General Conference at Geneva by CLC 
President Claude Jodoin, following his elec- 
tion as vice-president representing workers 
of the world body. Mr. Jodoin was also 
appointed workers' member on the Selec- 
tion Committee. 

The Rt. Hon. Harold Edward Holt, 
Minister of Labour and National Service 
of the Commonwealth of Australia, was 
elected president of the Conference, which 
at press time was still in session. 

The conference was opened by the chair- 
man of the ILO Governing Body, Sir Guild- 
haume Myrddin-Evans, who told the Con- 
ference : 

"Ten years ago, in June 1947, I had the 
honour, as Chairman of the Governing 
Body, of opening the first session of the 
International Labour Conference to be held 
in Geneva after the Second World War. It 
does not fall to many of us to open the 
International Labour Conference even once, 
and you will not be surprised therefore if, 
in opening its 40th Session, I feel touched 
and grateful that I should be experiencing 
this honour for the fourth time " 

In his presidential address to the Con- 
ference, Mr. Holt said: 

"... In a world of active commercial 
competition for trade, poor standards in any 
one country weaken the prospects of better 
standards in another. Few nations can 
insulate themselves against what is happen- 
ing in other countries. The work of this 
organization, therefore, can not only benefit 
those countries whose living standards are 
comparatively low or which are still in 
their industrial infancy and now stand on 
the threshold of growth, but can also help 
other more advanced countries, as the 
levels of the lowest in the industrial scale 
are raised, to press on to even higher 
standards of their own " 



In his address, Mr. Jodoin told the Con- 
ference : 

"Our Congress represents over one mil- 
lion Canadian workers and we must of 
necessity be concerned primarily with the 
effects which automation and other tech- 
nological developments will have on the 
well-being of our members. What will 
automation do to jobs? Will employment 
conditions improve? Will the standard of 
living go up? These are the questions 
which must be answered before we can 
properly evaluate the effects of automation. 

"As a trade union congress representing 
the wage earners of our country we cannot 
consider merely the impersonal and over-all 
effects of any new technological trend. The 
short-range effects of such changes on 
specific groups of workers in a given situa- 
tion, their regional and local implications, 
are to us as important as the long-range 
national and international effects . . . 

"Approaching the question of automation 
from this point of view, we in Canada are 
still unable at the present moment to 
arrive at any definite conclusions. After 
all, we are only witnessing the beginning 
of a trend and not its full bloom. From a 
recent study which our research department 
conducted among our affiliated organiza- 
tions, it is safe to conclude that automa- 
tion has not yet hit our membership to 
any appreciable degree, that it has so far 
little or no adverse effect on total em- 
ployment in Canadian industries, although 
there have been some problems of displace- 
ment. We must, of course, remember that 
these changes have taken place during a 
period of unprecedented economic expan- 
sion. I am pretty certain that their effects 
during a period of declining economy would 
have produced an altogether different pic- 
ture. 

"We are, of course, fascinated by the 
almost magic-like aspects of automation 
and the use of atomic energy for peaceful 



836 



purposes and fully share the hopes of man- 
kind for its beneficial potentialities. We 
must, however, at the same time do our 
utmost to protect the legitimate interests 
of those wage earners who will be the first 
to be affected by this newly developing 
trend. Consequently, we are advising our 
affiliated organizations to meet the chal- 
lenge of automation in the following way: 

"Press for higher wages, for a shorter 
hour week, for longer vacations and more 
statutory holidays; demand better pen- 
sions, higher unemployment insurance bene- 
fits, higher old-age security and family 
allowance payments, the guaranteed annual 
wage; request more and better professional 
and technological education and the train- 
ing and retraining of the existing labour 
force. 

"We are also urging our own government 
to follow the right monetary, tax, tariff and 
investment policies. It is our sincere hope 
that it will show the necessary vision and 
courage to implement these recommenda- 
tions. 

"Only by pursuing these policies can we 
ensure that automation and atomic energy 
for peaceful purposes will benefit the popu- 
lations of the world. It would indeed be 
a major tragedy if the great and wonderful 
opportunity pfforded by t^e ^ew tech- 
nological revolution should benefit only the 
few and bring suffering to an important 
sector of the world's producers. 

"In the present transitional stage, when 
automation is still in its infancy in many 
fields, there is also the need for the proper 
collection, correlation and sifting of data 
and information pertaining to the effects of 
automation on our daily lives. The ILO 
can play a vital role here. Unfortunately, 
our own resources, as a trade union organi- 
zation, are too limited to conduct serious 
research in this field. We have, therefore, 
asked our own Government to 'establish a 
national advisory commission on technical 
change and automation through which the 
Government may obtain advice and assist- 
ance from those directly concerned in an 
effort to develop plans for meeting this 
new problem without resulting in disloca- 
tion and unemployment'. 

"In view of the divided jurisdiction in 
the field of industrial relations which pre- 
vails in Canada, it would be advisable 
that this national advisory commission 
which we are proposing should be a joint 
federal-provincial undertaking. We of the 
Canadian labour movement stand ready to 
co-operate with such a commission in every 
way possible. 

"Turning to the activities of the ILO 
during the period of 1956-57, we are par- 
ticularly pleased by the renewed interest 



which the ILO has shown in the field of 
labour-management relations. We fully 
agree with the Director-General that 'auto- 
mation and industrial use of atomic energy 
foreshadow profound changes in labour- 
management relations'. Neither have we 
any quarrel with the statement that the 
'establishment of an atmosphere of con- 
fidence in relations between labour and 
management is perhaps more important 
than ever before'." 

The CLC believes "that freedom of asso- 
ciation, democratically controlled trade 
unions, and an atmosphere of give and 
take, are essential to proper labour-manage- 
ment relations. Free collective bargaining, 
unhampered b}r compulsory government 
arbitration, is the best guarantee for the 
creation of a climate of opinion in which 
industrial peace can prevail." 

Mr. Jodoin welcomed the recent launching 
by the ILO of "a program intended to give 
the workers of the whole world objective 
information on the facts and problems 
which we have to face". He urged the 
Governing Body to do everj^thing within 
its power to enable the ILO not only to 
continue but also to intensify its activities 
in the field of workers' education. 

Speaking on human rights, which he said 
was of particular interest to the Canadian 
labour movement, the CLC President said: 
"To us, forced labour, slave camps, con- 
centration camps, and all other forms of 
forceful extraction of labour, are incom- 
patible with the normal functions of human 
existence." 

Turning to discrimination in the field of 
employment and occupations, which is 
scheduled for discussion at the Conference, 
Mr. Jodoin said that Canadian Labour was 
"very happy that today our federal Parlia- 
ment as well as six out of the 10 provincial 
legislatures have enacted laws banning dis- 
crimination in employment on account of 
race, religion or national origin." 

He pointed out, however, "that although 
we consider that legislation has been an 
extremely important weapon for the protec- 
tion of human rights, we do not feel that 
it gives complete protection. It must be 
accompanied by a process of education, 
conciliation and investigation." 

In conclusion Mr. Jodoin said that the 
workers of Canada were wholeheartedly 
behind the ILO and its activities. "We are 
particularly interested in its tripartite 
character and its earnest desire to assist 
whenever possible in the raising of the 
standards of living, the degree of comfort 
and the level of education of the working 
people of the world." 



837 



While some of the participating organiza- 
tions in the ILO would like more emphasis 
placed on the non-treaty and non-legislative 
features of the organization's work and 
others would want the ILO to cover ever 
wider fields of legislative conventions, 
recommendations and resolutions, "we of 
the CLC fail to see any basic conflicts in 
the terms of reference of the ILO. We place 
a, great deal of value on conventions, 
recommendations and resolutions which are 
adopted by the conference," he said. 



"It would be too much to expect that 
all these decisions would bear immediate 
and concrete results; but, surely, the very 
fact that these problems, vital to mankind, 
are being discussed in this international 
arena, in a spirit of give and take, and that 
certain standards of behaviour are being 
worked out which can serve as a yardstick 
for the individual governments in the pre- 
paration of their own legislation, is in itself 
an important contribution." 



Morse Given 5-Year Extension as ILO Director-General 



David A. Morse — who was nearing the 
end of a ten-year term as Director-General 
of the International Labour Organization — 
has been unanimously given a five-year 
extension by the ILO's 40-member Govern- 
ing Body. 

The employer, worker and government 
members of the ILO executive board gave 
Mr. Morse, an American, an extension to 
date from the expiration of his original 
ten-year term in 1958. Mr. Morse accepted 
the renewal. 



Prior to doing so the Governing Body 
changed the existing regulations and thus 
made such action possible. 

Under the changed regulations, which 
were adopted unanimously with one absten- 
tion, the mandate of an ILO director- 
general may be renewed every five years 
after an initial ten-year period. Formerly, 
the initial ten-year term could be renewed 
only for a single three-year term. 



Douglas M. Young To Head ILO's Canada Branch 




Douglas M. Young 



Douglas M. Young of Toronto, chief 
of the Personnel Division of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization since 1952 
(L.G., Jan. 1953, p. 51), has been appointed 
director of ILO's Canadian branch office 
at Ottawa, effective September 1. 

Mr. Young succeeds V. C. Phelan, who 
died in the Capital on May 6, after having 
filled the post from 1949. 

Born in Toronto in 1912, Mr. Young 
formerly was personnel director of Lever 
Brothers, Canada; chairman of the Cana- 
dian Manufacturers' Association Committee 
on Old Age Pensions; a member of CMA's 
Industrial Relations Committee; and Presi- 
dent of the Personnel Association of 
Toronto. 

Announcement of Mr. Young's new 
appointment was made at Geneva by David 
A. Morse, ILO Director-General. 

Mr. Young, who attended Toronto Uni- 
versity and Queen's University at Kingston, 
is married and has one daughter. In his 
present post he supervises a staff of 800. 



838 




TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Formation of a labour-management com- 
mittee at the Saguenay-Kitimat Company's 
project at Kitimat, B.C., was recently 
announced. An article appearing in The 
Sagimat, employee publication at the pro- 
ject, said: "The first meeting of the newly- 
formed labour-management committee was 
held recently. Present at the meeting were 
the 10 members of the committee and 10 
'guests'. 

Purpose of Committee 

"The purpose of the labour-management 
committee is to discuss problems the solu- 
tion of which would bring benefits to both 
labour and management. Problems of safety, 
inefficiency, absenteeism, changes in policy, 
etc., are examples of these problems. Fol- 
lowing some discussion it was generally 
agreed that the committee should not con- 
cern itself with grievances which could and 
should be handled under the terms of 
collective labour agreements. Rather the 
committee should concern itself with mat- 
ters that are liable to become grievances, 
and before they become grievances." 



Two production suggestions received 
through the labour-management committee 
at Eastern Steel Products Limited in Pres- 
ton, Ont., have resulted in increased effi- 
ciency on one production suggestion — to use 
an ejector on a forming die — has resulted in 
a 50-per-cent saving in labour costs. Prev- 
ious to this installation it was necessary 
for the operator to stop work to remove 
each finished piece from the die. With 
the ejector pins installed the finished pieces 
are automatically pushed off. 

The second recommendation was for the 
use of heavy paper bags for shipping hard- 
ware rather than using jute bags. Previous 
to the introduction of this method all 
small hardware parts were packed in jute 
bags. Some of these were shipped directly 
but the majority were placed inside another 
bag or wooden crate. Now all hardware 
shipped inside another container is packed 
in paper bags. The estimated saving on a 
normal order of bags with the new method 
is more than $100. 



C.N.R. Union-Management Committees 

The annual meetings of the System Com- 
mittees Union-Management Co-operative 
Movement, Motive Power and Car Equip- 
ment Department, and the Maintenance of 
Way Department, Canadian National Rail- 
ways, were held in Montreal recently. Union 
and management officials from all parts of 
the Canadian National System attended the 
meetings. 

The annual report of union-management 
committees in the Motive Power and Car 
Equipment Department showed that there 
were 80 joint committees operating in the 
department. These 80 committees held a 
total of 730 meetings during the year and 
discussed 1,158 different items concerning 
the department's work. Of the items dis- 
cussed, 890 recommendations were accepted 
and put into operation by management, 
38 were dropped, 11 deferred and 219 are 
pending for final decision. 

The annual report of the Maintenance 
of Way Department showed that there were 
40 joint committees in operation and these 
held 166 meetings during 1956. A total of 
656 new items were discussed during the 
year, as well as 633 items carried forward 
from 1955. Of these 656 new recommenda- 
tions, 419 were adopted, 127 dropped, eight 
deferred and 102 are pending. 

Speaking on behalf of the employees, 
General Chairman C. Smith, of the Brother- 
hood of Maintenance of Way Employees, 
said: "We will not accept that manage- 
ment is interested only in buying machinery 
as a means of depriving maintenance of 
way employees of their livelihood. We 
must accept the fact that mechanization is 
also forced on the railways as a means of 
preservation of the industry." He described 
the system committee meeting as a clearing 
house for the ideas and recommendations 
of other committees and said that these 
had an influence on management policy 
decisions. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPC's) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, In- 
dustrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field repre- 
sentatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPC's, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



839 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other 
the Canada 

The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for four days during May. The Board 
issued 15 certificates designating bargaining 
agents, ordered three representation votes, 
and rejected three applications for certifica- 
tion. The Board also granted one applica- 
tion for a provision for the final settlement 
of differences concerning the meaning or 
violation of a collective agreement. During 
the month the Board received 26 applica- 
tions for certification, allowed the with- 
drawal of five applications for certification, 
received six applications for provisions for 
the final settlement of differences con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of collec- 
tive agreements, and one application for 
revocation of certification. In addition the 
Board issued one new certificate following 
a request for review of an earlier decision, 
and gave a decision concerning the termina- 
tion of an agreement under Section 20 of 
the Act, both cases being received during 
the month. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of a 
unit of unlicensed personnel employed by 
the National Harbours Board in its Fleet 
Department in the Port of Montreal, 
aboard the tugs Sir Hugh Allan and Glen- 
keen, Floating Crane No. 1, Launch Messen- 
ger No. IV, Floating Derrick No. 8, and 
Floating Derrick No. 6 (L.G., June, p. 710). 

2. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of 
a unit of unlicensed personnel employed by 
Imperial Oil Limited in its British Columbia 
Marketing Division, aboard the motor ves- 
sels Imperial Nanaimo and Imperial Namu, 
and Barge No. 10 (L.G., June, p. 710). 

3. Warehousemen and Miscellaneous Driv- 
ers' Union, Local 419, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers of America, on behalf of 
a unit of city and highway drivers, helpers 
and dock workers employed by Deluxe 



Proceedings before 
Labour Relations Board 

Transportation Limited, in the transporta- 
tion of freight in and out of North Bay, 
Sudbury, and Toronto, Ont., and Montreal, 
Que. (L.G., June, p. 710). 

4. National Catholic Syndicate of Long- 
shoremen of Sorel, Inc., on behalf of a unit 
of maintenance employees of the Sorel Dock 
and Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Sorel, Que. (L.G., 
June, p. 711). 

5. Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers 
International Union, on behalf of a unit of 
certain technical emplo3'ees of Polymer 
Corporation Limited, Sarnia, in its Tech- 
nical Division and Research and Develop- 
ment Division (L.G., June, p. 711). 

6. National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians, Local 64, on behalf 
of a unit of office employees of the New- 
foundland Broadcasting Co. Ltd., St. John's, 
Nfld. (L.G., June, p. 711). 

7. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of a unit of 
emploj'ees of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company employed in the office of its Data 
Centre, Vancouver (L.G., June, p. 712). 

8. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Company employed in the office of its 
Data Centre, Winnipeg (L.G. June, p. 712). 

9. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company employed in the office of its 
Data Centre, Moose Jaw (L.G., June, p. 
712). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



840 



10. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ind., on behalf of a unit of longshore- 
men employed by Terminal Warehouses 
Limited, Toronto (See below). 

11. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers, 
classified as first, second, and third mate, 
employed by The Reoch Steamship Com- 
pany, Limited, Montreal, aboard the SS 
Brookdale and SS Forestdale (See below). 

12. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers, 
classified as first, second, and third mate, 
employed by Reoch Transports Limited, 
Montreal, aboard the SS Willowdale (See 
below). 

13. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc.. on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
classified as first, and second mate, em- 
ployed bj r The Owen Sound Transportation 



Co., Limited, Owen Sound, Ont, aboard 
the vessels Norgoma, Normac, and Norisle 
(See below). 

14. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
classified as first, second, and third mate, 
employed by Branch Lines Limited, Sorel, 
Que., aboard the tugs Claire Simard and 
Louise Simard (See below). 

15. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers, 
classified as first, second, and third mate, 
employed by Northwest Steamships Limited, 
Toronto, aboard the SS A. A. Hudson and 
SS Superior (See below). 

Representation Votes Ordered 

1. United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant and intervener, International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, applicant 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals, 
telegraphs, interprovincial and interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act, and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2) Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia, Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario; three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



91463—5 



841 



and intervener, and Northspan Uranium 
Mines Limited in the Improvement District 
of Elliot Lake, Ont., respondent. The Board 
directed that the voting unit comprise all 
employees employed by the respondent, 
excluding shift bosses, foremen, head sam- 
pler, persons above the rank of shift boss 
or foreman, office staff, geological and 
engineering staff, head assayer, guards, 
stationary engineers (first, second, third, 
and fourth class), boiler room helpers and 
students hired for the summer vacation 
period, with the names of both unions on 
the ballot (L.G., June, p. 711) (Returning 
Officer: A.B.Whitfield). 

2. United Steelworkers of America, appli- 
cant and intervener, International Union of 
Operating Engineers, Local 796, applicant 
and intervener, and Northspan Uranium 
Mines Limited in the Improvement District 
of Elliot Lake, Ont. The Board directed 
that the voting unit comprise employees 
employed by the respondent classified as 
stationary engineer (first, second, third, and 
fourth class), and boiler room helper, exclud- 
ing the chief engineer, power plant opera- 
tors, diesel operator, and compressor opera- 
tors, with the names of both unions on the 
ballot (L.G., June, p. 711) (Returning 
Officer: A.B.Whitfield). 

3. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., applicant, and Bayswater Shipping 
Limited, Brockville, Ont., respondent, with 
the voting unit to comprise deck officers 
classified as first, second, and third officer 
aboard the SS Bayanna, SS George S. Cleet, 
and SS Bayquinte (See below) (Returning 
Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, applicant, and 
Imperial Oil Limited, Marine Division 
(West Coast Service) Vancouver, respon- 
dent, MV Imperial Vancouver (L.G., June, 
p. 710). The application was rejected for 
the reason that it was not supported by a 
majority of the employees affected. 

2. Transport Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers' Union, Local 106, International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, 
applicant, and Husband Transport Limited, 
Montreal, respondent (L.G., June, p. 710). 
The application was rejected because it was 
not supported by a majority of the em- 
ployees affected. 

3. Canadian Workers' Association of 
Dredges and Tugs, applicant, Marine Indus- 
tries Limited, Montreal, respondent, Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, intervener, and 
the International Union of Operating En- 



gineers, intervener (L.G., June, p. 711). The 
application was rejected for the reason that 
the organizing of the unlicensed employees 
by the applicant in the dredging division 
of the respondent had been wrongfully 
influenced by company representatives. 

Application under Sec. 19 of Act Granted 

The Board granted an application for a 
provision for the final settlement of dif- 
ferences concerning the meaning or viola- 
tion of a collective agreement affecting the 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, Local No. 31, Vancouver, appli- 
cant, and Sabre Freight Lines Limited, 
Windsor, Ont., respondent. The Board's 
decision was made under Section 19 of the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act, which provides that every 
collective agreement shall contain a pro- 
vision for the final settlement without 
stoppage of work of all differences between 
the parties to the agreement concerning its 
meaning or violation and that, where an 
agreement does not contain the required 
provision, the Board shall, upon application 
by either party to the agreement, prescribe 
such a provision (L.G., May, p. 572). 

Request for Review of Decision Granted 

Transport Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers' Union, Local 106 of the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, applicant, and Hill the Mover 
(Canada) Limited, Montreal, respondent, 
and Hill the Mover (Que.) Ltd., Montreal, 
respondent. The union was certified by the 
Board in November 1956 as the bargaining 
agent for a similar unit of employees of 
Hill the Mover (Canada) Limited, Mont- 
real, but when the employer became Hill 
the Mover (Que.) Ltd., the union made a 
request to the Board pursuant to Section 
61 (2) of the Act for a review of its decision 
and following consideration of the request 
the Board issued a new certificate with 
respect to a unit of employees of Hill the 
Mover (Que.) Ltd. (request received during 
the month). 

Request for Consent to Terminate Collective 
Agreement within One Year 

Grain Workers' Union Local 333, of the 
International Union of United Brewery, 
Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery 
Workers of America and the Saskatchewan 
Wheat Pool, Terminal Elevator Division, 
Vancouver, joint applicants. In giving deci^ 
sion, the Board stated that Section 20 of 
the Act provides that every agreement shall, 
if for a term of less than one year, be 



842 



deemed to be for a term of one year from 
its operative date and cannot be terminated 
by the parties within a year except as 
provided by Section 10 of the Act or with 
the consent of the Board, and that Section 
20 does not permit the Board to grant con- 
sent to the making of agreements of less 
than one year's duration. The Board stated, 
however, that when the proposed agreement 
has been signed for a term that meets the 
provisions of Section 20, the parties may 
apply for the consent of the Board to the 
termination of the agreement at the desired 
time (request received during the month). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion (ind.) on behalf of a unit of long- 
shoremen employed by Eastern Canada 
Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Toronto (Investigat- 
ing Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) (see "Appli- 
cations Withdrawn", Item 3). 

2. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ind., on behalf of a unit of longshore- 
men employed by Cullen Stevedoring Com- 
pany Limited, Toronto (Investigating Offi- 
cer: F. J. Ainsborough) (see "Applications 
Withdrawn", Item 4). 

3. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ind., on behalf of a unit of longshore- 
men employed by Terminal Warehouses 
Limited, Toronto (Investigating Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough (See above). 

4. Sherbrooke Printing Trades Syndicate, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of employees of 
The Tribune Limited, Sherbrooke, Que. 
(CHLT-TV) (Investigating Officer: R. Du- 
quette) (See below). 

5. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers em- 
ployed by The Reoch Steamship Company 
Limited, Montreal, aboard the SS Brookdale 
and SS Forestdale (Investigating Officer: 
C. E. Poirier) (See above). 

6. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers employed 
by Reoch Transports Limited, Montreal, 
aboard the SS Willowdale (Investigating 
Officer: C. E. Poirier) (See above). 

7. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers employed 
by The Owen Sound Transportation Co., 
Limited, Owen Sound, Ont., aboard the 
vessels Norgoma, Normac and Norisle 
(Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier) (See 
above). 

8. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers employed 
by Branch Lines Limited, Montreal, aboard 
the tugs Claire Simard and Louise Simard 
(Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier) (See 
above). 



9. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers employed 
by Northwest Steamships Limited, Toronto, 
aboard the SS A. A. Hudson and SS Superior 
(Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier) (See 
above). 

10. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
employed by Bayswater Shipping Limited, 
Brockville, Ont., aboard the SS Bayanna, 
SS George S. Cleet, and SS Bayquinle 
(Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier) (See 
above). 

11. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of the National Harbours Board, 
Port Colborne, Ont. (Investigating Officer: 
F. J. Ainsborough). 

12. Building Service Employees' Interna- 
tional Union, Local 298, on behalf of a unit 
of building service employees employed by 
Northern Cleaning Agencies, Inc., Montreal 
(Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

13. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
employed by The Lake Erie Navigation 
Co., Limited, Walkerville, Ont., aboard the 
Steamer Alexander Leslie (Investigating 
Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

14. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
employed by the Abitibi Power & Paper 
Company, Limited, Port Arthur, Ont., 
aboard the tugs Kara, Nipigon, Orient Bay, 
Abitibi, and Magpie (Investigating Officer: 
C. E. Poirier). 

15. General Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers, Local 979, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers of America, on behalf of 
a unit of employees of Norton Motor Lines 
Limited, Stoney Creek, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

16. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of Pronto Uranium Mines Lim- 
ited, Algoma Mills, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

17. International Union of Operating En- 
gineers, Local 796, on behalf of a unit of 
stationary engineers and stationary engi- 
neers' helpers employed by Pronto Uranium 
Mines Limited, Algoma Mills, Ont. (In- 
vestigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

18. International Union of Operating En- 
gineers, Local 796, on behalf of a unit of 
stationary engineers and stationary engi- 
neers' helpers employed by Algoma Uranium 
Mines Limited, District of Algoma, Ont. 
(Investigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 



91463— 5h 



843 



19. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
and pilots employed by the Northern Trans- 
portation Company Limited, Edmonton 
(Investigating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

20. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel and 
pilots employed by the Yellowknife Trans- 
portation Company Limited, Edmonton 
(Investigating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

21. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ltd., on behalf of a unit of Longshore- 
men employed by the Eastern Canada 
Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Toronto (Investigat- 
ing Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) . 

22. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ind., on behalf of a unit of longshore- 
men employed by the Cullen Stevedoring 
Company Limited, Toronto (Investigating 
Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

23. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Caledon Ter- 
minals Limited, Hamilton (Investigating 
Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

24. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by the Hamilton 
Shipping Company,. Limited, Hamilton (In- 
vestigating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

25. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Yorkwood 
Shipping & Trading Co. Ltd., Hamilton 
(Investigating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

26. Canadian Dyno Employees' Associa- 
tion on behalf of a unit of employees of 
Canadian Dyno Mines Limited, Bancroft, 
Ont. (Investigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, applicant, and the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company, respon- 
dent (Office of Data Centre, Calgary) (L.G., 
June, p. 712). 

2. General Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers, Local 979, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men and Helpers of America, applicant, and 
Smith Transport Limited, respondent (Win- 
nipeg terminal employees) (L.G., June, p. 
712). 

3. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ind., applicant, and Eastern Canada 
Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Toronto, respondent 
(see "Applications Received", Item 1). The 
application was later resubmitted (see 
"Applications Received", Item 21). 



4. International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, Ind., applicant, and Cullen Stevedoring 
Company Limited, Toronto, respondent (see 
"Applications Received", Item 2). The 
application was later resubmitted (see 
"Applications Received", Item 22). 

5. Sherbrooke Printing Trades Syndicate 
Inc., applicant, and The Tribune Ltd., 
Sherbrooke, Que., respondent (See above). 

Application for Revocation of Certification 

During May, the Board received an appli- 
cation for revocation of certification affect- 
ing Fred McShane, N. H. Treanor, J. 
McCrie and L. Rampen, applicants, the 
International Alliance of Theatrical Stage 
Employees and Moving Picture Machine 
Operators of the United States and Canada, 
respondent, and the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation, respondent. The application 
was for revocation of the certification issued 
by the Board August 6, 1953, to the Inter- 
national Alliance of Theatrical Stage Em- 
ployees and Moving Picture Machi?ie 
Operators of the United States and Canada 
in respect of a unit of employees of the 
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (L.G. 
1953, p. 1473). 

Applications Received for Provision for Final 
Settlement of Differences Concerning Meaning 
or Violation of Agreement 

1. The New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany, applicant, and the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, 
respondent (engineers). 

2. The New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany, applicant, and the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, 
respondent (firemen, helpers on electric 
locomotives, hostlers and hostler helpers). 

3. The New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany, applicant, and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen, respondent (conductors, 
on road service). 

4. The New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany, applicant, and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen, respondent (trainmen 
on road service). 

5. The New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany, applicant, and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen, respondent (conduc- 
tors, trainmen and switch tenders in yard 
service). 

6. Association of Atomic Energy Techni- 
cians and Draftsmen, Local 165, of the 
American Federation of Technical Engi- 
neers, applicant, and Atomic Energy of 
Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ont., 
respondent. 



844 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May, the Minister of Labour 
appointed conciliation officers to deal with 
the following disputes: 

1. Bicroft Uranium Mines Limited and 
L T nited Steelworkers of America (Concilia- 
tion Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

2. Maple Leaf Milling Company Limited, 
Medicine Hat, and United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Local 511 (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

3. Ogilvie Flour Mills Company Limited, 
Edmonton, and United Packinghouse Work- 
ers of America, Local 396 (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

4. Ogilvie Flour Mills Company Limited, 
Medicine Hat, and United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Local 511 (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

5. Ogilvie Flour Mills Company Limited, 
Winnipeg, and United Packinghouse Work- 
ers of America, Local 520 (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

6. Trans-Canada Air Lines Limited and 
Trans Oceanic Lodge 1751, International 
Association of Machinists (Conciliation 
Officer: R. Trepanier). 

7. Canadian National Railways (Canadian 
National Newfoundland Steamship Services) 
and Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Em- 
ployees and Other Transport Workers (Con- 
ciliation Officer: R. Duquette). 

8. Greyhawk Uranium Mines Limited and 
International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers (Conciliation Officer: F. J. 
Ainsborough). 

9. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and 
International Alliance of Theatrical Stage 
Employees and Moving Picture Machine 
Operators of the United States and Canada 
(Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

10. Commercial Cable Company and Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America (Conciliation Officer: R. Du- 
quette). 

11. Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited 
and International Association of Machinists, 
Canadian Airways Lodge 764 (Conciliation 
Officer: G. R. Currie). 



Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Radio Station CKVL, Verdun, and 
National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: R. Duquette) (L.G., June, p. 712). 

2. Canadian National Hotels Limited 
(Chateau Laurier Hotel, Ottawa), and 
Journeymen Barbers, Hairdressers, Cosme- 
tologists and Proprietors International 
Union of America (Conciliation Officer: 
Bernard Wilson) (L.G., June, p. 712). 

3. Motorways (Quebec) Limited, Mont- 
real, and Transport Drivers, Warehousemen 
and Helpers' Union, Local 106 of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America (Conciliation Officer: R. Du- 
quette) (L.G., June, p. 712). 

4. Maple Leaf Milling Company Limited, 
St. Boniface, and United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Local 534 (Conciliation 
Officer: J. S. Gunn) (L.G., June, p. 713). 

5. Western Canadian Greyhound Lines 
Limited, Calgary, and Amalgamated Asso- 
ciation of Street, Electric Railway and 
Motor Coach Employees of America, Local 
1374 (Conciliation Officer: D. S. Tysoe) 
(L.G., April, p. 453). 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion established in April to deal with 
matters in dispute between Consolidated 
Denison Mines Limited, Spragge, and Inter- 
national Union of Operating Engineers, 
Local 796 (L.G., June, p. 713) was fully 
established in May with the appointment 
of Eric G. Taylor, as Chairman. Mr. 
Taylor was appointed by the Minister on 
the joint recommendation of the other two 
members, R. V. Hicks, QC, and Kenneth 
Woodsworth, both of Toronto, who were 
previously appointed on the nomination of 
the company and union respectively. 

Board Report Received during Month 

Canadian National Railways (Niagara, St. 
Catharines and Toronto Railway and 
Oshawa Electric Railway) and Brotherhood 
of Railroad Trainmen (L.G., Jan., p. 63). 
The text of the report is reproduced below. 



845 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Canadian National Railways (Niagara, St. Catharines and 

Toronto Railway, and the Oshawa Electric Railway) 

and 

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 



Your Board of Conciliation consisting of 
His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, Chair- 
man; Mr. R. V. Hicks, QC, Company 
Nominee, and the Honourable Arthur W. 
Roebuck, QC, Union Nominee, appointed 
on or about the 19th day of December, 1956, 
met with the parties in Toronto on Feb- 
ruary 9, 1957, and in Ottawa on March 1, 
1957, and heard the full submissions of both 
of the parties with respect to the issues 
in dispute. 

At these meetings, the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen was represented as fol- 
lows: 

A. J. Kelly, Chairman — Deputy President, 

L. C. Malone — Vice-President, 

C. W. Stanley — Statistician, 

E. Post— Chairman, N.St.C. & T. Railway, 

W. T. McLean— Chairman, 0. E. Railway, 

C. W. Stanley — Statistician. 

The Railways were represented by the 
following : 

T. A. Johnstone — Manager, Labour Rela- 
tions, Montreal, 

E. K. House — Employee Relations Assist- 
ant, Montreal, 

J. C. Munro — Labour Relations Assistant, 
Montreal, 

E. C. Arkell — Labour Relations Assistant, 
Montreal, 

D. McGrath — Schedule Analyst, Montreal, 
G. S. Young — Regional Supervisor, Wage 

Bureau, Toronto, 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation appointed to deal with matters 
in dispute between the Canadian National 
Railways (Niagara, St. Catharines and 
Toronto Railway, and the Oshawa Elec- 
tric Railway), and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen. The dispute affects 
about 70 employees. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, 
Belleville, Ont., who was appointed by 
the Minister on the Joint recommendation 
of the other two members, R. V. Hicks, 
QC, and the Hon. A. W. Roebuck, both 
of Toronto, nominees of the company and 
Brotherhood respectively. 

The Chairman and the members repre- 
senting the company and the Brotherhood 
signed separate reports. 

The text of the recommendations is 
reproduced here. 



J. Smith — Superintendent, Oshawa Rail- 
way, Oshawa, 

V. Snell— Trainmaster, N.S. & T. Ry., 
St. Catharines, 

H. Bloomfield — Employees Relations Offi- 
cer, Toronto. 

Originally, the union's requests for a 
revision of the agreement covering wages 
and working conditions of the employees 
represented by the Brotherhood of Rail- 
road Trainmen, were as follows: 

1. That all wage rates, however estab- 
lished, applicable to miles, hours, overtime, 
arbitrages and special allowances be in- 
creased by thirty per cent (30%) effective 
April 1, 1956. 

2. That vacation with pay agreements be 
revised where necessary, to insure vacations 
without loss of earnings. 

Negotiations were, by common consent, 
delayed until settlement of the collective 
bargaining contract between the two major 
railways in Canada and the Brotherhood. 
After these contracts were settled, confer- 
ences were again held between the parties, 
at which the union put forward their request 
for amendment to the collective bargaining 
agreement in the following words: 

As a basis of discussion, we submit that 
the rates and conditions applicable to the 
respective employee classifications on the 
Canadian National Railway, Central Region, 
be extended in application to comparable 
classes of employees represented in these 
negotiations. 

However, the management was of the 
view that as electric motor power was 
generally used, wage adjustments must be 
determined by comparison with rates paid 
on so-called electric railways, where the 
duties and responsibilities and working con- 
ditions were, according to the railways' 
view, quite different than those prevailing 
in yard service on the main line railways. 

After the parties had made their full 
submissions, the Board attempted to con- 
ciliate the issues, but at the conclusion of 
the Board's efforts, the parties still main- 
tained their original position with relation 
to the Union's request that the standard 
rates as in effect on the Canadian National 
Railways for comparable employee classifi- 
cations be granted to employees on the 
Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Rail- 
way and the Oshawa Electric Railway. 



846 



This dispute concerns three agreements: 

(a) Conductors, Motormen, Brakemen 
and Trolleyman — Oshawa Railway Com- 
pany. 

(b) Yardmasters — Oshawa Railway Com- 
pany. 

(c) Conductors and Brakemen — Niagara, 
St. Catharines and Toronto Railway Com- 
pany. 

And on the Oshawa Railway, it involves 
the following employees: 8 Conductors; 18 
Brakemen; 8 Motormen; 8 Polemen and 2 
Yardmasters. On the Niagara, St. Catharines 
and Toronto Railways, it involves 8 Con- 
ductors and 18 Brakemen. 

The Oshawa Electric Railway consists of 
a system of yards and trackage in and 
about the City of Oshawa. Electric locomo- 
tives are used except at the South Plant 
of the General Motors Corporation, where 
there are three diesel units used; and the 
Canadian Pacific Railway also uses diesel 
locomotives on the trackage at the South 
Plant of the General Motors Corporation. 

The Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto 
Railway consists of a system of yards and 
trackage extending from Port Dalhousie 
through St. Catharines to Port Colborne, a 
total of about 72 miles, consisting of about 
40 miles of main track and 32 miles of 
sidings and industrial trackage. All electric 
engines, with weights up to 60 tons, provide 
the motor power on this road. 

On steam railways there are three types 
of switching performed in yards; train 
switching, transfer service and industrial 
switching, and it is the company's con- 
tentions that train switching is not done 
on the Oshawa Railway and that the greater 
portion of the work performed on the 
Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Rail- 
way is industrial switching. Both railways 
operate through and across city streets and 
necessarily move slowly. It is the Com- 
pany's contention that on these railways, 
switching and transfer operations require 
more crews to handle fewer cars, than 
would be the case on steam railways. This 
statement is challenged by the union. 

The company says that the capacity of 
electric locomotives used on these electric 
railways is less than the switching locomo- 
tives on the main lines of the Canadian 
National Railways, but the union says that 
the work performed, and not the type of 
motor power, should govern the pay. 

The company submits that electric rail- 
ways have always been recognized as being 
different and distinct from steam railways, 
and that for many years agreements cover- 
ing rates of pay on the electric lines have 
been considerably lower than those on the 
main railways, because their duties are 



comparatively light, due to shorter trains 
and fewer cars handled per shift. This, of 
course, the union denies, saying that the 
work load is comparable to that on the 
main railways, and that its membership 
switches the same freight cars, uses the 
same signals and signal equipment and 
performs in an eight-hour shift a volume 
of work that is comparable to that per- 
formed in the Canadian National yard 
service. 

The company also contends that the 
motormen do not require the same training 
and skill as that required by the engineer 
on the steam railways, and that a motorman 
in order to qualify as such need only attain 
sufficient knowledge to operate an electric 
locomotive, and that the standard series of 
examinations on the operation of a diesel 
locomotive is not required; but if he is 
operating a diesel locomotive at the General 
Motors South Plant, a motorman must 
merely satisfy a Canadian National Railway 
Road Foreman of Engines or Master 
Mechanic before he is assigned to one. 

On the other hand, the union says that 
since, by seniority, their membership is 
confined to the operation of the locomotives 
that the Oshawa Railway and the Niagara, 
St. Catharines and Toronto Railway have, 
but that they could and would become 
qualified on other types of locomotives if 
they were used. 

The Railway contends that there is 
no justification for according employees on 
the Oshawa and Niagara, St. Catharines and 
Toronto Railways more favorable treatment 
than employees on the Lake Erie and 
Northern Railway, which settled their con- 
tract on identical terms with that reached 
on the CNR, but maintaining the long- 
existing differential between electric and 
steam line rates. 

As opposed to this, the union says that 
the situation on the Lake Erie and Northern 
Railway is not comparable to that on the 
two railways represented here, and that 
the industrial switching and transfer work 
on these two railways is the same as similar 
service performed on the parent railway, 
and that the crews perform service with 
the parent railway whenever required to 
do so, thereby working alongside crews 
that are paid standard rates. And they also 
point out that the CPR run diesels into 
the General Motors South property, and 
their crews are paid standard rates. 

In short, the union contends that service, 
not the power used, should govern and that 
that justifies the application of standard 
yard rates and conditions. 

Senator Roebuck is of the view that the 
Brotherhood has made out a good case 
for parity with the rates paid for similar 



847 



classifications on the Canadian National 
Railways and Mr. Hicks holds a contrary 
view. The Chairman, while recognizing the 
union has made many important and valued 
submissions in support of their request for 
parity, is of the view that the railway has 
shown that there are real differences in the 
kind of work and qualifications required 
of the employees the union represents, 
compared to the kind of work and the 
qualifications of the men in similar classifi- 
cations on the Canadian National Railways. 
The differential between the rates paid 
on the Oshawa Railway and Niagara, St. 
Catharines and Toronto Railway and those 
paid on the Canadian National Railways 
prior to the recent agreement made with 
the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen and 
the Canadian National Railways, is apparent 
from a comparison of rates set out im- 
mediately below : 



OSHAWA 
RAILWAY 

N. ST. C. & T. 
RAILWAY 

Current 
Rates 



CANADIAN NATIONAL 
RAILWAYS 

Prior to Current 
Apr. 1/56 Rates June 1/57 



Conductor $1,808 Foreman ..$1,925 $2,060 $2,156 

Brakeman 1,676 Helper .... 1,785 1,910 1,999 

Motorman 1,808 Engineer .. 1,862 2,011 2.086 
Poleman 1,571 Helper 

(Electric) 1,617 1,747 1,811 

From an analysis of these figures, it 
shows that prior to the recent increase on 
the Canadian National Railways, the fore- 
men on the CNR received 11.7 cents per 
hour more than the conductors on these 
railways. A helper received 10.9 cents per 
hour more than the brakeman on these 
railways. The engineer received 5.4 cents 
per hour more than the motorman on these 
railways. The helper received 4.6 cents per 
hour more than the poleman on these rail- 
ways, and the differential would be increased 
in the event of the application of the 12- 
per-cent increase, as suggested by the com- 
pany, to the current rates on these railways. 

It is the Board's view that the parties 
should endeavour to reach a settlement for 
the forthcoming contract along the following 
lines : 

1. By granting statutory holidays on the 
same basis as recently granted to the Cana- 
dian National Railways Trainmen. 

2. By granting to conductors, brakemen, 
motormen and polemen a similar money 
increase in rates per hour as granted to 
the foremen, helpers, engineers and their 
helpers in the recent Canadian National 
Railways contract settlements made with 
the men in the above classifications. 

3. By granting to all employees of the 
Oshawa Railway and the Niagara, St. 
Catharines & Toronto Railway, while 
operating on diesel engines, increases that 



would generally result in comparable rates 
being paid in comparable classifications to 
those rates paid or agreed to be paid on 
the Canadian National Railways in their 
current contracts. 

4. And in addition thereto, the Oshawa 
Electric and Niagara, St. Catharines & 
Toronto Railways should consider granting, 
and the union should consider accepting, 
upward adjustments at some date in the 
future, but within the term of the forth- 
coming contract, in the hourly rate paid 
to conductors and brakemen, so that the 
differential in hourly rates that conductors 
and brakemen would receive as compared 
with the hourly rates paid foremen and 
helpers under the present collective agree- 
ment with the Canadian National Railways 
trainmen would more nearly approximate 
the differential in hourly rate paid to motor- 
men on the Oshawa Electric and Niagara, 
St. Catharines & Toronto Railways and that 
paid to engineers on the Canadian National 
Railways prior to April 1, 1956. From a 
comparison of rates shown above the dif- 
ferential between the hourly rate paid to 
motormen on the Oshawa Railway and the 
Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Railway, 
and that paid to engineers on the Canadian 
National Railways prior to April 1, 1956, 
was 5rjc per hour. If the upward adjust- 
ment herein recommended for consideration 
was made in the hourly rate of conductors 
and brakemen, it would involve paying to 
them, in addition to the increases recom- 
mended in Paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 above, 
a further hourly increase in the case of 
conductors amounting to 6^c per hour and 
in the case of brakemen, amounting to 5^c 
per hour. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Dated at Belleville, Ontario, this 30 day 
of April, 1957. 

(Sgd.) J. C. Anderson, 
Chairman. 

REPORT OF COMPANY NOMINEE 

I respectfully regret that I cannot concur 
entirely in the recommendations for settle- 
ment proposed by the Chairman, His 
Honour Judge J. C. Anderson. 

The union is, in effect, asking the com- 
panies to depart from the principle, which 
has been firmly established since 1942, 
whereby the same general wage increases 
have been accepted as those received by 
the yardmen on the Canadian National 
Railways. 

In my opinion, the union has not 
advanced any reason supported by any' 
evidence to justify its demand that this 
long-established differential between elec- 
tric and steam line rates should be reduced, 



848 



if not eliminated entirely. Indeed, there 
is nothing before the Board to indicate 
that there has been any significant change 
in the duties and responsibilities of the 
employees concerned. 

The Chairman's report sets forth the 
reasons advanced on behalf of the Railways 
as to why such differential should not be 
altered so that there is no necessity to 
detail them further here, other than to 
point out that certain statistics filed by 
the union in support of its contention that 
switching assignments compared with those 
in some of the steam line yards of Canadian 
National Railways, as well as a statement 
regarding the switching assignments on cer- 
tain dates in the Port Colborne yard, were 
completely refuted by the companies. 

Under these circumstances, I concur with 
and endorse for settlement of these disputes 
those recommendations numbered 1-3, in- 
clusive, in the Chairman's report, but dis- 
sent from that recommendation contained 
in paragraph numbered 4. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Dated at Toronto, Ontario, this 18th day 
of April, 1957. 

(Sgd.) R. V. Hicks, 
Member. 

REPORT OF UNION NOMINEE 

I have been privileged to read the report 
of the Chairman herein and regret that I 
cannot join in his compromise proposal. 
The issue involved is quite clear and may 
be simply expressed. 

The employees of the Niagara, St. 
Catharines and Toronto Railway and of 
the Oshawa Electric Railway, as repre- 
sented before your Board of Conciliation 
by the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 
submit that they are entitled to rates of 
pay and other conditions of employment 
similar to those in effect on the Canadian 
National Railways Central Region having 
regard to respective employee classifications. 
The Canadian National Railways manage- 
ment denies the employees' claim, alleging 
certain differences in working conditions 
which they say justified a lesser remunera- 
tion. A compromise settlement such as 
suggested by the Chairman but begs the 
question, and leaves it for continued future 
contention. 

The two railroads in question are wholly- 
owned subsidiaries of the Canadian National 
Railways and in every practical way a part 
of that railway system. The traffic on the 
tracks of both railways is almost entirely 
what is known as industrial switching, that 
is taking cars to industrial plants for loading 
and unloading, and returning them again 



1o the Canadian National Railways main 
lines for further haulage. Similar work is 
done by train crews, members of the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, on the 
main line and branch lines of the Canadian 
National Railways throughout its entire 
system and in all parts of Canada. The 
union therefore insists that as the work 
done by the various employee classifications 
is the same in character, and, in effect, for 
the same employer, the conditions of em- 
ployment, including rates of pay, hours, 
holidays and other employee benefits, 
should be also similar; which they are not. 

To this the Canadian National Railways 
management argues that the power used on 
the two railroads in question is electric 
while that on the balance of the Canadian 
National Railways system is steam and 
diesel, to which the employees reply that 
it is the work done and the character of 
the services rendered that should govern 
remuneration, not the power which the 
employer sees fit to use. The work done 
on the main line and on these two rail- 
roads in industrial switching is identical. 

The company argues that the industrial 
switching done on the two electrically 
powered railroads differs from the standard 
yard switching, where both passenger and 
freight trains are both broken up and 
re-assembled, and this is true, but beside 
the point, for the pertinent comparison is 
between industrial switching on the rail- 
roads in question and on the balance of 
the Central Region. Men on the main lines 
of the great Canadian railroads are not 
discriminated against in the matter of 
remuneration when engaged in industrial 
switching, nor should they be on the 
subsidiary lines. Management argues that 
as the railroads in question operate in 
industrial areas, and frequently cross or 
traverse city streets, their trains must 
necessarily travel at slower speeds than 
do those on the main lines; but, on the 
other hand, the reason for lesser speed is 
the need for greater vigilence and caution 
to avoid the additional hazards to the 
crew and the public. This might well be 
advanced as a justification for increased 
rather than decreased pay. It is said that 
these crews do not handle as many cars 
per day as are moved in regular yard 
service. Of course they do not. Neither of 
these railroads is a hump yard where they 
break up and assemble whole trains with a 
minimum of effort, concentration and 
hazard, but their record does compare 
favourably in all other respects — locomotive 
power, weight of load and number of cars 
moved — with the record of those engaged 
in the comparable service of industrial 
switching on the Central Region generally. 



849 



It is argued that the motormen on these 
trains do not qualify for service as engineers 
on the Canadian National Railways. If this 
is so, the rating is purely arbitrary, for the 
crews on these electrically powered trains 
qualify in knowledge of the Standard Code 
of Operating Rules and are experienced in 
regular railway work and practice. How- 
ever that may be, these men most assuredly 
do meet the requirements of the Canadian 
National Railways management for the 
services in which they are engaged and 
dispose of a tonnage equal to that generally 
handled by the crews of the Canadian 
National Railways engaged in industrial 
switching, safely and with skill and effi- 
ciency. 

Management advances as an argument 
that it has obtained an agreement with the 
employees of the Lake Erie and Northern 
Railways, which is electrically powered, for 
remuneration at less than parity with 
standard rates, but it is admitted that con- 
ditions are not identical. Management may 
have been fortunate or the employees 
generous, but of this your Board Members 
are uninformed, for the full facts were not 
disclosed to the Board. 

The pertinent facts and arguments were 
presented to the Board with great ability by 
Mr. A. J. Kelly, Deputy President and 
General Agent; Mr. L. C. Malone, Vice- 
President; and Mr. C. W. Stanley, Statis- 
tician, together with Mr. E. Post and Mr. 
W. T. McLean, Chairmen respectively of 
the two Brotherhood locals, together with 
a full reply by Mr. T. A. Johnstone, 
Manager of the Canadian National Rail- 
ways Labour Relations, supported by an 
impressive array of assistants. In the light of 
the evidence presented, I am of opinion that 
the claim of the employees represented by 
the union to parity in remuneration with 
comparable employee classifications on the 
Central Region of the Canadian National 
Railways has been established, and I recom- 
ment that standard rates of pay and other 
benefits be extended to them. 

The difference in wage rates complained 
of are set forth in the following table: 



OSHAWA 
RAILWAY 
N. ST. C. & T. 
RAILWAY 



Current 



CANADIAN NATIONAL 
RAILWAYS 

Prior to Current Rates 



Rates Apr. 1/56 Rates June 1/57 

Conductor $1,808 Foreman ..$1,925 $2,060 $2,156 
Brakeman 1,676 Helper .... 1,785 1,910 1,999 
Motorman 1,808 Engineer .. 1,862 2,011 2,067 
Poleman 1,571 Helper 

(Electric) 1,617 1,747 1,795 



The railway management intimated that 
it is prepared to grant to the represented 
employees of the Oshawa Railway and the 
Niagara, St. Catharines and Toronto Rail- 
way, the percentage increases and other 
benefits extended to the comparable classes 
on the main line, as set forth above, but 
insisted that percentages of increase must 
apply to the rates of pay now in effect on 
railways in question, thus maintaining the 
differences indicated in the table. In this, 
in my opinion, the management is in error, 
and therein lies the sole basis of disagree- 
ment. 

Were the general principle of parity 
admitted, I feel sure that the Brotherhood 
would accept a convenient and reasonable 
application which was suggested at the 
hearing, and which is as follows, applicable 
to all employee classes represented by 
the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen in 
this dispute: 

(1) Effective April 1, 1956, to May 31, 
1958, wage rates in effect on March 31, 1956, 
be increased b}' seven (7) per cent. 

(2) Effective June 1, 1957, to May 31, 
1958, wage rates in effect on March 31, 
1956, be increased by a further five (5) per- 
cent, being an increase of twelve (12) 
per cent in all. 

(3) Effective June 1, 1958, to the ter- 
mination of agreement on May 31, 1959, 
the wage rates applicable to like employee 
classes on the Canadian National Railways 
be applied to employees represented by the 
Brotherhood herein of the Niagara, St. 
Catharines and Toronto Railway and of the 
Oshawa Electric Railway. 

(4) That payment for statutory holidays 
as applicable to like employee classes on 
the Canadian National Railways be applied 
to employees represented by the Brother- 
hood herein of the Niagara, St. Catharines 
and Toronto Railway and of the Oshawa 
Electric Railway effective as of the date 
of the agreement in settlement of the within 
dispute. 

It is proposed that the term of the pro- 
posed agreement be extended to the 31st of 
May, 1959, and it will be noted that the 
desired parity will not be achieved in 
accordance with this proposal until the 1st 
of June, 1958. 

This I consider a just and reasonable 
settlement of the within dispute and I urge 
upon both parties its immediate acceptance. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Dated at Toronto, this 26th day of 
April, 1957. 

(Sgd.) A. W. Roebuck, 
Member. 



850 



LABOUR LAW 



Labour Legislation in Nova Scotia, 1957 

Workmen's Compensation Act amended to provide for workmen's counsellor 
and medical review board. Collective bargaining legislation amended 



At its 1957 session, from February 27 to 
April 12, the Nova Scotia Legislature 
amended the Workmen's Compensation Act 
to provide for the appointment of a coun- 
sellor to assist an injured workman to 
present his claim to the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board and to enable the Minister 
of Labour to establish a medical review 
board. 

An amendment to the Trade Union Act 
authorizes the Labour Relations Board to 
state a case in writing for the opinion of 
the Supreme Court in banco upon a ques- 
tion of law. The special legislation govern- 
ing collective bargaining for teachers was 
amended to make the establishment of a 
conciliation commission mandatory at the 
request of either party to a dispute. 

Changes were also made in the legisla- 
tion dealing with elevators and lifts, voca- 
tional education, old age assistance, blind 
persons' allowances and social assistance. 

Workmen's Compensation 

A new provision added to the Work- 
men's Compensation Act authorizes the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, on the 
recommendation of the Minister of Labour, 
to appoint a Workmen's Counsellor to assist 
an injured workman, at his request, in the 
preparation of his claim to the Workmen's 
Compensation Board. The services of a 
Counsellor are also available to injured 
workmen under the Acts of British 
Columbia and Manitoba. The remunera- 
tion of the Counsellor is to be fixed by 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council and 
payable out of the Consolidated Revenue 
Fund. 

The amending Act further provides that 
the Minister may appoint a board of three 
qualified medical practitioners to review 
any case where a workman disagrees with 
the findings of the Board's medical staff, 
claiming that compensation has been 
refused on erroneous or incomplete medical 
grounds or paid at a lower rate or for a 
shorter period than he was entitled to. No 
board may be appointed, however, to 
review a claim which has previously been 



referred to a medical referee by the Board. 
The findings of the board are to be final 
and must be given effect to by the Board. 
The remuneration of the members will be 
fixed by the Minister and paid out of the 
Accident Fund. 

A board of review is also provided for 
under the Acts of Alberta and British 
Columbia, although the provisions differ 
in detail and provision is made for an 
examination by a medical referee under 
several of the other Acts. 

Labour Relations 

An amendment to the Trade Union Act 
authorizes the Labour Relations Board of 
its own motion to state a case in writing 
for the opinion of the Supreme Court in 
banco upon any question that, in the 
opinion of the Board, is a question of law. 
The Court is to hear and determine the 
question and remit its opinion to the Board. 
No costs are to be awarded in such a case. 

Another new provision forbids any change 
in working conditions while an application 
for certification is pending unless agreed to 
by the employees concerned. The section 
provides that, where a union has applied 
for certification, an employer may not 
increase or decrease rates of wages or alter 
any other term of employment, without 
consent by or on behalf of the employees 
in the unit, before the Board has given its 
decision or, where the union is certified, 
before notice to commence collective bar- 
gaining has been given. 

A further amendment prohibits an em- 
ployer from increasing, as well as decreas- 
ing, wages without the employees' consent 
after notice to commence collective bargain- 
ing has been given by a certified union or 
after the commencement of negotiations 
for renewal of an agreement. 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



851 



The amendments were proclaimed effec- 
tive from June 1. 

Elevators and Lifts 

An amendment to the Elevators and Lifts 
Act, which was passed last year to provide 
for the licensing and regulation of passen- 
ger and freight elevators and other types 
of lifts, provides that the Act will come 
into force from January 1, 1958. 

No elevator or lift may be operated 
unless it is licensed by the Chief Inspector. 
A further amendment authorizes the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council to prescribe 
the form of such licences and the condi- 
tions under which they may be granted, 
suspended, revoked or transferred, to pro- 
hibit the transfer of licences and to pres- 
cribe licence fees. 

Collective Bargaining for Teachers 

Collective bargaining between the Nova 
Scotia Teachers' Union and school boards 
has been authorized by the Nova Scotia 
Teachers' Union Act since 1953 (L.G. 1953, 
p. 1805). Amendments were made this 
year to the sections of the Act which pro- 
vide for the establishment of a concilia- 
tion commission when the parties fail to 
agree on a question of salaries and other 
conditions of employment. 

The amendments make the setting up of 
a commission mandatory when requested 
by one of the parties, fix a time limit for 
the nomination of members, and make 
provision for an appointment by a judge 
where a party fails to appoint a member. 

The Act provides that, where the par- 
ties are unable to agree, either may give 
notice in writing to the other that it 
desires the matters in dispute to be referred 
to a conciliation commission of three per- 
sons. The party giving notice is required, 
when giving notice, to name its nominee 
and to request that the other party name 
a person to act on the commission. The 
amendment requires this person to be 
appointed and the other party to be notified 
of the appointment within seven days of 
receipt of the notice. Similarly, the two 
parties are now required to appoint the 
third member, the chairman of the com- 
mission, within a seven-day time limit. 

If one party fails to appoint a member, 
the other may apply to a judge of a county 
court to appoint the member. As before, 
if the two members fail to appoint the 
chairman, either party may apply to a 
judge to make the appointment. 

The amendment further provides that 
the remuneration of the members is to be 
determined by the Minister of Education 



and that the money required is to be paid 
out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund in 
the absence of a vote of the Legislature. 

The commission is to inquire into the 
matters in dispute and endeavour to bring 
about agreement between the parties. The 
chairman and one other member is to con- 
stitute a quorum, but in the absence of a 
member the other members must not pro- 
ceed unless the absent member has been 
given reasonable notice of the sitting. The 
decision of the majority is to be the deci- 
sion of the commission and in the event 
that the votes are equal the chairman has 
the casting vote. Unless the parties agree 
otherwise or the Minister otherwise directs, 
the commission is required to submit a 
report of its findings and recommendations 
to the Minister and the parties within one 
month of the appointment of its chairman. 

A new provision states that the recom- 
mendations of the commission insofar as 
they relate to the expenditure of money by 
a school board are to be considered as 
recommendations relating to the year for 
which the board next presents estimates to 
the city, town or municipal council. 

Vocational Education 

A new section was added to the Voca- 
tional Education Act to provide statutory 
authority for the Minister of Education 
to enter into an agreement with the federal 
or a provincial Government or with a 
municipality, corporation, association or 
person relating to the construction, improv- 
ing, altering, equipping, maintaining and 
conducting of vocational schools. Since 
1945 the federal Government has had agree- 
ments with all provinces for the purpose 
of providing financial assistance towards the 
building and equipment of vocational 
schools on the secondary school level. 

Old Age Assistance and Blind Persons' 
Allowances 

Amendments were made to the Old Age 
Assistance Act and the Blind Persons Allow- 
ances Act to authorize the Minister of 
Public Welfare to make agreements with 
the federal Government providing for pay- 
ment by the Government of Canada to 
the Government of Nova Scotia of not less 
than 50 per cent of allowances paid by the 
province to the aged and not less than 
75 per cent of allowances to the blind. 
Since the Minister of Finance announced 
in the budget speech that provision was 
being made for funds to pay, from July 
1, 50 and 75 per cent, respectively, of allow- 
ances of up to $46 a month to the aged 
and blind, instead of the former amount 
of $40, the amendments will enable the 



852 



province to enter into new agreements or 
amend existing agreements to take advan- 
tage of the proposed increase. 

Social Assistance 

Amendments were made to the Social 
Assistance Act removing some of the restric- 
tions on the payment of allowances. 

The Act was passed in 1956 (L.G., 1956, 
p. 1028) to provide assistance to certain 
families with children under 16 years where 
the father has deserted the family for at 
least a year and his whereabouts are 
unknown or where he has been committed 
to prison for two years or longer. An 
allowance is also payable to a foster parent 
caring for abandoned children and to a 



woman with one or more children who has 
lived as the common law wife of a man 
for at least five years immediately pre- 
ceding his death. The Act is complementary 
to the Mothers' Allowances Act. 

As passed, the Act provided that, in order 
to qualify for an allowance, a mother whose 
husband was in prison or had deserted her 
must have resided in the province at the 
time of the sentence or desertion and in 
the case of a common law wife must have 
been a resident at the time of the death 
of the father of her children. These qualifi- 
cations are now repealed. Similarly, an 
abandoned child for whom an allowance 
is sought need no longer have been residing 
in Nova Scotia when he was abandoned 
in order that the allowance be granted. 



Labour Legislation in New Brunswick, 1957 

Provincial Legislature makes amendments to Workmen's Compensation 
Act, Stationary Engineers Act and to mothers' allowances legislation 



The New Brunswick Legislature, which 
was in session from February 21 to April 
12. amended the Workmen's Compensation 
Act, raising from $3,000 to $4,000 the 
maximum annual earnings on which com- 
pensation may be based, and also amended 
the Stationary Engineers Act and the 
Mothers' Allowances Act. 

Workmen's Compensation 

By an amendment to the Workmen's 
Compensation Act, the ceiling on earnings 
for compensation purposes was raised from 
S3 .000 to $4,000, effective from January 1, 
1958. 

By a further amendment a new section 
was added stipulating that payments in 
respect of a child are to be made according 
to the present scale of benefits regardless 
of the date of the accident which caused 
the death of the workman, but no payment 
may be made covering a period prior to 
January 1, 1957. This section became effec- 
tive on January 1, 1957. 

Stationary Engineers 

The Stationary Engineers Act was 
amended to change the definition of "boiler 
horsepower". One boiler horsepower is now 
equal to "10 square feet of heating surface 
(instead of 15) in return tubular boilers 
and to 10 square feet of heating surface 
(instead of 12) in internallv fired boilers. 



The amending Act also provided for a 
new grouping of pressure vessels with 
respect to inspection fees. There are now 
four classifications instead of three. For 
inspection of pressure vessels up to and 
including 24 inches in diameter the fee is 
$3. The fee for pressure vessels that fall 
within the category of "more than 24 inches 
up to and including 42 inches" is $4.50. For 
those of more than 42 inches up to and 
including 60 inches, the fee is $6. For 
pressure vessels of more than 60 inches in 
diameter the fee remains $10. 

The Act provides that no employer may 
employ or keep in his employ for the 
purpose of operating or having charge of a 
steam power plant or boiler plant a person 
who is not a holder of a valid licence. An 
amendment added the further prohibition 
that an employer may not permit any 
person in his employ to operate or take 
charge of a steam power plant or boiler 
plant who does not hold a valid licence 
to do so. 

Mothers' Allowances 

An amendment to the Mothers' Allow- 
ances Act changed from three years to one 
year the period of residence required in 
respect of a child in order to be eligible 
for the payment of an allowance. Other 
conditions for eligibility having been com- 
plied with, an allowance may now be paid 

(Continued on page 878) 



853 



Labour Legislation in Saskatchewan, 1957 

New wages recovery law passed. Benefits to children increased under 
workmen's compensation legislation. Minor changes made in other acts 



Several of Saskatchewan's labour laws 
were amended in some respect at the session 
of the Legislature that began on February 
14 and prorogued April 10. A new Wages 
Recovery Act was passed, bringing the legis- 
lation more closely under the jurisdiction 
of the Department of Labour. Monthly 
benefits payable to children under the 
Workmen's Compensation (Accident Fund) 
Act were raised. Minor changes were made 
in the laws dealing with hours of work, 
holidays with pay, minimum wages, indus- 
trial standards and school attendance. 

Recovery of Unpaid Wages 

A new Wages Recovery Act, which went 
into effect on July 1, replaces the Act 
passed in 1951 (L.G. 1951, p. 997). 

The Act, like its predecessor, provides 
a worker with a procedure for collecting 
unpaid wages by enabling him to make a 
complaint before a justice of the peace or 
a police magistrate stating the amount of 
wages claimed. The magistrate is required 
to summon the employer before him and, 
if he finds the complaint to be legitimate, 
he may discharge the worker from his 
employment, if the term of service has 
not expired, and he must order the em- 
ployer to pay the wages found due, up to 
a maximum of $500 (formerly $400), 
together with costs. The $500 limit applies, 
however, only with respect to an employer 
to whom the Minimum Wage Act does not 
apply. 

As under the former Act, provision is also 
made for the collection of wages by Depart- 
ment of Labour inspectors (in the same 
manner as is provided in the Minimum 
Wage Act, the Hours of Work Act and 
the Annual Holidays Act). Under this Act, 
as under the other Acts named, an inspector 
is authorized to determine the amount 
owing and to obtain an agreement in writing 
between the employer and the employee 
as to the amount. Where the amount is 
agreed to, the employer is required to pay 
it within two days to the Deputy Minister 
of Labour who in turn pays it to the em- 
ployee concerned. If the employer pays 
the required amount within the time speci- 
fied, the employee is not entitled to lay 
an information in respect of the wages 
covered by the payment. 

In the revision, the Act has been brought 
more closely under the jurisdiction of the 
Department of Labour and into conformity 



with other labour laws of the province by 
the addition of sections setting out require- 
ments with respect to the keeping of records 
and posting of abstracts, giving specific 
authority for inspectors to make inspections, 
and prohibiting discrimination against an 
employee who gives information regarding 
wages or participates in any proceeding in 
connection with the enforcement of the Act. 

The Act now provides that all money 
which an employer is required to pay by a 
magistrate or as a result of the investiga- 
tions of the Department of Labour is 
deemed to be wages and is subject to all 
deductions that the employer is required 
to make under any federal or provincial 
statute. 

Another new section forbids an employer 
to require an employee to return, or to 
accept the return of, any wages paid under 
the Act or a contract of service. 

The requirements for posting of abstracts 
and keeping of records are made applicable 
only to employers to whom the Minimum 
Wage Act applies. Such employers are 
required to keep any abstract of the Act 
or regulations which may be prescribed by 
the Minister posted so that it may be seen 
and read by all their employees. 

Records required to be kept with respect 
to each employee must show the name, sex, 
date of birth and residential address; the 
name or a brief description of the job of the 
employee; the regular rate of wages; the 
date and particulars of any change in the 
rate of wages; the total wages paid for each 
pay period; the total number of hours 
worked each day and each week; and any 
deductions made. Records must be main- 
tained for at least two years. All employ- 
ment records, including a copy of every 
written contract of service, collective agree- 
ment or any other document dealing with 
wages or other monetary benefits to which 
an employee is entitled, must be kept 
readily available for inspection by the 
Minister or an inspector. 

A further new section sets out the powers 
of the Minister or his representative to 
make an inspection of the payrolls and 
other records of the employer and to require 
any person to furnish information relating, 
to wages, other monetary benefits or any 
condition of employment affecting an em- 
ployee. 



854 



Workmen's Compensation 

An amendment to the Workmen's Com- 
pensation (Accident Fund) Act increased, 
from May 1, the monthly allowances pay- 
able to children under 16 years living with 
a parent from $25 to $35 and those payable 
to orphan children under 16 from $35 to 
$45. The increases apply in respect of all 
children's allowances whether or not the 
accident resulting in the death of the father 
occurred before or after May 1. 

Another amendment adds to the Work- 
men's Compensation Board's powers with 
respect to accident prevention the general 
power "to take such measures and make 
such expenditures as the Board deems neces- 
sary or expedient for the prevention of 
accidents to workmen". 

Vacations with Pay 

The Annual Holidays Act was amended 
to provide that, for the purposes of the 
Act, where a business is sold, leased, trans- 
ferred or otherwise disposed of, the service 
of the employees concerned will be deemed 
to be continuous and uninterrupted. A 
similar provision appears in the legislation 
of British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba. 

Minimum Wages 

An amendment to the Minimum Wage 
Act provides an alternative basis on which 
the minimum wage may be fixed. Since the 
Act was enacted in 1919 it has provided that 
in exercising its powers to fix a minimum 
wage the Minimum Wage Board is to deter- 
mine the amount deemed adequate to fur- 
nish the necessary cost of living to the 
employees in the class of employment 
affected. As an alternative basis the amend- 
ment provides that the Board may deter- 
mine a minimum wage which is fair and 
reasonable, having regard to the wages that 
it considers to be generally prevailing in 
the class of employment affected. 

Hours of Work 

Effective from May 1, if an employer is 
convicted of a violation of, or failure to 
comply with, any provision of the Hours 
of Work Act, an order or the regulations 
or any condition prescribed by the Minister 
in granting authorizations under Sections 6 
or 7 of the Act, the convicting magistrate 
may, in addition to imposing a fine, order 
the employer to pay him the wages found 
to be due for transmittal to the employee. 
If the employer fails to do so, he will be 
liable to imprisonment for a minimum of 
30 days and a maximum of 90 days. For- 
merly, the provision authorizing the magis- 
trate to require the payment of wages due 



applied only with respect to a conviction 
for violation of the main provisions of the 
Act, i.e., for failure to pay overtime as 
required. 

Under Section 6 the Minister may permit 
employees on a five-day week to work up 
to nine hours a day without overtime pay, 
provided weekly hours do not exceed 44. 
Under Section 7 the Minister may authorize 
longer working hours than eight per day 
or 44 per week, without payment of over- 
time, to facilitate the arrangement or rota- 
tion of shifts, provided average hours 
worked during a specific period do not 
exceed eight or 44. 

The maintenance of earnings clause, which 
provides that no reduction in hours in 
accordance with the provisions of the Act 
may result in a reduction of take-home pay, 
is extended to April 1, 1958. 

Apprenticeship and Tradesmen's 
Qualification 

New sections were added to the Appren- 
ticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification Act, 
effective from May 1, requiring employers 
to keep records and providing for inspection. 

Every employer carrying on business in 
a designated trade is now required to keep 
records, showing with respect to every 
tradesman and apprentice in his employ 
and every other person engaged in connec- 
tion with the business of the employer, 
the name, address, date of birth, certificate 
number and expiry date of the person con- 
cerned, the trade in which he works, the 
date of commencement of his current em- 
ployment and other particulars as may be 
required by the regulations. In the case 
of apprentices and tradesmen who are also 
employees, the employer is also required 
to keep a record of wages and the number 
of hours worked at the regular rate. 

The Minister of Labour or his represen- 
tative is authorized at any reasonable time 
to inspect records kept during the preceding 
two years and to require an employer to 
verify the entries in such records by statu- 
tory declaration or other approved method. 
He may also require any person to furnish 
any information deemed necessary to ascer- 
tain whether or not the Act or regulations 
are being complied with. 

Industrial Standards 

An amendment to the Industrial Stand- 
ards Act provides for the collection of 
unpaid wages from an employer by a 
Department of Labour inspector, a provi- 
sion which is included in most of the wage 
and hour legislation administered by the 
Department. 



855 



The new provision authorizes a represen- 
tative of the Minister to determine the 
amount of wages owing to an employee 
under an industrial standards schedule and 
to arrange an agreement between the em- 
ployer and employee as to the amount. The 
employer is required to pay the amount 
agreed on to the Deputy Minister within 
two days and he is to pay it immediately 
to the employee. If the employer does so, 
he is not liable to prosecution for failure 
to pay the wages covered by the payment 
to the Deputy Minister. 

The Deputy Minister is required to keep 
a record of all such money paid to him by 
employers and paid by him to employees. 
If the Deputy Minister is unable to locate 
an employee and if the employee fails to 
claim the money to which he is entitled, 
within two years, the money is to be paid 
into the Consolidated Revenue Fund. 

School Attendance 

Amendments were made to the sections 
of the School Attendance Act that grant 
exemptions from the requirement that all 
children between the ages of 7 and 15 must 
attend school. The amendments provide 
for cases where the child would normally 
be attending school in a larger school unit. 

A child is excused from attendance if he 
is under efficient instruction at home or 
elsewhere. It is now provided that the 
instruction must be approved by the 
superintendent of schools. A child need not 
attend also where, in the opinion of the 
unit board or, as before, the magistrate or 



board of trustees, it is necessary for him 
to be absent from school in order to main- 
tain himself or some other person dependent 
on him, or if, according to a written state- 
ment from the superintendent (formerly 
from the principal or teacher) there is not 
sufficient accommodation in the school 
which the child has the right to attend. 
Further, if the child is under 12 years 
and there is no school within 2\ miles or, 
if he is over 12, within 3J miles, he need 
not attend school unless a conveyance is 
provided by a school board or unit board 
under the terms of the School Act. It is 
now provided that this exemption does not 
apply to a child living within 1J miles from 
a school bus route established by a unit 
board for conveying children to and from 
school. 

The other exemptions are the same as 
before. Attendance is not required if the 
child is sick or there is some other unavoid- 
able cause, and the teacher is kept informed, 
or if he has passed the Grade VIII examina- 
tion or its equivalent or if, in the opinion of 
the superintendent, he should be exempted 
from further attendance at the elementary 
school level. 

Resolution 

A resolution adopted on April 2 recom- 
mended that the federal Government take 
the necessary action to establish unemploy- 
ment insurance benefits at not less than 
two-thirds of earnings of persons in insur- 
able employment, to eliminate the waiting 
period and to extend the coverage of the 
Act to groups not now within its scope. 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Ontario court refuses summary dismissal of declaratory action; British 
Columbia and Ontario courts uphold Labour Relations Board decisions 



The Ontario High Court has found that 
a company contesting the validity of an 
order of the Minister of Labour was entitled 
to bring a declaratory action. 

In a craft certification case, the British 
Columbia Supreme Court affirmed the deci- 
sion of the Labour Relations Board, holding 
that the Board in refusing .certification had 
acted within its jurisdiction. 

In an appeal from a court order quashing 
a decision of the Labour Relations Board, 
the Ontario Court of Appeal ruled that 
decisions of the Board acting within its 
jurisdiction are not reviewable by the 
courts. 



Ontario High Court . . . 

... upholds a declaratory action against an order 
of Minister of Labour under Labour Relations Act 

On February 8, 1957, the Ontario High 
Court dismissed a motion presented by the 
Attoinej'-General of the province asking 
for summary disposal of a declaratory action 
brought by a company against an order 
of the Minister of Labour issued under the 
authority of Section 58(5) of the Ontario 
Labour Relations Act. 

The facts of the case were related by 
Mr. Justice Wilson, who gave the decision 
of the Court. Following an allegation of 



856 



dismissal of certain employees, in violation 
of the Labour Relations Act, by Joyce & 
Smith Co. Ltd., an inquiry was ordered 
under Section 58 of the Act; Magistrate 
S. T. Bigelow, QC, was appointed on 
August 30, 1956, as commissioner to make 
an investigation. 

In his report, dated October 29, 1956, the 
commissioner recommended, generally, re- 
instatement of the employees, effective from 
August 21, 1956, with compensation for loss 
of earnings and other benefits, and pro- 
posed that his recommendations, if con- 
curred in by the Minister, be implemented 
within 48 hours of the company's receipt of 
the Minister's decision. 

An order dated November 9, 1956, issued 
by the Minister, directed "Joyce and Smith 
Limited, Hamilton, Ontario, to carry out 
the above cited recommendations of the 
Commissioner immediately". 

Fearing that if it failed to comply with 
the Minister's order it would be prosecuted 
under Section 61(1) of the Act, which 
provides penalties for failure to comply 
with "any decision, order, direction, declar- 
ation or ruling" made under the Act, the 
company considered that its only remedy 
was to bring a declaratory action com- 
menced by the issue of a writ of summons. 

The company contended that the order of 
the Minister and the findings and recom- 
mendations of the commissioner were illegal, 
unauthorized and ultra vires the Labour 
Relations Act. In these circumstances it 
claimed that it was entitled to bring the 
action under the authority of the well- 
known case of Dyson v. Att'y-Gen'l. (1911) 
1 K.B. 410. 

The Attorney-General for Ontario, being 
cited as defendant in the case at bar, intro- 
duced a summary motion for an order 
striking out the statement of claim pre- 
sented by the company, and for an order 
that the action be stayed, or, in the alter- 
native, that the action be dismissed on 
the grounds that (1) the statement of claim 
disclosed no reasonable cause of action, and 
was an abuse of the process of the Court; 
(2) that, if there was any cause of action, 
such action was frivolous and vexatious ; (3) 
that the action was barred by the provisions 
of the Labour Relations Act, and in par- 
ticular by Section 58; and (4) that, if the 
plaintiff had any remedy, such remedy 
should be sought by way of certiorari, and 
not by an action in the Court. 

Two main arguments were put forward 
in support of the motion: (1) that the 
action was in essence an attempt to appeal 
from an order made by the Minister of 
Labour; and (2) that, if the order was to 
be attacked, it should be by way of a 
motion for an order for certiorari. 



Dealing with the second submission first, 
Mr. Justice Wilson stated that it was 
beyond question that the order was an 
administrative order. Therefore the remedy 
for certiorari could not be applied. He 
referred to the ruling made by Mr. Justice 
Roach in Re Brown & Brock (1945) . 3 DLR 
324, who stated: "That (the power of a 
Rentals Administrator of the Wartime 
Prices and Trade Board) is an administra- 
tive power . . . and an order made in the 
exercise of it is not the subject of certiorari". 
With regard to the first submission the 
judge would not rely on the cases cited 
by the defendant because they were cer- 
tiorari proceedings. 

On the other hand, the Court accepted 
the contention of the company that, relying 
on the authority of Dyson v. Att'y-Gen'l.:, 
it was entitled to bring the action (unless the 
action was one which in the exercise of its 
power the Court ought to stay), and that 
the Attorney-General was the proper party 
to be named as defendant in the circum- 
stances. 

Relying on the decision in Smith v. A.-G. 
Out. (1922), 52 OLR 469, the Court ruled 
that the motion of the Attorney-General 
should be dismissed on the ground that 
the case ought not to be disposed of 
summarily. This, the judge stated, was 
in accordance with the usual practice of 
the Court in all civil litigation. Joyce & 
Smith Co. Ltd. v. Attorney-General for 
Ontario (1957) 7 DLR (2d) 321. 

British Columbia Supreme Court . . . 

... refuses request for certiorari, thus upholding a 
decision of province's Labour Relations Board 

On April 4, 1957, the Supreme Court of 
British Columbia rejected the application 
of a trade union for a writ of certiorari to 
review a decision of the Labour Relations 
Board refusing it certification on the ground 
that the unit of emploj^ees concerned was 
not appropriate for collective bargaining. 

The facts of the case, as related by 
Chief Justice Sherwood Lett in his reasons 
for decision, were as follows: 

In June 1954, the Aluminum Company 
of Canada at Kitimat and Kemano entered 
into a collective agreement with eleven 
unions. In August 1955, the agreement 
was renewed with amendments, effective 
until June 21, 1957. 

The renewed agreement contained, inter 
alia, a statement that the unions concerned 
had been certified as of February 2, 1954, as 
the bargaining authority for all the em- 
ployees of the company except those 
excluded by the Industrial Conciliation and 
Arbitration Act, and except technical, pro- 
fessional and supervisory staff, members of 



857 



the company's police force and office and 
clerical personnel. The agreement also 
stated that the unions had organized the 
Allied Aluminum Workers Council (AFL) 
for the purpose of co-ordinating the activi- 
ties of, and bargaining collectively on behalf 
of, the members of the union employed by 
the company in the production of aluminum, 
the generation and transmission of elec- 
tricity and other related activities, including 
maintenance work, in northern British 
Columbia and in particular at Kitimat, 
Kemano, on all transmission lines and in 
all places known as the Alcan Project. The 
statement noted that the unions had 
authorized the Council to bargain collec- 
tively with the company on their behalf 
and were desirous of entering into an 
agreement with company covering all the 
company's employees for whom the unions 
had been certified. 

The International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, Local 344, was one of the 
eleven unions which were parties to the 
agreement. IBEW Local 1661, the plaintiff 
in the case at bar, was not at that time in 
existence. United Steelworkers of America, 
Local 5115, was not a party to the 1955 
agreement. 

On May 2, 1955, Steelworkers Local 5115 
applied to the Board for certification in 
respect of certain employees of the com- 
pany at Kitimat, but the application was 
rejected on June 29 on the ground "that 
the unit is not appropriate for collective 
bargaining". On May 14, 1956, the same 
union again applied for certification but 
this time in respect of all employees of the 
company employed anywhere in northern 
British Columbia except those excluded by 
the Labour Relations Act, and certain 
enumerated exceptions. 

On or about May 29, 1956, IBEW Local 
1661, which was formed in December 1955, 
applied for certification in respect of: 
"All skilled craftsmen, workers, assistants, 
learners, helpers coming under the various 
electrical functions of the Aluminum Com- 
pany, its ancillary operations" employed 
"throughout the establishments known as 
the Kitimat and Kemano works, which 
includes the Kitimat Smelter, Kemano 
generating station, the connecting trans- 
mission system, and all associated installa- 
tions, works and territories in northern 
British Columbia". 

In an explanatory letter attached to the 
application the union stressed that the 
application covered all electrical workers 
at Kitimat and Kemano who wished to 
maintain their identity and independence 
through craft autonomy and individual 
certification. The applicant local admitted 
on its application form that another trade 



union was at the time bargaining for the 
employees affected by the application, 
namely IBEW Local 344, which held part 
of a joint certification. It also stated that 
the Allied Aluminum Workers Council, 
holding a joint certification covering all 
employees, represented other employees of 
the employer. On June 11 the Registrar 
of the Board informed the union that its 
application had "been forwarded for investi- 
gation". 

On June 21 the Registrar informed Local 
1661 that the Board would hear "the 
persons affected in respect to the application 
of the United Steelworkers of America, 
Local 5115, and the application of the 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, Local 1661, to be certified for 
units employed by the above employer" 
and set the hearing for July 11, 1956. 

The notice contained the following para- 
graph : 

You or your representative are requested 
to be present and make such representations 
as you choose and to hear submissions by 
other persons. The hearing of oral argument 
on that date does not preclude the submission 
of written argument prior to the hearing. 

On July 3, Local 1661 submitted to the 
Board a written statement, the material 
part of which reads as follows: 

The purpose of the application by Local 
Union 1661 of the International Brotherhood 
of Electrical Workers is to ensure that Local 
1661 will hold and enjoy the same position 
as Local 344 of the International Brother- 
hood of Electrical Workers, and in place of 
Local 344, with respect to the unions which 
are now certified for employees of the 
Aluminum Company of Canada Limited, at 
Kitimat, Kemano and elsewhere on the Alcan 
Project. Should anything interfere with 
that position, i.e., if the application of the 
Steelworkers' Union is granted and in con- 
sequence Local 1661 can no longer take the 
place of Local 344 in the now existing certi- 
fication, then Local 1661 wishes a craft 
certification under Section 11, chapt. 17, 
of the Labour Relations Act of British 
Columbia. 

At the hearing the following parties were 
heard: the IBEW, the Allied Aluminum 
Workers Council, the company and the 
Steelworkers' Union. Counsel for the Coun- 
cil, who was also counsel for Local 1661, 
made a statement similar to that quoted 
above and added: "I submit that if a craft 
union applies for a certification in respect 
of those members of its craft which are 
included in a larger industrial certification, 
it is my submission that under the Act 
they are entitled to that craft certification 
as of right." 

Counsel for Steelworkers Local 5115 then- 
made a submission contending that the unit 
which Local 1661 sought to represent was 
not appropriate for collective bargaining. 



858 



As to its alternative application for craft 
certification, counsel's opinion was that it 
should not be ruled on by the Board "in 
any way, shape or form". He also con- 
tended that members of Local 1661 were not 
making a craft application as such because 
Local 5115 had among its members power- 
house and line maintenance men. 

Counsel for the company, objecting to 
the application of Local 1661, submitted 
that the whole area was one unit, and that 
there was no justification for splitting it 
into smaller units. He pointed out that the 
application "includes some who do not 
appear to be craftsmen and for that added 
reason I say the application of the IBEW 
should be rejected". 

Counsel for Local 1661 replied at con- 
siderable length to these submissions. 
Referring again to the application of Local 
1661. he stated: "I wish to make it quite 
clear that this is a craft application" and 
compared it to the application of Steel- 
workers Local 5115 made in 1955. 

The same day the Board announced that 
it had decided that the unit applied for 
by the IBEW was not appropriate for col- 
lective bargaining and that a vote would 
be taken on the application of Steelworkers 
Local 5115. 

The decision of the Board was later 
confirmed by letter. No reasons for its 
findings were given at the hearing or in 
the confirming letter. No petition for recon- 
sideration of the decision was presented to 
the Board. Subsequently, in August 1956, 
the application of Steelworkers Union 5115 
was granted by the Board. 

Later Local 1661, by asking for a writ 
of certiorari, challenged the decision of the 
Board on the grounds that the Board had 
acted without jurisdiction or in excess of 
its jurisdiction in ruling that the unit 
applied for was not appropriate for collec- 
tive bargaining and that the decision was 
bad in law in that there was no evidence 
or argument presented to the Board on 
which the Board could find as a fact that 
the unit was not an appropriate unit for 
collective bargaining. 

The Court, after examining Sections 12(1), 
12 (2) and 62 (7) of the Act, stated that 
those sections gave the Board very wide 
powers in the matter of receiving and 
accepting evidence, and that it could not 
presume that the Board had failed to exer- 
cise those powers in dealing with the 
matter under consideration. The available 
evidence indicated that the Board had 
investigated the application and had before 
it as evidence the application itself, the 
various documents submitted in connection 
with it, the Board's own records, and such 
other evidence and material as it might 



have found in making its own inquiries. 
The transcript of the hearing clearly showed 
there had been argument. It also appeared 
from the transcript that counsel for Local 
1661 had been given every opportunity to 
make whatever submissions he wished, and 
that he had done so. 

The Court found that the Act did not 
contain any provision whereby the Board 
was required to state its reasons for deter- 
mining that a group was not appropriate or 
"otherwise appropriate" as a unit for col- 
lective bargaining. 

The Court then proceeded to examine 
Section 11 and noted that, with respect to 
an application for certification on behalf 
of a craft union, certain conditions must 
be established: (1) that the group of em- 
ployees belonged to a craft or group exer- 
cising technical skills, by reason of which 
it was distinguishable from the employees 
as a whole; (2) that the majority of the 
group were members of one trade union 
pertaining to such craft or skill; and (3) 
that the application was made subject to 
the provisions of Section 10 (which deals 
with applications for certification). 

The Court continued: 

The Board being satisfied as to the above 
requirements, the section is mandatory that 
the trade union applying "shall be certified" 
by the Board for the employees in the group, 
but subject to one further condition, namely, 
"if the group is otherwise appropriate as a 
unit for collective bargaining". 

Under Section 12 of the Board is required 
to determine whether a unit is appropriate 
for collective bargaining but no specific 
procedure is provided for determining 
appropriateness. Reading the Act as a 
whole, the Court stated, it could be assumed 
that the Board had the power to determine 
whether a group of employees for whom 
certification was applied for under Section 
11 was otherwise appropriate as a unit for 
collective bargaining, in the same manner 
as the Board was required to determine 
the appropriateness of a unit under Sec- 
tion 12. The judge noted that the words 
"appropriate" and "otherwise appropriate" 
were not defined in the Act. 

The Court, agreeing with the stand taken 
by the Manitoba Court in the case of 
In re International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local Union 827, and Manitoba 
Labour Board et al (1952) 6 WWR (NS) 
49 (L.G. 1952, p. 941), stated that the 
word "otherwise" must imply that appro- 
priateness of a unit for collective bargain- 
ing depends on considerations other than 
those specifically mentioned in the relevant 
section of the Act. 



859 



Chief Justice Lett then observed: 
The Board is clearly not bound to make 
its determination of appropriateness upon 
the basis only of evidence and argument 
presented at the hearing. It is not bound 
to conduct an inquiry as if it were a trial 
but "it must act in good faith and fairly 
listen to both sides". Board of Education v. 
Rice (1911) A.C. 179, re Labour Relations 
Board (Nova Scotia) et al (1955) 1 DLR 
353. 

He held that there was evidence before 
the Board from which it could determine 
"the qualifications or appropriateness en- 
visaged by the word 'otherwise' in Section 
11. Further, the onus of meeting all the 
requirements of Section 11 was upon the 
applicant, including the burden of showing 
that the group was 'otherwise appropriate'." 

Accordingly, the Court ruled that the 
Board had jurisdiction to determine if the 
group applied for by Local 1661 was other- 
wise appropriate as a unit for collective 
bargaining and added: 

It has not been established by the appli- 
cant herein that the Board acted without 
jurisdiction or in excess of its jurisdiction 
or was influenced by some extraneous con- 
sideration which would render its decision 
invalid in law. Nor has it been shown that 
its decision was made arbitrarily or capri- 
ciously. 

The application for a writ of certiorari 
was therefore denied. Re International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Local 
1661 v. the Labour Relations Board of 
British Columbia, British Columbia Supreme 
Court, April 4, 1957. 

Ontario Appeal Court . . . 

... holds that decision of the province's Labour 
Relations Board is not reviewable by the Court 

On April 24, 1957, the Ontario Supreme 
Court (Appeal Side) allowed an appeal 
brought by a union against a decision of 
the Ontario High Court quashing certifica- 
tions issued by the Labour Relations Board 
and ruled that when the Board acts within 
the limits of its jurisdiction its decisions 
are not reviewable by the Court. 

Mr. Justice Roach, who gave the decision, 
and with whom Mr. Justice Aylesworth and 
Mr. Justice Lebel agreed, first related the 
facts of the case. 

The union, Local 166 of the American 
Federation of Technical Engineers (AFL), 
representing the Methods, Wage Rate and 
Senior Cost Technicians Association of 
Ontario, applied for certification as the 
bargaining agent for certain employees 
of Canadian General Electric Company, 
Limited, in each of its three plants located 
at Peterborough, Toronto and Guelph. The 
employees concerned were employed in six 
classifications, namely, wage rate analysts, 



senior cost clerks, methods men, rate 
setters, time study men and motion time 
study men. 

The company opposed the applications 
on the ground that the employees con- 
cerned were excluded from the Labour 
Relations Act by Section 1 (3) (b), in that 
they exercised "managerial functions" or 
were "employed in a confidential capacity in 
matters relating to labour relations". 

After an extensive hearing (as to which 
no complaint was made before the Court) 
the Board held by a majority decision that 
employees in all the classifications except 
those of wage rate analyst and senior cost 
clerk were "employees" for the purposes 
of the Act. 

Subsequently the Board granted certifica- 
tion in respect of the employees concerned. 
The company then applied to the Court for 
certiorari and an order quashing the certifi- 
cates on the ground that the Board lacked 
jurisdiction to grant them. 

The motion was heard by Mr. Justice 
Wells, who ruled that methods men, rate 
setters and motion time study men were 
not employees within the meaning of the 
Act but that time study me.ci were "em- 
ployees". Accordingly, he quashed, for lack 
of jurisdiction, the Board's certification with 
respect to the first three classifications and 
dismissed the application with respect to 
the fourth, time sUkIv men (L.G., Aug. 
1956, p. 1032). 

The union appealed the decision and in 
the appeal the company moved to vary the 
decision by quashing the certification as 
it applied to time study men. 

The Court of Appeal in dealing with the 
case took into consideration the sections 
of the Act setting out the Board's general 
powers with respect to certification, and 
particularly Sections 1 (3) (b), 68 (1) (a) 
and 69. The sections read as follows: 

Sec. 1 (3) For the purposes of this Act no 
person shall be deemed to be an 
employee, 
(b) . . .who exercises managerial 
functions or is employed in a 
confidential capacity in matters 
relating to labour relations. 

Sec. 68 (1) The Board shall have exclusive 
jurisdiction to exercise the powers 
conferred upon it by or under 
this Act and without limiting the 
generality of the foregoing, if any 
question arises in any proceeding, 
(a) as to whether a person is an 
employer or an employee; 

The decision of the Board thereon 
shall be final and conclusive for 
all purposes. 

Sec. 69. No decision, order, direction, 
declaration or ruling of the 
Board shall be questioned or 
reviewed in any court and no 



860 



order shall be made or process 
entered, or proceedings taken in 
any court, whether by way of 
injunction, declaratory judgment, 
certiorari, mandamus, prohibi- 
tion, quo warranto, or otherwise, 
to question, review, prohibit or 
restrain the Board or any of its 
proceedings. 

Reviewing Mr. Justice Wells' decision, 
the Court stated that Mr. Justice Wells 
had pointed out that, while the Board 
might have an exclusive jurisdiction, its 
jurisdiction was limited to the powers con- 
ferred on it by the Act and it was subject 
to the positive prohibition of Section 
1 (3) (b). In consequence it could not give 
itself jurisdiction by making a wrong 
decision in the face of that prohibition. 
In his examination of the issue Mr. Justice 
Wells had sought to determine the mean- 
ing of the expressions "managerial func- 
tions" and "employed in a confidential 
capacity in matters relating to labour rela- 
tions** and had applied his findings to the 
available evidence. As a result of his 
inquiry he held that none of the employees 
in question were employed in a confidential 
capacity in matters relating to labour rela- 
tions and that all except the time study 
men exercised managerial functions. 

The Court of Appeal took a different 
stand regarding the basic issue of the case. 
In this respect Mr. Justice Roach stated: 

In my respectful opinion, the question 
before Mr. Justice Wells and now before this 
Court is not whether the employees in the 
tour classifications as to whom certification 
was granted by the Board did or did not 
exercise "managerial functions" or were or 
were not "employed in a confidential capacity 
in matters relating to labour relations". It 
is simply this, — has the Legislature vested 
in the Board the exclusive jurisdiction to 
decide those matters? 

In Mr. Justice Roach's opinion, Mr. Jus- 
tice Wells had treated those matters as 
collateral matters, the decision on which 
the Board's jurisdiction to certify the union 
depended. In this respect he relied on the 
case Bunbury v. Fuller 156 E.R. 47. Mr. 
Justice Roach, however, considered that 
the Board had to decide the question but, 
in so doing, it was deciding not a collateral 
matter but a matter that was an essential 
and integral part of the whole subject 
matter over which it was given explicit 
and exclusive jurisdiction. 
Mr. Justice Roach then added: 
I think it is absolutely impossible to 
regard the question whether the employees 
concerned exercised "managerial functions" 
or were "employed in a confidential capacity 
in matters, relating to labour relations", as 
something "extrinsic to the adjudication im- 
peached" in the instant case. A collateral 
matter must be something lying aside from 
the main issue and in that sense extrinsic 
to it. But how could the question, whether 



these workmen are employees for the pur- 
poses of the Act, ever be a matter extrinsic 
to or lying aside from the issue which the 
Board had to decide? It is a very part of 
that issue and in no sense in any way 
isolated from it. It is equally as essential 
a part of that issue as other questions which 
the Board would have to decide in determin- 
ing whether the applications for certificates 
should or should not be granted. 

Counsel for the company, arguing that 
the question of whether a person is an 
"employee" was a collateral question and 
not part of the main subject matter of the 
proceedings, referred to two cases: Re 
Lunenburg Sea Products Limited (N.S.), 
(1947) 3 DLR 195, and The King v. Labour 
Relations Board (N.S.) (1951) 4 DLR 227. 
Neither case, in the opinion of the Court, 
was relevant since in neither was there 
and employer-employee relationship, while 
in the case at bar such legal relationship 
did exist under the general law and was 
neither in doubt nor challenged. 

On the question of whether the Board's 
decision that the employees involved were 
employees for the purposes of the Act 
was reviewable by the Court, Mr. Justice 
Roach cited Lord Esher's judgment in The 
Queen v. Commissioners for Special Pur- 
poses of the Income Tax Act, 21 Q.B.D. 
313, that 

When an inferior Court or tribunal or 
body, which has to exercise the power of 
deciding facts, is first established by Act of 
Parliament, the Legislature has to consider 
what powers it will give that tribunal or 
body . . . The Legislature may entrust the 
tribunal or body with a jurisdiction, which 
includes the jurisdiction to determine whether 
the preliminary state of facts exists as well 
as the jurisdiction, on finding that it does 
exist, to proceed further or do something 
more. When the Legislature are establishing 
such a tribunal or body with limited juris- 
diction, they also have to consider, whatever 
jurisdiction they give them, whether there 
shall be any appeal from their decision, for 
otherwise there will be none. In the second 
of the two cases I have mentioned it is an 
erroneous application of the formula to say 
that the tribunal cannot give themselves 
jurisdiction by wrongly deciding certain facts 
to exist, because the Legislature gave them 
jurisdiction to determine all the facts, includ- 
ing the existence of the preliminary facts on 
which the further exercise of their jurisdic- 
tion depends; and if they were given juris- 
diction so to decide, without any appeal 
being given, there is no appeal from such 
exercise of their jurisdiction. 

Relying on Lord Esher's judgment and 
other authorities, Mr. Justice Roach con- 
sidered that the decision of the Board was 
not a decision on a collateral matter only 
and thus reviewable but that it was a 
decision on the merits and thus final and 
not open to review. 

Mr. Justice Roach also noted that the 
Ontario Labour Relations Act contained a 
privative clause (Section 69) which pre- 



861 



vented certiorari proceedings and that, 
where there was a privative clause, the 
remedy of certiorari could be applied only 
in cases where the Board has acted without 
or in excess of its jurisdiction. 

The Court ruled that the Board had 
acted within its jurisdiction and that its 
decision was not reviewable by the Court. 



It directed that the order of Mr. Justice 
Wells should be varied accordingly. The 
appeal was allowed with costs, and the 
motion by the company to vary was dis- 
missed with costs. Re Ontario Labour 
Relations Board, Bradley et al v. Canadian 
General Electric Company Ltd. (1957) 
8 DLR (2d) 65. 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 

Minimum wage rates increased in Saskatchewan; new Fair Wage Sched- 
ule issued in Manitoba; and welding regulations revised in Saskatchewan 



The Saskatchewan minimum wage orders 
were revised, effective June 1, to raise the 
general minimum wage applicable in the 
larger centres from $26 to $30 a week and 
that payable in the remainder of the prov- 
ince from $24.50 to $29. For the first time 
special minimum rates were set for workers 
under 18 years. 

The Manitoba Fair Wage Schedule for 
1957-58 was issued, setting higher rates for 
most classifications of workers. 

Revised regulations governing welding 
under the Saskatchewan Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Act now require an applicant for a 
pressure welder's authorization to hold a 
valid journeyman welder's certificate or 
have at least four years' welding experience. 

Among the regulations issued recently 
under the Canada Shipping Act were 
revised regulations governing food and 
catering for ships' crews. 

FEDERAL 
Canada Shipping Act 

A number of new regulations have been 
issued recently under the Canada Shipping 
Act. Revised regulations respecting food 
and catering for ships' crews authorized by 
P.C. 1957-284 of February 28 were gazetted 
on March 13. Other regulations dealing 
with examination of engineers, inspection of 
large fishing vessels and fire detection and 
fire extinguishing equipment were approved 
by the Governor in Council on March 21 
and gazetted on April 10. 

Food and Catering for Ships' Crews 

New Ships' Crews Food and Catering 
Regulations replace regulations issued in 
1950 (L.G. 1951, p. 1000) to give effect to 
International Labour Convention No. 68, 
one of the four maritime Conventions 
adopted at the 1946 session of the Inter- 
national Labour Conference and ratified by 
Canada in March 1951. 



Like the previous regulations, the new 
Ships' Crews Food and Catering Regula- 
tions not only lay down general rules 
respecting catering but also set out specific 
requirements. The latter are contained in 
a schedule which prescribes the amount of 
rations which must be supplied weekly to 
each member of the crew and specifies the 
conditions and exceptions to be observed 
in applying the scale. 

The general requirements are the same 
as formerly, the regulations providing that 
an adequate supply of food and water must 
be taken on board before a voyage com- 
mences. The food must be suitable in 
respect of quantity, nutritive value, quality 
and variety. The construction, location, ven- 
tilation, heating, lighting, water system and 
equipment of galleys and other catering 
department spaces, including storerooms, 
refrigeration chambers and messes, must be 
such as to permit the service of proper 
meals. 

The master of the ship or an officer 
designated by him, together with a respon- 
sible member of the catering department, 
is required to make a weekly inspection of 
the supplies of food and water and of all 
spaces and equipment used for their storage 
and handling, and also of the galley and 
other equipment used for the preparation 
and service of meals. A record of the 
weekly inspections is to be kept and shown 
to the inspector on request. 

As formerly, the regulations provide that 
an inspector (an officer of the Department 
of National Health and Welfare) may 
inspect the ship at any time to ensure that 
the regulations are being complied with. 
They further provide that, if conditions are 
not satisfactory, he may make an order 
requiring improvements to be made within 
a specified time and that every person to 
whom the order is directed must comply 
with it. 



862 



If the Minister of Transport receives a 
written complaint at least 24 hours before a 
ship is scheduled to leave port from at least 
five members of the crew, or on behalf of 
a recognized organization of shipowners or 
seafarers, he may order a special inspection. 

The schedule setting out the standard 
weekly rations has been considerably 
revised, however, increasing the nutritional 
value of the food to be supplied. The milk 
ration has been raised. Additional quan- 
tities of fruit must be supplied, the regula- 
tions providing that each seaman must be 
allowed at least 20 ounces of orange or 
grapefruit juice a week, 16 ounces of canned 
tomatoes, 20 ounces of canned fruit and 
five ounces of dried fruit. Previously, the 
weekly fruit ration consisted of five ounces 
of dried fruit and 14 ounces of canned 
tomatoes. A larger quantity of canned or 
fresh vegetables must also be provided. 
Although the standard weekly meat ration 
has been reduced, larger quantities of flour, 
butter, sugar and tea have to be supplied. 
Other changes were made with respect to 
permitted substitutes and the conditions to 
be observed in following the schedule. 

Examination of Engineers 

The Examination of Engineers Regula- 
tions (P.C. 3280 of June 11, 1952) were 
amended by P.C. 1957-388 with respect to 
Schedules D and K, the schedules which set 
out the requirements for examination for 
a First Class certificate and for a certificate 
as watchkeeping engineer of a motor-driven 
fishing vessel. 

One amendment provides that a person 
who has spent not less than 24 months as 
engineer on the watch on a steamship of 
not less than 100 nominal horsepower may 
be examined for a First Class steam certi- 
ficate provided that ; while holding a Second 
Class certificate, he has served not less 
than 12 months as engineer on the watch in 
a steamship of not less than 90 nominal 
horsepower. 

Another amendment lowers the age 
requirement for candidates for examination 
for a certificate as watchkeeping engineer 
of a motor-driven fishing vessel from 21 to 
19 years. 

Fire Detection and Extinguishing Equip- 
ment 
The Fire Detection and Extinguishing 
Equipment Regulations made by P.C. 
1956-429 of 1956 (L.G., May 1956, p. 550) 
were amended by P.C. 1957-393 with respect 
to the fire extingushing equipment to be 
provided on passenger-carrying steamships 
and launches of not over 5 tons, gross 
tonnage, on pleasure yachts and on steam- 
ships not over 15 tons which do not carry 
passengers. 



Large Fishing Vessels 

An amendment to the Large Fishing 
Vessel Inspection Regulations (L.G., Sept. 

1956, p. 1159) sets out the number of life- 
boats and dories now required on fishing 
vessels between 80 and 100 feet in length. 

PROVINCIAL 
British Columbia Hours of Work Act 

By Regulation No. 21, 1957, the British 
Columbia Board of Industrial Relations 
has again exempted the fresh , fruit and 
vegetable industry from the operation of 
the Hours of Work Act for the period June 
1 to November 30, inclusive. 

Manitoba Fair Wage Act 

Fair Wage Schedule 

The annual fair wage schedule fixing 
minimum wages and maximum hours of 
work for construction workers was gazetted 
on April 27, to remain in force from May 1, 

1957, until April 30, 1958. Higher rates of 
wages were approved for most occupations. 

As previously, the schedule is in two 
parts. Part I applies to private construction 
work costing more than $100 in the Greater 
Winnipeg Water District or in any city or 
town with a population of 2,000 or more 
or in any other part of the province to 
which the Act may be extended by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and to 
public work authorized by the Minister of 
Public Works for the execution of which a 
contract has been entered into between the 
Minister and the employer. Part II applies 
to public works for highway, road, bridge 
or drainage construction outside the City 
of Winnipeg. 

Zone "A" rates apply to public and 
private work in Winnipeg and a 30-mile 
radius (excluding the town of Selkirk, which 
is in Zone "B"). The lower or Zone "B" 
rates apply to public work elsewhere in the 
province and to private work in cities with 
a population of more than 2,000 (Brandon, 
Dauphin, Flin Flon, Minnedosa, Neepawa, 
Portage la Prairie, Selkirk, Steinbach, Swan 
River and The Pas). Increases granted in 
Part I ranged from 4 cents to 30 cents an 
hour, the most common increase being 10 
cents an hour. 

In Part II rates in all classifications were 
increased by an average of 10 per cent. 
In addition, maximum hours over each two- 
week period were raised for every classifica- 
tion from 108 to 120 hours. 

The schedule follows: 



863 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART I 

The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, A.D. 1957, on "Private Work" and on "Public Works' 
as described above: 



Occupation 



1. Asbestos Workers— 

(a) Journeymen 

(b) 1st Class Improvers. 

(c) 2nd Class Improvers. 

(d) 3rd Class Improvers. 

1st 6 months 

next 12 months 



2. Bricklayers 

3. Bridge and Structural Steel and Iron Workers 

4. Carpenters and Millwrights — 

Carpenters 

Carpenters 

Carpenters — Millwrights 



5. Cement Finishers and Oxychloride Workers on floors without a 
polished terrazzo finish (in warehouses or large floor area jobs) 

(a) Cement Finishers 

(b) Oxychloride Workers 



6. Electrical Workers (inside wiremen) — 

Licensed Journeymen 

Helpers with 2 years or more experience assisting journeymen 

7. Elevator Constructors ...... 

(Passenger and Freight) 
Helpers 



8. Building Labourers — 

(a) Assisting Mechanics 

in the setting of cut stone, terracotta, tile and marble, 
bending, reinforcing materials, mixing mortar and assis- 
ting sheet metal journeymen 

(b) General Building Labourers. . 

(c) Sewer and Underground Construction work 

(a) Caisson Workers 

(b) Labourers 

(c) Pipe Layers 

(d) Tunnellers 

(e) Terrazzo and Oxychloride worl 

(a) Base Machine Rubbers (dry) 

(b) Machine Rubbers (wet) 

9. Lathers 

10. Linoleum Floor Layers 

11. Marble Setters 



12. 



(1) Painters, Decorators, Paper-hangers urn 1 Glaziers— 
A: Certified by the Manitoba Provincial Apprenticeship 
Board 



B: Non-certified by the Manitoba Provincial Apprenticeship 
Board 



(2) Swing Stage and Spray Painters— 

C: Certified by the Manitoba Provincial Apprenticeship 
Board 



D: Non-certified by the Manitoba Provincial Apprenticeship 
Board 



13. Plasterers 

14. Journeymen of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry. 
Helpers 



15. Roofers, Mop Handlers. 

16. Sheet Metal Workers. . . 

17. Shinglers 

18. Stonecutters 

19- Stonemasons 



20. Terrazzo and Oxychloride Workers- 
Layers 



Zone "A" 



Basic 

Minimum 

Wage 

Rate 



1.95 
1.60 
1.42 

1.20 
1.30 

2.35 

2.30 



Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 



2.15 40 

City of Brandon 
2 '35 40 



1.60 
1.60 



2.20 
1.50 

2.23 

1.56 

1.50 

1.30 

1.50 
1.30 
1.35 
1.35 

1.25 
1.30 

2.25 

1.40 

2.05 

1.80 
1.70 

1.90 

1.80 

2.35 

2.25 
1.50 

1.40 

2.00 

1.50 

1.85 
2.35 

2.00 



Zone "B" 



Basic 

linimum 

Wage 

Rate 



1.70 
1.45 
1.30 

1.20 
1.25 

1.95 



1.80 
1.85 
1.95 



1.45 
1.45 



1.85 



1.35 



1.10 

1.35 
1.10 
1.15 
1.15 

1.25 
1.20 

1.35 

1.25 

1.75 



1.70 

1.60 

1.70 



40 


1.70 


40 


1.95 


40 

48 


1.90 
1.35 


48 


1.40 


m 


1 60 


40 


1.40 


44 


1.85 


40 


1.95 



.78 



Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 



864 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART I-Concluded 





Zone "A" 


Zone "B" 


Occupation 


Basic 

Minimum 

Wage 

Rate 


Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 


Basic 

Minimum 

Wage 

Rate- 


Maximum 

Hours 
Per Week 


21. Tile setters (including all clay product Tile and Vitrolite Glass) 

22. Tile setters (plastic, metal, asphalt, rubber and lino tile) 

23. Timber and Crib men working on grain elevators or bridges 
doing the crib work on grain elevators or rough timber work on 


$ 
2.05 
1.75 

1.45 

1.40 

1.65 
1.49 
1.49 

.80 


40 
40 

48 

48 

40 
40 
40 


$ 

1.75 
1.50 

1.45 

1.25 

1.65 
1.49 
1.49 


48 
48 

48 


24. Truck Drivers (while in charge of truck on construction work 


48 


25. Installation of Plate Glass and Affiliated Materials — 

(a) Plate Glass and/or Metal Setters 


48 




48 




48 


26. Watchman 













SCHEDULE "A"— PART U 

PUBLIC ROADS AND BRIDGE WORKS 

The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, 1957, on Public Works for highway, road, bridge or 
drainage construction where a contract has been entered into by the Minister of Public Works, in all parts of Manitoba 
outside the limits of the City of Winnipeg. 



Occupation 



27. Aggregate Batch Man 

28. Asphaltic Oil Distributor Driver 

29. Blade Grader (12 H.P. and over) Operator 

30. Concrete Finisher 

*31. Concrete Paver Operator 

*32. Dragline, Shovel and Crane Operator 

33. Elevator Grader Operator 

34. Engineer, Stationary Boiler 

35. Labourers 

36. Motor Patrol Operator 

37. Roller Operator, 6-ton and over, steel wheels 

•38. Scraper and Bulldozer Operator 

39. Spreader and Finishing Machine Operator 

40. Teamsters 

41. Timber Men (timber work where use of hammers, saws, axes and augers only are 
required) 

42. Tractor Operator, 50 H.P. drawbar or over 

43. Tractor Operator, under 50 H.P. drawbar 

44. Truck Drivers 

45. Watchman and Flagman 



Minimum 

Basic 
Wage Rate 
Per Hour 




Maximum 

hours of 

straight 

time rates 

over each 

two-week 

period 



120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 

120 
120 
120 
120 
120 



• Probationary Rates. 

46. (1) Where a new employee agrees with his employer to prove his ability to operate one of these machines by a short 
trial period at a probationary rate, not later than the date upon which the employee starts work, the employer shall 
send to the Department, by registered mail, a letter signed by the employee and the employer, certifying that for a 
probationary period not exceeding 30 days, a rate of 15 cts. below the schedule rate has been agreed upon. 

(2) Sub-section (1) is applicable only to: Concrete Paver Operator; Dragline, Shovel and Crane Operator; Scraper 
and Bulldozer Operator. 



865 



91463—6 



Saskatchewan Boiler and Pressure Vessel Act 

New regulations under the Saskatchewan 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Act setting 
more stringent requirements for welding on 
boilers, pressure vessels and pressure piping 
were gazetted on April 18, replacing regula- 
tions authorized by O.C. 353/50 and O.C. 
1856/50 (L.G. 1950, p. 701). 

The revised regulations set out the respon- 
sibilities of manufacturers, contractors and 
welders; prescribe qualification tests for 
pressure welders; lay down detailed rules 
with respect to stamping of work, welded 
repairs and classification and welding of 
pressure piping; provide for inspection; and 
prescribe fees. The regulations adopt as 
standards the most recent editions of the 
applicable CSA, ASA and ASME Codes. 

Application 

The regulations apply to all welding done 
in connection with the construction, fabrica- 
tion, alteration or repair of any high pres- 
sure or low pressure boiler, pressure vessel 
or pressure piping which is subject to 
inspection, approval or registration under 
the Act. 

In addition, the following types of piping 
are subject to the requirements of the 
regulations: (a) steam piping to carry steam 
at more than 15 p.s.i.; (b) water piping 
to carry hot water at more than 200°F; 
(c) piping to carry refrigerants, anhydrous 
ammonia, propane or similar gases at more 
than 15 p.s.i.; (d) air piping larger than 
1 inch nominal pipe size to carry air at 
more than 50 p.s.i.; (e) oil piping larger 
than 1 inch nominal pipe size to carry hot 
oil at more than 200°F; (f) pipe headers 
and other piping used directly in connection 
with any oil field vessel subject to regis- 
tration or inspection by the Department 
of Labour; (g) steam piping larger than 3 
inch nominal pipe size to carry low pressure 
steam at 15 p.s.i. or less where the steam 
is supplied by means of a reducing valve or 
similar apparatus from a high pressure 
source normally exceeding 15 p.s.i.; (h) pip- 
ing directly connected to a low pressure 
steam or hot water heating boiler and form- 
ing part of the boiler header installation or, 
in the opinion of an inspector, forming part 
of the boiler piping; (i) any other piping 
used in connection with, or as part of, a 
boiler or pressure vessel installation and 
classified as pressure piping by the chief 
inspector. 

The regulations provide that no boiler 
or pressure vessel intended for use in the 
province and subject to inspection, approval 
or registration under the Act may be con- 
structed by welding unless its design has 
been approved and registered by the Boiler 



and Pressure Vessel Inspection Branch of 
the Department in accordance with the 
registration requirements of the Canadian 
Standards Association Code for Boilers and 
Pressure Vessels (CSA B51-1955) and appli- 
cable Saskatchewan regulations. 

No pressure piping intended for use in 
the province may be constructed or fabri- 
cated by welding unless the regulations have 
been complied with and the design meets 
the requirements of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pres- 
sure Vessel Construction Code (1956 edition) 
and of the American Standards Association 
Pressure Piping Code (B31.1-1955) for the 
maximum pressure and temperature to 
which it will be subjected in service. The 
manufacturer, contractor, engineering agency 
or other person in charge of construction or 
fabrication is responsible for seeing that 
these requirements are met, and must fur- 
nish proof to the Department or to an 
inspector upon request. 

Manufacturers' and Contractors' Respon- 
sibility 

As formerly, the manufacturer, contractor, 
installer, welding shop operator or other 
person who welds or employs a welder is 
responsible for the quality of the welding 
done by his organization. Before work 
commences, he must formulate a welding 
procedure and arrange with the chief inspec- 
tor for a procedure qualification test, or 
submit satisfactory proof that a test has 
been conducted by an approved person and 
found to meet all code requirements. He 
must also arrange with the chief inspector 
for a welder's qualification test or, where 
the welding is done outside the province, 
obtain permission for an equivalent test 
meeting the requirements of the codes and 
witnessed by an authorized inspector. Cer- 
tified data respecting these tests, including 
test of welding machine procedures and 
welding machine operators, where used, 
must be submitted to and approved by the 
Department before any welding may be 
done. 

If the work to be done is on new construc- 
tion, the manufacturer, contractor, installer, 
welding shop operator or other person weld- 
ing or employing a welder must also ascer- 
tain that the design of the boiler or pressure 
vessel has been approved and registered by 
the Department. In the case of repair work 
or welding on pressure piping, he must see 
that the applicable provisions of the regula- 
tions have been complied with. He is also 
obliged to see that the welder stamps his 
work in the prescribed manner. 



866 



Welders' Responsibility 

The responsibilities of welders are set 
out in greater detail than formerly. No 
person majr weld any boiler, pressure vessel 
or pressure piping unless he is the holder 
of an unexpired pressure welder's authoriza- 
tion signed by the chief inspector and is in 
possession of the symbols assigned to him 
on passing his qualification test. As pre- 
viously, a welder is forbidden to do welding 
by any process or in any position for which 
he has not been qualified by test. In 
addition, a welder may not do welding with 
any classification of base metal or filler 
metal for which he has not been qualified. 

Before doing any work, the welder must 
ascertain that the required procedure tests 
have been carried out and approved by the 
Department. He must adhere strictly to 
the established procedure and make repairs 
in accordance with the regulations. He is 
also required to stamp his work with his 
allotted symbol in the manner prescribed. 

Every welder must apply for an annual 
retest within 12 months of the issue date of 
his authorization. Where an application has 
been made in writing, he may continue to 
do pressure welding to within 18 months of 
the issue date, at which time his authoriza- 
tion will expire, unless renewed by the chief 
inspector. If a welder's authorization expires, 
his card and assigned symbols must be 
forwarded to the Department and he will 
be required to pass an all-position test 
before his authorization may be renewed. 

Welders' Qualification Tests 

As previously, an application for a quali- 
fication test must be sent to the chief 
inspector, who determines whether the can- 
didate has the necessary experience and 
knowledge. The new regulations stipulate, 
however, that an applicant must be the 
holder of a valid journeyman welder's cer- 
tificate or have at least four years' welding 
experience. 

The qualification tests must be for all 
positions unless otherwise prescribed by the 
chief inspector. The annual retest, however, 
may be for two positions only, one of which 
must be the overhead position. As far as 
practicable, the tests must be in accordance 
with weld test requirements of the ASME 
and ASA Codes and must be conducted and 
witnessed by an authorized inspector. A 
maximum of one hour for each position may 
be allowed for making the test. 

If a welder fails a test but does not fail 
in more than two positions by the failure 
of more than three coupons, he may undergo 
an immediate retest consisting of two 
separate test welds of any position in which 
he has failed, both of which must pass all 
test requirements. If he fails a second time, 



the welder may take a further test after he 
has had additional training or experience 
satisfactory to the chief inspector. 

Unless extended by the chief inspector, 
a welder's qualification test is valid for 18 
months, provided a retest is taken annually. 
As previously, the regulations provide that 
a retest may be required at any time if 
a welder is suspected of losing his pro- 
ficiency. 

Tests to qualify persons to weld on pipe 
lines not subject to the Act and procedure 
tests may now be arranged with the chief 
inspector, who, together with the contractor 
or engineering agency, will specify the 
standards to be used. So far as is prac- 
ticable, the tests must be in accordance 
with the requirements of the ASA Code 
B31.1.8 and the regulations. 

Repairs 

The regulations again stipulate that no 
welded repair may be made upon a boiler 
or pressure vessel having a working pres- 
sure of more than 15 p.s.i. unless permission 
is first obtained from the Department or an 
inspector and, in the case of a boiler, the 
repair is witnessed by an inspector. In 
addition, the regulations now provide that 
the welding must be done by a person 
holding a valid all-position pressure welder's 
authorization and require the repair to be 
stamped in the proper manner. 

No welded repair may be made upon 
any boiler or pressure vessel where the 
ASME Code requires the welding to be 
stress-relieved and X-rayed except in 
accordance with an approved procedure and 
under such conditions as meet the ASME 
Code requirements and satisfy the inspector 
witnessing the repair and the chief inspec- 
tor. Repairs to a boiler or pressure vessel 
having a working pressure of more than 
15 p.s.i. must be done by the electric arc 
process and in no circumstances may weld- 
ing be done on a boiler or pressure vessel 
which is under pressure. 

Repairs to low pressure heating boilers 
having more than 30 square feet of heating 
surface must be made by an authorized 
welder and, except when repairs are of a 
minor nature, permission must first be 
obtained from an inspector or the chief 
inspector. The electric arc process must 
always be used unless the repairs are of a 
minor nature or the inspector has approved 
another method. 

Except with the permission of an inspec- 
tor, no welded repair may be covered by 
insulation or in any other manner until 
after inspection. 

Welding of Pressure Piping 

The rules respecting welding of pressure 
piping are more detailed than formerly. To 



91463—6* 



867 



weld pressure piping a welder must be 
authorized to make all position welds. In 
special circumstances, however, the chief 
inspector may approve lower qualifications 
for welding pipe which may be rolled dur- 
ing fabrication where the working pressure 
is not to exceed 100 p. si. The inspector 
conducting procedure and welders' quali- 
fication tests for pressure piping must not 
only determine whether the procedure to 
be used has been properly established, but 
must also decide whether a test is sufficient 
to prove both the qualification of the welder 
and the correctness of the procedure or 
whether separate tests are necessary. 

All pressure piping larger than 3-inch 
nominal pipe size must be welded by the 
electric arc process. The regulations also 
provide that thickness of pipe to be used 
in any installation must be determined by 
the applicable formula of the ASA Pressure 
Piping Code and that electrodes or filler 
metal must conform to the requirements of 
the ASME Welding Qualifications Code and 
have an acceptable AWS-ASTM designation 
approved by the American Welding Society 
for the class of work to be performed. Weld- 
ing of branch connections, fittings and 
flanges have to meet the requirements of 
the ASA Pressure Piping Code and the 
regulations. There are also detailed rules 
with respect to stress relieving. In addition, 
the regulations provide that all welds on 
piping must be stamped in the required 
manner and left exposed until after inspec- 
tion. 

Inspection 

With regard to inspection, the regulations 
set out specific rules with respect to pressure 
piping and also lay down some general 
requirements. 

As formerly, all pipe welds, unless other- 
wise approved by an inspector, must be 
hydrostatically tested to twice the working 
pressure in accordance with the ASA Pres- 
sure Piping Code. As well as specifying 
when pipe welds are to be examined by 
X-ray and by trepanning, the regulations 
provide that the inspector may determine 
which method to use, following consulta- 
tions with the owner, contractor or construc- 
tion engineer. They further provide that 
all tests must be made in accordance with 
the ASA Pressure Piping Code and the 
ASME Code. 

An inspector may inspect or re-inspect 
any boiler, pressure vessel or pressure piping 
which is being constructed, altered or 
repaired by welding and may subject it to 
any hydrostatic test, X-ray examination or 
any other test which he considers necessary 
for safety purposes. He may also order the 
removal of any welding which does not 



meet the requirements of the regulations. In 
addition, he may condemn or seal any 
boiler, pressure vessel or pressure piping 
welded by an unauthorized welder or welded 
contrary to or without an approved pro- 
cedure. 

Saskatchewan Minimum Wage Act 

In a new revision of its minimum wage 
orders, the Saskatchewan Minimum Wage 
Board has raised the general minimum wage 
which must be paid in the cities and larger 
towns of the province from $26 to $30 a 
week and the minimum applicable in the 
remainder of the province from $24.50 to 
$29. These rates are now made applicable 
to workers of 18 years and over, lower 
rates ($2 less in each case) being established 
for the first time for employees under 18. 

In addition to the increase in the general 
minimum wage, rates set in the special 
orders for janitors or caretakers in residen- 
tial buildings, workers in places of amuse- 
ment and truck drivers were also raised. 

The orders, now 12 in number, consist of 
two general and 10 special orders. Of these, 
two are new, one (No. 11) governing oil 
well drilling and the other (No. 12) requir- 
ing employers, when paying wages, to give 
employees statements of earnings and 
deductions. In its revision of the remaining 
orders the Board separated hotels and 
restaurants from educational institutions, 
hospitals and nursing homes. Formerly, all 
five types of workplaces were covered by 
the same orders. 

The geographical coverage of the orders 
was also changed. The orders applying to 
the larger centres (Nos. 1, 2 and 3) now 
cover the nine cities of the province (includ- 
ing Estevan, which was recently made a 
city) and the 15 towns of Assiniboia, Biggar, 
Canora, Humboldt, Kamsack, Kindersley, 
Lloydminster, Maple Creek, Meadow Lake, 
Melfort, Melville, Nipawin, Rosetown, 
Shaunavon and Tisdale (and the area within 
a five-mile radius of each city or town). 
The towns of Assiniboia, Biggar, Kindersley, 
Maple Creek, Meadow Lake, Rosetown and 
Tisdale were formerly included among the 
smaller towns and villages, for which the 
minimum rate was $24.50 a week. 

Together the general and special orders 
cover the majority of workers in the prov- 
ince. Workers exempted are the same as 
formerly (L.G. 1953, p. 1189) except that 
employees in boarding or rooming houses 
are now exempted from the two general 
orders, and employees employed on core 
drilling rigs, in oil well servicing and in the 
geophysical seismographic survey industry 
are exempted from the new order for oil 
well drilling. 



868 



The orders continue the distinction be- 
tween full-time employees who work 36 
or more hours a week and part-time 
employees who normally work fewer than 
36 hours. Part-time rates were increased 
by 10 cents an hour with respect to adult 
workers. The part-time rates set for the 
first time for workers under 18 are in all 
cases 5 cents an hour lower than adult part- 
time rates. 

As before, the two general orders and 
the orders covering hotels, restaurants, edu- 



cational institutions, hospitals and nursing 
homes limit the number of part-time workers 
to 25 per cent of the total number of 
full-time workers employed. In amusement 
places, employees who work between 16 and 
36 hours a week are considered part-time 
employees and persons who normally work 
fewer than 16 hours a week are deemed 
to be "casual" employees. 

The coverage of the orders and the 
minimum wage set by each are as follows: 



Coverage of Orders 

All establishments in cities and 15 larger 
towns not covered by other orders. 
(No. 1) 



Such establishments in the remainder of 
the province. (No. 4) 



Hotels and restaurants in cities and 15 
larger towns. (No. 2) 



Hotels and restaurants in the remainder 
of the province. (No. 5) 



Educational institutions, hospitals and 
nursing homes in cities and 15 larger 
towns. (No. 3) 



Educational institutions, hospitals and 
nursing homes in the remainder of the 
province. (No. 6) 



Janitors or caretakers in residential build- 
ings. (No. 7) 

Truck drivers licensed to drive trucks 
classified by the Highway Traffic Board 
as public service or commercial vehicles 
of 2,000 lb. net weight or over, and 
truck drivers' helpers or swampers. 
(No. 8) 

Logging and lumbering and in factories 
connected thereto. (No. 9) 



Amusement places (theatres, dance halls, 
skating and curling rinks, municipal 
play grounds, swimming pools, bowling 
alleys, billiard halls, shooting galleries, 
etc.). (No. 10) 



Minimum Wage 



Full-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


$30 a week 
$28 a week 


Part-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


80c an hour 
75c an hour 


Full-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


$29 a week 
$27 a week 


Part-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


70c an hour 
65c an hour 


Full-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


$30 a week 
$28 a week 


Part-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


80c an hour 
75c an hour 


Full-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


$29 a week 
$27 a week 


Part-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


70c an hour 
65c an hour 


Full-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


$30 a week 
$28 a week 


Part-time 

18 and over 
Under 18 


80c an hour 
75c an hour 


Full-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


$29 a week 
$27 a week 


Part-time 
18 and over 
Under 18 


70c an hour 
65c an hour 



Full-time $40 a week 

Part-time 85c an hour 

Truck drivers, 85c an hour or 3c a mile, 
whichever is greater. 

Helpers and swampers 85c an hour. 



Oil well drilling rigs. (No. 11) 



Cooks, cookees, bull 

cooks, watchmen 
Other employees 

Full-time 

18 and over 

Under 18 
Part-time or Casual 

Cities 
Elsewhere 

All employees 



$135 a month 
70c an hour 



$30 a week 
$28 a week 

80c an hour 
75c an hour 

70c an hour 

869 



Certain other increases were also provided 
for. The minimum rates for messengers on 
foot or bicycle in the cities and larger towns 
were raised from $16 to $20 a week, if 
full-time, and from 50 to 60 cents an hour, 
if part-time. Elsewhere in the province they 
must receive $18 a week instead of $14, if 
working full-time, and 55 cents an hour 
instead of 45 cents for part-time work. The 
new general orders also state that if a 
messenger provides his own bicycle for use 
in his employer's business his minimum 
wage must be increased by 50 cents a 
week, if full-time, and by 3 cents an hour, 
if part-time. 

Operators of motor vehicles of under 
2,000 pounds net weight, rated manufac- 
turer's carrying capacity, or of taxis or 
motorcycles must be paid at least $33 a 
week in the cities and larger towns and $32 
a week in the remainder of the province. 
No part-time rates are set for this class of 
employees. The former orders provided 
that full-time employees who drove horse- 
drawn or motor vehicles were to receive at 
least $29 a week anywhere in the province 
and that part-time employees in the smaller 
centres were to be paid at least 70 cents 
an hour. 

Students 18 and over employed outside 
school hours must receive at least 80 cents 
an hour in the cities and larger towns and 
70 cents elsewhere in the province. For 
those under 18 the corresponding rates are 
75 and 65 cents an hour. 

The minima set for janitors or caretakers 
in other than residential buildings are 80 
and 70 cents an hour, respectively. 

In the special order for janitors or care- 
takers in residential buildings, the weekly 
rate was increased from $33 to $40 and the 
part-time rate from 70 to 85 cents an hour. 

The new order for truck drivers differs 
from the former order in that coverage 
is no longer limited to employees who 
regularly travel in the course of their duties 
to two or more places at least 10 miles 
apart. The minimum for truck drivers was 
increased from 75 cents an hour or 2£ cents 
a mile to 85 cents an hour or 3 cents a 
mile, whichever is greater. The rate for 
swampers and helpers is 10 cents higher 
than that formerly set for other employees 
covered by the trucking order. 

The rates for employees in logging and 
lumbering are unchanged, and, as before, 
all employees except cooks, cookees, bull 
cooks and watchmen are entitled to be paid 
at the regular rate for time spent travelling 
to and from the employer's premises, and 
must receive their regular wage if required 
to wait on the job. 



Three-hour Minimum 

As before, all part-time workers except 
messengers, janitors and students working 
after school hours must be paid for at least 
three hours at the minimum rate for each 
occasion on which they are asked to report 
for duty, whether or not they work three 
hours. Casual or part-time workers in 
amusement places are eligible for the three- 
hour minimum in the cities and within a 
five-mile radius but not elsewhere in the 
province. 

Public Holidays 

For the first time provision was made for 
payment for public holidays for truck 
drivers; the new order covering oil well 
drilling also makes provision for payment 
for public holidays. 

The provisions regarding public holidays 
for truck drivers are the same as in the 
general orders. Employees who do not work 
on New Year's Day, Good Friday, Victoria 
Day, Dominion Day, Labour Day, Thanks- 
giving Day, Remembrance Day or Christ- 
mas Day must receive their regular daily 
wage. Employees who are required to work 
on any of these holidays must be paid their 
regular wage plus one and one-half times 
their regular rate for every hour worked. If 
the wages of an employee, exclusive of 
overtime, vary from week to week, payment 
is to be made on the basis of the average 
wage for the four weeks immediately pre- 
ceding the week in which the holiday occurs. 

Employees engaged in the operation of 
an oil well drilling rig who do not work 
on a holiday must be paid their regular 
daily wage. If they are required to work, 
they are to be paid, in addition to their 
regular daily wage, their regular rate of 
pay for every hour worked. 

Casual employees in places of amuse- 
ment are not entitled to payment for the 
eight specified public holidays but must be 
paid at the rate of one and one-half times 
their regular rate if they work on a holiday. 

All orders except those governing janitors 
or caretakers and the logging and lumbering 
industry contain provisions respecting public 
holidays. No change was made in these 
provisions. 

Deductions jrom Wages 

As previously, the orders for hotels, 
restaurants, educational institutions, hospi- 
tals, nursing homes, and logging and lumber- 
ing operations lay down rules with respect 
to deductions from the minimum wage. 
Employers are again forbidden to make 
deductions for the provision, repair or laun- 
dering of uniforms but, subject to certain 
limitations, may charge for board and lodg- 
ing, provided the employees agree to accept 

(Continued on page 878) 



870 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Number of initial and renewal claims for benefit during April 16 per 
cent lower than in March but 19 per cent higher than in April 1956, 
statistics* show. Claimants on "live" file at month-end slightly fewer 

The number of initial and renewal claims 
for unemployment insurance benefit in 
April was about 16 per cent lower than 
that of the preceding month, but approx- 
imately 19 per cent higher than in April 
1956. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics report 
on the operation of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act shows that 161,304 claims 
were received at local offices of the Unem- 
plojmient Insurance Commission across 
Canada in April, compared with 192,365 in 
March and 135,369 in April 1956. 

The number of claimants having an unem- 
ployment register in the "live file" on April 
30 was 373,609, comprising 300,990 males 
and 72,619 females. These are claimants for 
regular benefits only, the period for which 
seasonal benefit was payable having ter- 
minated on April 20. On March 29, the 
number of regular claimants was 455,397 
(377,394 males and 78,003 females), with 
an additional 103,414 (80,387 males and 
23,027 females) who were claiming seasonal 
benefit. On April 30, 1956, regular claimants 
numbered 292,063, of which 228,257 were 
males and 63,806 were females. 

During April, adjudications on initial 
and renewal claims totalled 178,850, of 
which 113,720 or 64 per cent were classed 
as "entitled to benefit". The bulk of those 
categorized as "not entitled to benefit" 
were initial claims on which the minimum 
contribution requirements were not ful- 
filled. This category numbered 53,742 out of 
a total of 65,130 cases of non-entitlement, 
on initial and renewal claims. Total dis- 
qualifications, i.e., those arising from initial, 
renewal, revised and seasonal benefit claims, 
amounted to 21,320, the chief reasons being: 
"voluntarily left employment without just 
cause" 7,380 cases; "not capable of and 
not available for work" 4,883 cases and 
"refused offer of and neglected opportunity 
to work" 1,966 cases. 



New beneficiaries in receipt of either 
regular or seasonal benefit during April 
numbered 155,323, compared with 168,726 
during March and 126,654 during April 
1956. 

Regular and seasonal benefit payments 
amounted to $40,392,557 in respect of 
1,911,596 weeks during April, as against 
$44,125,523 and 2,093,065 weeks during 
March, and $33,201,609 and 1,743,909 weeks 
for April 1956. 

Complete weeks numbered 1,803,039 con- 
stituting about 95 per cent of the weeks 
compensated, while the proportion of partial 
weeks due to excess earnings was about 70 
per cent. 

The average weekly benefit rate was 
$21.13 for April, $21.08 for March and $19.03 
for April 1956. 

The average weekly number of benefi- 
ciaries was estimated at 477,900 for April, 
498,300 for March and 415,200 for April 
1956. 

Insurance Registrations 

As the annual renewal of insurance books 
takes place during the month of May the 
usual statistics on the number of insurance 
books and contribution cards issued to em- 
ployees are not available. The information 
will be available as from May 1, the first 
monthly report for 1957-58 being as at. 
May 31, 1957. 

At April 30 employers registered num- 
bered 293,535, an increase of 2,703 during 
the month. 



*See Tables E-l to E-4 at back of book. 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



871 



Enforcement Statistics 

During April 1957, there were 4,737 
investigations conducted by district investi- 
gators across Canada. Of these, 3,478 were 
spot checks of postal and counter claims 
to verify the fulfilment of statutory con- 
ditions, and 75 were miscellaneous investiga- 
tions. The remaining 1,184 were investi- 
gations in connection with claimants 
suspected of making false statements to 
obtain benefit. 

Prosecutions were commenced in 97 cases, 
11 against employers and 86 against 
claimants.! Punitive disqualifications as a 



result of claimants making false statements 
or misrepresentations numbered 553.f 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received in April totalled $20,- 
407,877.99 compared with $20,735,498.00 in 
March and $20,572,071.77 in April 1956. 
Benefit payments in April amounted to 
$40,374,683.94 compared with $44,103,220.14 
in March and $33,183,680.49 in April 1956. 
The balance in the fund on April 30 was 
$854,607,845.71; on March 31 there was a 
balance of $874,574,651.66 and on April 30, 
1956, of $841,586,909.87. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB-1363, April 24, 1957 

Summary of the facts: The claimant, 
22 years of age, who was married on 
October 8, 1955, filed an initial application 
for benefit on September 24, 1956, stating 
that she had worked as an assembler for 
the Canadian General Electric Company, 
Peterborough, Ont., from April 1953 to 
April 12, 1956, when she left because of 
pregnancy. She stated also that the Com- 
pany had given her six months' leave of 
absence, that her child was born on July 
28, 1956, and that she was looking for work 
in the Brockville area where she was now 
residing. 

The insurance officer disqualified her from 
receipt of benefit for the period from 
September 23, 1956, to October 5, 1957, 
because in his opinion she had not fulfilled 
the additional condition stipulated in 
Unemployment Insurance Regulation 161 
concerning married women. 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees and submitted that she did not 
voluntarily separate from her employment 
with the Canadian General Electric Com- 
pany in Peterborough but was given leave 
of absence; that she had intended to return 
to her job in September when her leave 
expired but, as her husband had been unable 
to secure work in Peterborough, that they 
had moved at the end of April to Brock- 
ville, where he obtained employment. 



tThese do not necessarily relate to the investi- 
gations conducted during this period. 



The board of referees which heard the 
case in Kingston, Ont., on November 1, 
1956, unanimously allowed the appeal on 
the grounds it was not necessary that the 
additional condition laid down in Regula- 
tion 161 be fulfilled in her case, as she 
came within the exception provided for 
in subsection (3) (a) (v) of that regulation. 
In the opinion of the board, leave of 
absence without pay does not constitute 
a separation from employment, and the 
claimant's separation occurred when she 
left Peterborough to take up residence in 
Brockville, on April 30, 1956. 

The Director of Unemployment Insurance 
appealed to the Umpire. 

Subsequently, in reply to a request for 
information, the employer stated that the 
claimant had in fact been granted a leave 
of absence on account of pregnancy and 
was considered an employee of the firm 
during that leave; that they had felt they 
were bound to give her work at the 
termination of the leave but that she had 
asked for her release on September 21 
because her husband had secured employ- 
ment in Brockville. 

Conclusions: On the facts before me, I 
agree with the decision of the board of 
referees that the claimant's case comes 
within the exception laid down in subsection 
3 (a) (v) of Unemployment Insurance 
Regulation 161. 

This is not a case where the employer- 
employee relationship was indefinite and 
dormant during a leave of absence. The 



872 



evidence indicates that it was clearly and 
firmly understood that the claimant was 
to resume her employment at the conclusion 
of her leave. 

Under the circumstances her first separa- 
tion from employment after marriage was 
in consequence of her leaving Peterborough 
to establish residence in Brockville. 

I would consequently dismiss the appeal. 

Decision CUB-1365, May 1, 1957 

Summary of the facts: The claimant, 
married, 47 years of age, filed an initial 
application for benefit on August 8, 1956, 
stating that he had worked as a grader for 
B.C. Forest Products, Hammond, B.C., from 
1953 to July 27, 1956, when he was laid off 
because of the annual plant holiday shut- 
down. 

The employer reported that the holiday 
shutdown covered the period from July 31 
to August 12, 1956, and that the claimant, 
whose daily wages were $14.04, had received 
$86.75 in holiday pay. 

A benefit period was established and the 
claim was allowed. However, as the 
claimant's working week consisted of five 
days, his earnings (holiday pay) for the 
weeks commencing July 29 and August 5, 
1956, were determined by the insurance 
officer, for the purpose of Unemployment 
Insurance Regulation 173 (4), to be $70.20 
and $16.55, respectively. 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees, which, after having heard a repre- 
sentative of his union in New Westminster, 
B.C., on September 11, 1956, unanimously 
dismissed the appeal. The board felt that, 
in the light of Unemployment Insurance 
Regulation 173 (4), it had no alternative 
but to maintain the ■ insurance officer's 
decision. 

The interested union, Local 1-357 of the 
International Woodworkers of America, 
appealed to the Umpire, arguing mainly 
that, since the holiday pay provided for in 



the master agreement between the company 
and the union is 2J per cent of the em- 
ployees' annual earnings instead of the 
minimum 2 per cent laid down by the 
British Columbia Annual Holidays Act, the 
additional £ per cent should be considered 
a gratuity, within the meaning of section 
172 (2) (a) of the Unemployment Insurance 
Regulations. 

The union requested an oral hearing 
before the Umpire, which was held in 
Ottawa on April 3, 1957. The union 
was represented by A. Andras, Assistant 
Research Director, Canadian Labour Con- 
gress, and the Unemployment Insuraoce 
Commission by C. N. Beauchamp. 

Conclusions: On the facts before me I 
agree with the board of referees that the 
claimant's case falls under section 173 (4) 
of the Unemployment Insurance Regula- 
tions. 

The extra \ per cent holiday pay referred 
to by the union in its brief was part and 
parcel of the claimant's contract of service 
agreed to by means of the master agree- 
ment. His legal right to that extra pay 
rules out any suggestion that it was a gift 
or a gratuity. 

It was argued by Mr. Andras that the 
phrase "holiday period" in regulation 173 (4) 
means the claimant's holiday period. If so 
construed, that section is pointless, since it 
deals with earnings, and earnings can be 
considered only when there is a general 
continuing holiday period, within the mean- 
ing of Regulation 155 which is made pur- 
suant to section 57 (2) (b) of the Act. 

As suggested by the counsel for the 
Commission at the hearing, the claimant's 
holiday pay, pursuant to Regulation 173 (4), 
should have been allocated on a pro rata 
basis to the entire holiday period at the 
plant. There was no justification for allocat- 
ing this money on the basis of his weekly 
average wages. 

The appeal is dismissed. 



Maximum Benefit Period Extended in Three U.S. States 



The length of the maximum benefit 
period for unemployment compensation 
was increased last year in Mississippi, 
Virginia, and Georgia. 

Puerto Rico enacted an employment 
security law which is expected to cover 
approximately a third of the total work 
force. The law was framed so that few 
changes will be necessary to allow Puerto 
Rico to become part of the federal-state 
unemployment insurance system when the 



federal law is amended to treat Puerto 
Rico as a "state" for unemployment in- 
surance purposes. 

Under the Puerto Rico act, starting 
January 1, 1957, employers of four or 
more workers covered by the act are 
liable for a 3-per-cent tax on the first $3,000 
of wages paid to persons in their employ. 
Effective January 1, 1959, the act provides 
for weekly benefits of $7 to $12 for seven 
weeks. 



91463—7 



873 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 308 wage schedules for inclusion in 
contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and its 
Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 179 contracts in these categories 
was awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to 
trade unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of 
the contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading 
provide that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not 
exempted from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation 
of the work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by 
provincial legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week. 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in May for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows : 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Post Office 10 $ 115,228.14 

R.C.M.P 16 195,453.14 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those 
established by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour wage schedules are thereupon included 

legislation of the federal Government has with other relevant labour conditions as 

the purpose of insuring that all Govern- terms of such contracts to be observed 

ment contracts for works of construction by the contractors. 

and for the manufacture of supplies and Wage schedules are not included in 

equipment contain provisions to secure contracts for the manufacture of supplies 

the payment of wages generally accepted and equipment because it is not possible 

as fair and reasonable in each trade or to determine in advance the classifica- 

classification employed in the district tions to be employed in the execution 

where the work is being performed. of a contract. A statement of the labour 

The practice of Government depart- conditions which must be observed in 

ments and those Crown corporations to every such contract is, however, included 

which the legislation applies, before therein and is of the same nature and 

entering into contracts for any work of effect as those which apply in works of 

construction, remodelling, repair or demo- construction. 

lition, is to obtain wage schedules from Copies of the federal Government's 

the Department of Labour, showing the Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 

applicable wage rate for each classifica- lation may be had upon request to the 

tion of workmen deemed to be required Industrial Relations Branch of the 

in the execution of the work. These Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



874 



(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a. complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments made during May 

During May the sum of $17,339.24 was collected from nine contractors for wage 
arrears due their employees arising out of the failure of the contractors, or their sub- 
contractors, to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by 
the schedule of labour conditions forming part of their contracts. This amount has been 
or will be distributed to the 209 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Allan River Marsh N S: Hennessy & Spicer Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage. 
Avonport Marsh N S: Hennessy & Spicer Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage. Fleming 
Marsh N S: McCully & Soy Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage. Glenholme Marsh N S: 
Hennessy & Spicer Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage. Old Barns Marsh N S: McCully 
& Soy Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage. Wentworth Marsh N S: J G Webster 
Construction Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Gander Nfld: Eastern Woodworkers Ltd, construction of housing units, walks & 
drives; Eastern Woodworkers Ltd, construction of housing units. Chatham N B: Eastern 
Landscape Co Ltd, site improvement & planting, DND 7/54; Eastern Landscape Co Ltd, 
site improvement & planting, DND 8/55; Eastern Landscape Co Ltd, site improvement 
& planting, DND 9/55. Fredericton N B: Fredericton Nurseries, *planting of trees. 
Gagetown N B: Montclair Construction Co, construction of housing units & services; 
Atlas Construction Co Ltd, construction of school; Atlas Construction Co Ltd, paving 
of roads, etc, & construction of sidewalks, etc; L G Rawd.ing Construction Co Ltd, 
clearing, grubbing & cleanup in neighbourhoods 1, 2 & 3. Moncton N B: Wheaton Con- 
struction Co, site improvement & planting. Nitro Que: R McSween, "repairs to sheds; 
R McSween, *application of siding to houses; R McSween, reroofing of houses. Valcartier 
Que: La Pepiniere Dupois Enrg, site improvement & planting. Vol d'Or Que: Paquin 
Construction Co Ltd, repairs to foundation walls. Camp Borden Ont: Paul Winarski, 
*survey work. Chesley Ont: Clifford Wenzel, *exterior painting of houses. Deep River 
Ont: Evans Contracting Co Ltd, site improvement & planting; Brad Industries Ltd, 
construction of housing units & services. Guelph Ont: W A McCarvell, installation of 
eavestroughs ; Len Owen, repairs to basements. Hamilton Ont: Franks Contracting Co, 
relocation & renovation of wartime houses, phase 4 ; Oldcastle Nurseries Ltd, site improve- 
ment & planting. Hespeler Ont: McNeilly-Barington Ltd, *exterior painting of houses. 
Kitchener Ont: Carl Henry, exterior painting of houses. Niagara-on-the-Lake & Thorold 
Ont: DeSanti Contracting Co Ltd, *repairs to basements. Nobel Ont: Walker Painting & 
Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of units. Petawawa Ont: Terminal Construction Co 
Ltd, site improvement & planting. Thorold Ont: Combination Painters & Decorators, 
*exterior painting of houses. Toronto Ont: Midwestern Construction Co, construction of 
ground services, Regent Park South. Trenton Ont: H E Cooke, site improvement & 
planting. Windsor East & Essex Ont: National Painting & Decorating Ltd, exterior 
painting of units. Brandon Man: Crane Bros, exterior painting of houses. Dundurn Sask: 
Norman H Woods & Assoc Ltd, site improvement & planting. North Battle ford Sask: 
Reg Parsons, *exterior painting of houses. Prince Albert Sask: R A Fraser, *exterior 
painting of nouses. Calgary Alta: Bill Hopps & Co Ltd, exterior painting of houses. 
Lloydminster Alta: George & Ellwood, *repairs to basements; Dunk & Racicot, *exterior 
painting of houses. Medicine Hat Alta: Dutch Bros, exterior painting of houses. Cran- 
brook B C: George Pickett, *exterior painting of houses. 

91463— 7£ 875 



Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Duck Lake Indian Agency Sask: Buhler Electric, electrical rewiring of IRS. Touch- 
wood Indian Agency Sask: Economy Heating & Plumbing, supply & installation of water 
treatment equipment, Gordon's IRS. Blood Indian Agency Alta: Holte & Nordlund, 
^maintenance work, St Paul's IRS. Stuart Lake Indian Agency B C: T & E Construction, 
construction of root house, Lejac, IRS. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Dartmouth N S: Fundy Construction Co Ltd, construction of chapels, HMCS Shear- 
water. Halifax N S: Dominion Steel & Coal Corp Ltd, renewal of security fence, HMCS 
Stadacona; Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Co Ltd, *supply & installation of telephone 
cable. Newport Corners N S: Brush Aboe (Canada) Ltd, *supply & installation of diesel 
electric set & auxiliary equipment. Lac des Loups Que: A Daris, construction of beacon 
bldg, RCAF Station. St Johns Que: Cambrian Construction Ltd, construction of OR mess, 
water & sewer services, RCAF Station. Valcartier Que: Les Constructions Lafayette Inc, 
construction of bldg 76A & additions to safety mounds, CARDE. Angus Ont: Donald 
McLaren Ltd, construction of sewage disposal system. Barrie Ont: Ontario Building 
Cleaning Co Ltd, exterior renovations to armouries. Camp Borden Ont: Barclay Construc- 
tion Ltd, construction of sergeants' quarters & outside services; Ruliff Grass Construction 
Co Ltd, improvements to water supply, pumphouse No 4. Downsview Ont: Gardiner- 
Wighton Ltd, construction of control tower, bldg No 55, RCAF station. Gloucester Ont: 
J E Copeland Co Ltd, construction of chiefs' & petty officers' quarters & mess; James 
Landscaping Co, construction of sports field, HMCS Gloucester. Shirley Bay Ont: Queens- 
view Construction & Development Ltd, construction of wing to radio physics laboratory 
& outside services. Uplands Ont: Niagara Structural Steel Ltd, supply, fabrication & 
erection of structural steel for high speed laboratory. Churchill Man: Dickson-Larkey 
Ltd, installation of mechanical & electrical systems, POL Marine Terminal; Vulcan Iron 
& Engineering Ltd, supply, fabrication & erection of structural steel for diesel power plant. 
Winnipeg Man: McNeilly Bavington Ltd, exterior painting of hangars & bldgs, RCAF 
Station; May & Son Nurseries Ltd, grading, seeding & sodding, RCAF Station. Boundary 
Bay B C: Christian & Allen Ltd, construction of sewage disposal system. Matsqui B C: 
Vivian Diesels & Munitions Ltd, *overhauling of 250 KW electric set. 

Building and Maintenance 

Aldershot N S: Valley Plumbing & Heating Ltd, installation of interconnections of 
water mains at camp. Ste Foy Que: Charney Bros Inc, exterior painting of PMQs.Camp 
Borden Ont: Malach Roofing & Flooring Ltd, reroofing & sheet metal work on bldgs. 
Ladner B C : Neil Meyer, exterior painting of PMQs, Vancouver Wireless Station. White- 
horse Y T: W A Moffatt Co, reroofing hangars B & C, RCAF Station; Dominion Bridge 
Co Ltd, supply & erection of chain link fence including barbed wire overhang & storage 
compounds, RCAF Station. 

Department of Defence Production 

(April Report) 

Bridgewater N S: Acadia Construction Ltd, renovations to heating system in armouries. 
Newport Corners N S: Ralph & Arthur Parsons Ltd, relocation of rhombic antennae, HMC 
Dockyard. Montreal Que: Atlas Tile Flooring Co, installation of tile floor in bldg 154, 
Barracks area, No 25 COD. Barrie Ont: Colt Contracting Co Ltd, replacement of drill 
hall floor in armouries. Brockville Ont: Ford Electric Co, repairs to electrical system in 
armouries No 232. Ipperwash Ont: Canada Catering Co Ltd, catering at Camp Ipperwash. 
Manotick Ont: Roy Soderlind & Co Ltd, *supply & installation of evaporative condensers, 
RCAF Station. Petawawa Ont: Nationwide Food Services Ltd, catering at Camp 
Petawawa. Winnipeg Man: Oswald Decorating Co, interior painting of PMQs, RCAF 
Station. Dundurn Sask: Dominion Catering Co Ltd, catering at Camp Dundurn. Saskatoon 
Sask: Myers Construction Co Ltd, replacement of asphalt pavement, RCAF Station; 
Myers Construction Co Ltd, replacement of curbs, etc, RCAF Station. Calgary Alta: 
Hingley Terrazzo & Tile Ltd, installation of quarry tile, etc, RCAF Station, Lincoln Park. 
Claresholm Alta: General Construction Co (Alberta) Ltd, laying of asphalt on concrete 
areas, RCAF Station; Western Excavating Co Ltd, landscaping at RCAF Station. 
Esquimalt B C: Dominion Paint Co, repainting exterior of married quarters, HMC Dock- 
yard. Sea Island B C : Lyle Construction Co Ltd, construction of concrete foundation & 
floor slab for steelox bldg, RCAF Station; Seaward Construction Ltd, erection of armco 
steelox bldgs, RCAF Station. 

876 



National Harbours Board 

Montreal Que: Charles Duranceau Ltee, construction of bituminous concrete paved 
road, sections 40-43. Three Rivers Que: Cambrian Construction Ltd, construction of 
transit shed No. 11. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Point Pelee National Park Ont: Wollatt Construction Ltd, seal coating of paved roads 
<fe paving of entrance lane. Fort Langley B C : Bakerview Gardens, landscaping & planting. 
Revelstoke National Park B C: Greenall Bros Ltd, construction of camp bldgs. 

Department of Public Works 

Catalina Nfld: Babb Construction Ltd, harbour improvements. Cow Head Nfld: Gulf 
Maritime Construction Ltd, construction of breakwater-wharf. Gander Nfld: Saunders, 
Howell & Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Glovertown Nfld: Burry's Shipyard, con- 
struction of post office bldg Harbour Grace Nfld: The J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Lawn Nfld: The Avalon Dredging Ltd, *dredging. Placentia Nfld: The J P Porter Co Ltd, 
♦dredging. Port de Grave Nfld: McNamara Construction Co Ltd, *dredging. St John's Nfld: 
Argo Construction Ltd, construction of post office bldg. Souris P E I: The Island 
Construction Ltd, improvements & repairs to railway wharf; Chappell & Co, laying of 
underground cables for power & telephone & installation of lighting on railway wharf. 
Bayfield N S: McDonald Construction Co Ltd, harbour improvements. Chapel Cove N S: 
Maritime Dredging Ltd, *dredging. Cornwallis N S: Rodney Contractors Ltd, jetty float 
replacement, HMCS Cornwallis. Grand Etang N S: McDonald Construction Co Ltd, pier 
extension. Inverness N S: F W Digdon & Sons Ltd, *dredging. Kraut Point N S: Mosher 
& Rawding Ltd, wharf reconstruction. Liverpool N S: The J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Malagash N S: Seaboard Construction Ltd, wharf repairs. Maugher's Beach (McNab's 
Island) N S: Cameron Contracting Co, breakwater repairs. North Sydney N S: M C 
Campbell Construction Co Ltd, wharf improvements; The J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. 
Pictou N S: Ferguson Industries Ltd, "construction of 18 steel pontoons for dredge 
PWD No 12. Port Medway N S: Mosher & Rawding, *dredging. Burnt Church N B: 
J W & J Anderson Ltd, wharf repairs. Cape Tormentine N B: Diamond Construction 
Co Ltd, *dredging. Fredericton N B: Diamond Construction (1955) Ltd, construction 
of header house & greenhouse Kouchibouguac N B: J W & J Anderson Ltd, wharf 
extension. Point du Chene N B: J W & J Anderson Ltd, wharf repairs & improvements. 
St Edward N B: Roger LeBlanc, *dredging. Shippigan N B: Diamond construction Co 
Ltd, *dredging. Bonaventure Que: Fortunat Bernard, wharf repairs. Lennoxville Que: 
Albert Morin, addition to research piggery, Experimental Station. L'Anse St Jean Que: 
Capt Irenee Verreault, *dredging. Paspebiac Que: Tracy Construction Inc, wharf recon- 
struction. Riviere Beaudette Que: Theode Robidoux Inc, *dredging. Saint Joseph d'Alma 
Que: Romeo Fortin Inc, construction of federal bldg. Three Rivers Que: Theode Robidoux 
Inc, *dredging in St Maurice River. Ville St Laurent Que: Bourget Construction Inc, con- 
struction of Postal Station "O". Belleville Ont: Percy Hodge, demolition of various bldgs 
at public building site. Hamilton Ont: The J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Hawkesbury 
Ont: Eagle Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Moose Factory Ont: Pulsifer Construction 
Ltd, improvements to municipal services & alterations to electrical power system. Toronto 
Ont: McNamara Construction Co Ltd, *dredging in Western Channel. Willowdale Ont: 
W B Sullivan Construction Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Brandon Man: R E Turner, 
construction of header house, Experimental Farm. Churchill Man: Matheson Bros, con- 
struction of federal bldg. Kamsack Sask: Poole Construction Co Ltd, addition & alterations 
to federal bldg. Consort Alta: Van Vliet Construction Co Ltd, construction of federal 
bldg. Campbell River B C: Fraser River Pile Driving Co Ltd, harbour improvements. 
Co-Op Bay (Egmont) B C: Greenlees Piledriving Co Ltd, construction of wharf. Fraser 
River B C: Gilley Bros Ltd, improvements to dam-weir, Steveston Cannery Channel. 
Lillooet B C: Overland Construction Ltd, additions & alterations to federal bldg. Near 
Mitchell Island B C: The British Columbia Bridge & Dredging Co Ltd, *dredging in North 
Arm of Fraser River. Maple Bay B C: Harbour Pile Driving Co, construction of floats. 
New Westminster B C: Star Shipyard (Mercers) Ltd, *reconstruction of snagboat Samson; 
John Manly Ltd, construction of 75 foot diesel snagboat. Porpoise Bay B C: Todd 
Construction Co Ltd, float renewal. Port Alberni B C: Pacific Piledriving Co Ltd, wharf 
extension. Prince Rupert B C: Eby & Sons Ltd, construction of RCMP married quarters 
& garage. Sardis B C: S & S Electric Ltd, installation of wiring & standby generator, 
Coqualeetza Indian Hospital. Yellowknije N W T: Burns & Dutton Concrete & Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of high school & hostel. 

877 



Department of Transport 

Halifax N S: Halifax Shipyards Ltd, Construction of lighthouse supply & buoy vessel. 
Lauzon Que: Davie Shipbuilding Ltd, Construction of triple screw diesel electric ice- 
breaker; Geo T Davie & Sons Ltd, Construction of twin screw diesel engined buoy vessel. 
Montreal Que: Cote & Lavigueur Construction Ltee, construction of pilotage bldg, 
Sutherland Pier. Dunnville Out: S G Powell Shipyard Ltd, Construction of three self- 
propelled barges; S G Powell Shipyard Ltd, Construction of twin screw diesel engined 
landing barge. London Ont: Towland Construction Ltd, additional development at airport. 
Ottawa Ont: A Sebben Construction, installation of water mains & sewage system at 
Uplands Airport. Trenton Ont: Power Installations (Sarnia) Ltd, installation of airport 
lighting facilities. Winnipeg Man: Commonwealth Construction Co Ltd, additional develop- 
ment at airport. Melville Sask: Stafford Construction Co Ltd, construction of monitoring 
station & related work. Comox B C : Hassell Bros (1954) Ltd, additional development at 
airport. Prince Rupert B C: General Construction Co Ltd & Peter Kiewit Sons Co of 
Canada Ltd, additional development at airport. Vancouver B C: Columbia Bitulithic 
Ltd, additional development at airport. Victoria B C: Yarrows Ltd, Construction of ice- 
breaker, supply & buoy vessel. 



Recent Regulations 

(Continued from page 870) 

these facilities. In hotels and restaurants, 
the maximum deduction for a night's lodging 
is 25 cents, as formerly, but the deduction 
for board has been increased from 25 to 30 
cents per meal. The orders for educational 
institutions, hospitals and nursing homes 
impose the same ceiling on deductions but 
restrict its application to cases where the 
weekly wage is $35 or less. The former 
orders did not have this proviso. Persons 
in logging and lumbering operations may 
be charged up to SI. 60 a day for meals 
and lodging. 

General Provisions 

The provisions regarding such matters as 
rest and meal periods and working shifts 
are the same as before. 

In accordance with the 1955 amendment 
to the Act, the orders now provide that in 
case of discharge or layoff a worker must 
be given one week's written notice of ter- 
mination of employment or one week's 
wages in lieu of notice. 

Earnings Statements 

Order 12 provides that, unless exempted 
by the Chairman of the Board, every em- 
ployer must furnish each of his employees 
with an earnings statement on each regular 
payday. The statement must be separate 



from or readily detachable from any form 
of bank cheque or voucher used in the 
payment of wages and must show the name 
of the employee, the beginning and ending 
dates of the pay period, number of hours 
worked, wage rate and job classification, 
gross wages, deductions and net earnings. 
Authority to require employers to furnish 
such statements was given to the Minimum 
Wage Board by a 1956 amendment to 
the Act. 

Effective Date 

The orders which were approved by 
Orders in Council 840/57 to 851/57, inclu- 
sive, were gazetted on May 3. They went 
into force on June 1. 



Labour Legislation in N.B. 

(Continued from page 853) 

in respect of a child if he is a resident 
of the province and has been so resident for 
at least one year prior to the date of 
application. 

Similarly, an allowance may be granted 
in respect of a child who is under the age 
of one year if the mother was resident at 
the time of the child's birth and the child 
has remained a resident of the province. 



878 



WAGES, HOURS, WORKING 
CONDITIONS 



Wage Rates for Labourers in 

Manufacturing, October 1956 

Average hourly wage rate for male labourers in manufacturing industry 
increased by eight cents between October 1, 1955 and October 1, 1956 

From October 1, 1955, to October 1, 1956, localities are higher than in the major 

the average hourly wage rate for male centres of Toronto and Montreal. The 

labourers increased by 8 cents in the manu- diversification of industry in these two cities 

facturing industries covered by the annual tends to reduce the effect of a higher level 

survey of wage rates conducted by the of wages in one particular industry or 

Economics and Research Branch. This com- establishment on the general average for 

pares with an increase of 5 cents for the the city. 

corresponding period in 1954-1955*. The On the other hand, in smaller centres 

1956 survey covered 46,000 manufacturing where one industry or establishment pre- 

labourers. dominates, the local average is greatly 

Employers were asked to report wage affected by the wage rates paid in that 
rates for labourers to whom the following industry or establishment. In Sydney, 
definition applies: workers performing one Hamilton and Welland, for instance, where 
or a variety of manual duties which may the primary steel industry is the predom- 
be learned in a short time, requiring little inant source of employment for unskilled 
independent judgment and which are too workers, the relatively high wage rates paid 
general to be classified otherwise. Both in that industry raise the average local 
production and non-production or main- rate for labourers well above that for most 
tenance labourers are surveyed, but such other centres of similar size in the provinces 
workers under incentive systems as well as of Nova Scotia and Ontario. Another exam- 
female employees are excluded. pie of high local average rates for labourers 

Wage rates for labourers are usually the « f ound in Cornwall, Thorold and Trois- 

lowest rates for male occupations in a Rivieres, where pulp and paper mills are 

plant, except for hiring and apprentice the mam employers of labourers at the 

rates. The labourer's rate is used in many ™g her rates prevailing in that industry. 

establishments as a basis for setting the Wage rates for labourers in manufacturing 

higher rates for other plant occupations. appear to have increased slightly faster than 

. , . ,. • those for other representative occupations 

As may be seen from the accompanying . - . . . ,. , , , „ ,, f , 

. .. J * i u m manufacturing, as indicated by the tol- 

table, average wage rates for labourers . . ° 

i-u ,• nvLni u- a r\ * • lowing comparison, 

are highest in British Columbia and Ontario, to r 

although no provincial pattern stands out. INDEX NUMBERS OF AVERAGE WAGE 

In some localities of those two provinces, RATES IN MANUFACTURING t 

the average wage rate is lower than in some All Occupations Surveyed 

centres of the Maritimes, Quebec or the Year Labourers including Labourers 

Prairie Provinces. 1949 100.0 100.0 

^ t , .... . ., 1950 108.0 106.1 

Furthermore, within a province, the 1951 122.7 120.3 

average rate is often higher in a number 1952 134.9 128.4 

of small localities than in the major centres. 19 ^3 141.8 134.6 

This is especially true in Ontario and Que- jjjg ■ m8 142 ' 2 

bee, where the average rates in several 1955 158.0 149.8 

tBased on annual surveys of wage rates at 

*See Labour Gazette, September 1956, p. 1174. October 1. 

879 



The chief factor responsible for changes 
from year to year in the average wage rates 
is the general revision of actual straight- 
time rates being paid in establishments. 
Factors other than changes in wage rates 
may influence the averages. The most 



important of these are: changes in the 
number of employees in the plants, localities 
and provinces, modifications in survey 
coverage and reporting methods, and indi- 
vidual adjustments in rates based on merit 
or length of service. 



WAGE RATES FOR MALE LABOURERS IN MANUFACTURING 1955 AND 1956 

Note. — The average wage rates for Canada and for the provinces are derived from many cities in 
addition to those shown in the table. 



Locality 


1955 
Average 

Rate 
Per Hour 


1< 

Average 

Rate 
Per Hour 


)56 

Predominant 

Range 

of Rates 




$ 

1.34 

1.15 
1.14 

1.09 

1.09 

.94 

1.47 

1.13 
1.21 
1.05 

1.23 
1.36 

.98 
1.26 
1.22 
1.50 

.99 
1.38 

.91 

1.40 
1.36 
1.35 
1.51 
1.44 
1.42 
1.24 
1.25 
1.44 
1.29 
1.33 
1.48 
1.00 
1.40 
1.01 
1.36 
1.43 
1.30 
1.50 
1.54 
1.74 
1.54 
1.34 
1.55 
1.56 
1.30 

1.27 
1.26 

1.27 
1.25 
1.33 

1.27 
1.40 
1.32 

1.55 
1.55 
1.55 


1 

1.42 

1.19 
1.08 

1.14 
1.18 
1.02 
1.56 

1.17 
1.25 
1.07 

1.29 
1.46 
1.08 
1.31 
1.33 
1.65 
1.04 
1.50 
1.01 

1.50 
1.39 
1.37 
1.53 
1.51 
1.55 
1.32 
1.33 
1.60 
1.37 
1.36 
1.54 
1.10 
1.59 
1.14 
1.45 
1.55 
1.33 
1.59 
1.70 
1.81 
1.64 
1.45 
1.61 
1.63 
1.42 

1.31 
1.30 

1.33 
1.29 
1.38 

1.34 
1.43 
1.36 

1.60 
1.61 
1.59 


S 








1.00-1.17 








.99 - 1.35 




.89 - 1.18 




1.24 - 1.67 








.91 - 1.55 




.83 - 1.20 






Hull 


1.26 - 1.65 




.88 - 1.19 




.90 - 1.56 




.97 - 1.67 




1.62 - 1.70 




.85 - 1.15 




1.34 - 1.65 




.85 - 1.09 






Belleville . 


1.14 - 1.54 




1.20 - 1.55 




1.27 - 1.64 




1.43 - 1.52 


Fort William — Port Arthur . , 


1.36 - 1.65 


Gait 


.95 - 1.50 




1.20 - 1.38 




1.30 - 1.81 




1.15 - 1.49 




1.07 - 1.56 




1.31 - 1.63 


Orillia 


.85 - 1.27 




1.44 - 1.75 




.90 - 1.52 




1.25 - 1.54 




1.35 - 1.75 


St. Thomas . 


1.22 - 1.40 




1.44 - 1.76 




1.60 - 1.75 






Thorold 


1.55 - 1.70 




1.18 - 1.63 


Welland 


1.40 - 1.73 




1.51 - 1.68 




1.36 - 1.53 








1.05 - 1.54 








1.20 - 1.61 




1.22 - 1.61 








1.25 - 1.56 




1.20 - 1.52 








1.50 - 1.70 




1.53 - 1.67 







880 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, June 1957 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
influenced by higher food prices advanced 
0.4 per cent from 121.1 to 121.6 between 
May and June. The increase in the first 
half of this year approximates one per cent, 
and the index stands 3.2 per cent above 
the level of a year ago. A year ago the 
index stood at 117.8*. 

Most of the May-June advance of 0.9 
per cent in the food index, from 116.7 to 
117.7, resulted from strength in all meats, 
notably pork, although higher prices for 
fresh fruits, some fresh vegetables and 
milk also contributed to the rise. 

Declines in food prices were recorded 
for some canned and fresh vegetables and 
coffee. The shelter index rose 0.4 per cent 
from 134.2 to 134.8 reflecting like move- 
ments in both home-ownership and rent 
components. Rent changes in this period 
are influenced by the traditional May first 
moving date. 

Other commodities and services rose frac- 
tionally from 126.3 to 126.5 as higher prices 
were reported for train and inter-urban bus 
fares, newspapers, pharmaceuticals and per- 
sonal care items. Further seasonal declines 
in coal prices were more than sufficient to 
offset a scatter of minor increases in home 
furnishings, supplies, dry cleaning, laundry 
and shoe repairs, and the household opera- 
tion index declined slightly from 119.2 to 
119.1. 

The clothing index also registered a small 
decrease from 108.5 to 108.4, as women's 
and children's wear were lower, and men's 
wear and footwear somewhat higher. 

Wholesale Prices, May 1957 

The index of 30 industrial materials 
(1935-39 = 100) moved down slightly be- 
tween the weeks of May 31 and June 21 
from 242.2 to 240.0. 

The change reflected price declines for 
domestic zinc, lead, copper, steers, white 
lead, spruce lumber, beef hides, galvanized 
steel sheets, tin, wheat, oats, bleached sul- 
phite pulp, iron ore and raw cotton. 

*See Table F-l at back of book. 



Increases occurred for steel scrap, hogs, 
raw rubber and raw sugar. As in recent 
months, strength in Canadian funds vis-a- 
vis the United States dollar has been a 
depressant for those items affected by this 
factor. 

Canadian farm product prices at ter- 
minal markets remained practically un- 
changed during the period under review, 
moving down 0.3 per cent from 208.4 to 
207.8. This movement of the total index 
reflected offsetting major group movements 
in which a decrease for field products from 
156.1 to 154.8 was partially balanced by 
an increase in animal products from 260.7 
to 260.9. 

The decline in field products was due 
almost entirely to lower quotations on 
eastern markets for most grains, potatoes 
and hay. Rye advanced in both eastern 
and western Canada. 

In animal products lamb prices advanced 
sharply, reflecting the introduction of spring 
lambs while lesser gains were registered by 
hogs, eggs and fluid milk. These were par- 
tially offset by decreases for calves, steers 
and eastern poultry and cheesemilk. Region- 
ally, the eastern composite index moved 
down from 225.0 to 222.9 while the western 
series advanced from 191.9 to 192.7. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, May 1957 

City consumer price indexes (1949 = 100) 
were higher in five of the ten regional cities 
between April and May 1957, unchanged 
in two, while indexes for three cities 
declinedf. Changes ranged from increases 
of 0.6 per cent in St. John's and Toronto 
to a decline of 0.3 per cent in Halifax. 

Higher prices were general in most of the 
ten regional cities for sugar, apples, fresh 
tomatoes, corn flakes and beef while coffee, 
tea, pork and orange juice were generally 
lower. Increases for automobile insurance 
rates and women's hairdressing were 
reported in most cities. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between April and May were as 
follows: Toronto +0.8 to 125.0; St. John's 
+0.6 to 109.31:; Ottawa +0.4 to 122.8; 
Edmonton-Calgary +0.4 to 118.1; Montreal 
+0.2 to 120.7; Halifax —0.3 to 119.1; Saint 

\See Table F-2 at back of book. 
tOn base June 1951=100. 



881 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1951 




1 1 ,, i 



I i t I t i L.i i I i i I i i 1 i i 1 i,i.l...i...i... 



I i , 1 M h. 1 I I I 



John —0.2 to 121.9; Vancouver —0.2 to 
122.0. Winnipeg and Saskatoon-Regina 
remained unchanged at 119.2 and 117.9 

respectively. 

U.S. Consumer Price Index, May 1957 

For the ninth month in a row, the United 
States consumer price index (1947-49 = 100) 
rose between mid-April and mid-May, 
climbing from 119.3 to 119.6. One year 
earlier it stood at 115.4. The last decline 



occurred between mid-July and mid-August 
when the index decreased from 117.0 to 
116.8. 

U.K. Index of Retail Prices, April 1957 

The United Kingdom index of retail 
prices (Jan. 17, 1956 = 100) increased from 
104.1 to 104.5 between mid-March and mid- 
April, after two successive declines. This 
new reading is the highest reached since 
revision of the index in January 1956. 



City Family Expenditures Averaged $4,424 in 1955 



City family expenditures in seven metro- 
politan areas across Canada averaged 
$4,424 in 1955, according to a preliminary 
release on the results of a survey conducted 
by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in 
the country's largest urban centres. 

The survey covered families of two to 
six persons of specified family types and 
with incomes ranging from $2,000 to $6,500. 
Average family size was 3.22 persons and 
the number of families in the survey was 
787. 

Families in Halifax reported expenditures 
in 1955 of $4,430; Montreal $4,240; Toronto, 



$4,695; Kitchener- Waterloo, $4,390; Winni- 
peg, $4,110; Edmonton, $4,492; and Van- 
couver, $4,484. 

Of the average dollar spent in the seven 
cities, 25.3 cents went for food. Housing, 
fuel, light and water took 17.1 cents, 
household operation 3.7 cents, furnishings 
and equipment 6.3 cents, clothing 8.6 cents, 
automobile 8.6 cents, medical care 4.4 cents, 
personal care 1.9 cents, recreation 4 cents, 
smoking and alcoholic drinks 3.9 cents, gifts 
and contributions 2.3 cents, personal taxes 
5.6 cents, and security 4.1 cents. 



882 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS 



May 1957 






During May 1957, there were 40 work 
stoppages in existence and 30 of them began 
during the month. The total number of 
workers involved was 15,393; 14,051 in 
the work-stoppages that had begun in May 
and 1,342 in the stoppages that begun 
prior to the month. The total figure repre- 
sents a substantial increase over the April 
figure of 8,022 but is slightly lower than 
the May 1956 total of 17,911. 

The time-loss for the month was 144,700 
man-days, compared with 51,820 in April 
1957 and 136,520 in May of last year. The 
ten stoppages which began prior to May 
caused, during the month, a time-loss of 
29,335 man-days. The 30 stoppages that 
started during the month caused a time-loss 
of 115,365 man-days. 

Twenty-one stoppages in existence during 
May involved fewer than 100 workers; they 
covered a total of 893 workers and caused 
a time-loss of 8,895 man-days. A total of 
1,835 workers were involved in 11 stoppages 
covering more than one hundred but less 
than five hundred workers. These stoppages 
caused a time loss of 14,865 man-days during 
the month. Eight stoppages covering 12,665 
workers involved more than 500 workers in 
time-loss during May of 120,940 man-days. 

Of the 40 stoppages in existence during 
May, 19 were concluded before the month's 



end. Three of these, involving 192 workers, 
had started prior to May. Sixteen, covering 
4,279 workers, began in May and caused a 
time-loss of 15,445 man-days. 

At the end of May, seven stoppages which 
had started prior to the month were still 
in existence; these stoppages involved 1,150 
workers and caused a time-loss of 28,680 
man-days during the month. Fourteen of 
the 30 stoppages that began during May 
were still in existence at the end of the 
month. They involved 9,772 workers in 
time-loss of 99,830 man-days. 

In Table G-l at the back of this issue, 
comparisons are made between the num- 
bers of strikes and lockouts in existence 
during the first five months of this year, 
and between the same months of last year. 
The approximate number of workers 
involved in these stoppages and the time- 
loss resulting from them are also compared 
on a monthly basis. The number of strikes 
and lockouts beginning during each month 
is also shown. 

Table G-2 deals more specifically with 
the stoppages in existence during May 1957. 
Individual stoppages are listed by industry 
and by date showing the workers involved, 
the time lost, the major issues involved, and 
the main terms of settlement where appli- 
cable. 



Publications Recently Received in 

Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should com- 
municate with the publishers. Publications 
listed may be borrowed by making appli- 
cation to the Librarian, Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through, the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the num- 
ber (numeral) of the publication desired and 
the month in which it was listed in the 
Labour Gazette. 



List No. 107 

Accident Prevention 

1. Simonds, Rollin Head. Safety Man- 
agement; Accident Cost and Control, by 
Rollin H. Simonds and John V. Grimaldi. 
Homewood, 111., R. D. Irwin, 1956. Pp. 555. 

Paitial Contents: Responsibility for Acci- 
dent Prevention. How to Find the Cost of 
Accidents in a Company. Statistical Data on 
Uninsured Costs. Locating and Defining 
Accident Sources. Electricity and Material 



Handling and Storage. Environmental Con- 
trol for Health. Personal Protective Equip- 
ment. Employee Selection, Placement, and 
Counselling. Employee Training Procedures. 
Psychological Aspects of Accident Preven- 
tion. Auxiliary Functions of the Safety 
Department. Control of Catastrophes. 

2. Transportation Safety Association of 
Ontario. Safe Practices and Standards for 
Stevedoring and Freight Handling Opera- 
tions throughout Ports in the Province of 
Ontario. Toronto, n.d., 1957? Pp. 38. 

"A manual of safe practice rules for the 
prevention of personal injury and accidents 
to employees engaged in handling cargoes." 

3. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. The 
Manufacture of Brick, Tile and Kindred 
Products. Washington, G.P.O., 1956. Pp. 22. 

"This report presents the findings of an 
investigation made to determine what occu- 
pations in the manufacture of clay con- 
struction products and of silica refractory 
products are particularly hazardous for 
minors and should be subject to the 18 year 
age minimum." 

Automation 

4. American Management Association. 
Administrative Automation through IDF 
(Integrated Data Proceeding) and EDP 
(Electronic Data Processing) including a 
Section on the Sylvania Data Processing 
Center. New York, 1956. Pp. 72. 

By means of integrated data processing 
and electronic data processing information 
can be gathered from the operating divisions 
of an establishment and quickly processed 
and distributed to the individual who must 
make the operating decision based on the 
information provided. 

5. Phillips, Almarin. Automation; its 
Impact on Economic Growth and Stability. 
Washington, American Enterprise Associa- 
tion, 1957. Pp. 36. 

Effects of automation: (1) creates a 
demand for goods and services; (2) better 
products, higher total and per capita output, 
and opportunities for more leisure; (3) pos- 
sible unemployment or retirement for some 
workers; (4) creates a demand for new 
skills; (5) may result in "maximum efficiency 
with large-scale operations" at the expense 
of small businesses. 

6. Picard, Gerard. U automation; rapport 
du president general, Congres de la 
C.T.C.C., Septembre 1956, Montreal, P.Q. 
Montreal, 1956. Pp. 35. 

Collective Bargaining 

7. Sturmthal, Adolf Fox, ed. Contem- 
porary Collective Bargaining in Seven 
Countries. Ithaca, N.Y., Institute of Inter- 
national Industrial and Labor Relations, 
Cornell University, 1957. Pp. 382. 

Deals with collective bargaining in Great 
Britain, Norway, Holland, France, Germany, 
Italy and the United States. 



8. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Col- 
lective Bargaining Clauses: Labor-Manage- 
ment Safety, Production, and Industry 
Stabilization Committees. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1957. Pp. 35. 

A study of collective bargaining agreement 
clauses providing for labor-management 
safety, production, and industry stabilization 
committees was undertaken for the following 
two reasons: (1) to examine the structure, 
procedures, and functions established for 
these committees; and (2) To find out the 
prevalence of such provisions among major 
agreements. 

Discrimination in Employment 

9. Canada. Department of Labour. Legis- 
lation for Fair Employment Practices in 
Action. Ottawa, 1957. Pp. 8. 

Explains the provisions of the Canada 
Fair Employment Practices Act of 1953. 

10. Canadian Labour Reports. These are 
Your Rights under Federal and Provincial 
Fair Employment Practices Legislation. Rev. 
ed. Montreal, 1956. Pp. 10. 

A worker is protected against discrimina- 
tion in employment: (1) anywhere in Canada, 
if the job is in a business or factory under 
Federal jurisdiction; (2) if he lives in 
Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia 
all of which have laws; (3) if he works or 
is seeking employment in a firm which has 
a federal government contract. 

Economic Conditions 

11. Brouillette, Benoit. Les principales 
industries manufacturieres du Canada. 
Montreal, Ecole des hautes etudes commer- 
ciales, servicejie^titJCumentation economi- 
que, 1957^^^109. 

Discusses the following industries: food 
and drink, tobacco, rubber, leather, textiles, 
clothing, wood-pulp, paper, printing, iron 
and steel, transportation, non-ferrous metals, 
electrical appliances, non-metallic minerals, 
petroleum by-products, and, other products. 
Describes the economic characteristics of 
these industries and the geographical distri- 
bution of the plants manufacturing the 
products. 

12. Falardeau, Jean Charles. Essais sur 
le Quebec contemporain. Essays on Con- 
temporary Quebec. Symposium du cen- 
tenaire de I'Universite Laval, sur les reper- 
cussions sociales de l' industrialisation dans 
la province de Quebec tenu a I'Universite 
Laval les 6 et 7 juin 1952. Quebec, Les 
Presses universitaires Laval, 1953. Pp. 260. 

Partial Contents: History of Industrial 
Development, by Albert Faucher and Maurice 
Lamontagne. Recent Industrial Growth. The 
State of Agriculture, by Charles Lemelin. 
Population Problems, by Nathan Keyfitz. The 
Changing Social Structures, by Jean-C. 
Falardeau. Political Trends, by H. Mason 
Wade. Le systeme scolaire, by Leon Lortie. 
Regards sur le Quebec, by Everett-C. Hughes. 
Conditions de notre avenir, by Esdras Min- 
ville. 



884 



13. Organization for European Economic 
Cooperation. Economic Conditions in 
Canada and the United States, 1956. Paris, 
1956. Pp. 29. 

14. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on 
the Economic Report. 1957 Joint Economic 
Report; Report of the Joint Economic 
Committee on the January 1957 Economic 
Report of the President with Supplemental 
and Dissenting Views and the Economic 
Outlook for 1957 and other Materials. Pre- 
pared by the Committee Staff, 85th Cong., 
1st sess. Washington, G.P.O., 1957. Pp. 66. 

Employment Management 

15. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Merit Rating of Rank-and- 
File-Employees. Washington, 1957. Pp. 30. 

This study is based on replies from 140 
companies. Over two-fifths of the companies 
have formed merit-rating plans for its rank- 
and-file employees. Many of the. remaining 
firms have informal plans. 

16. Daykin, Walter Lesley. Manage- 
ment's Right to discharge Employees for 
Conduct off the Job. Iowa City, Bureau 
of Labor and Management, College of 
Commerce, State University of Iowa, 1956. 
Pp. 18. 

Reviews the decisions of arbitrators in 
cases of activities carried on by employees 
outside the plant. Some topics discussed 
are: garnishment, intoxication, gambling, 
fighting, and absence due to jail confinement. 

17. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Time Off with Pay: Vacations, Holi- 
days, Military Training, Election Day, Per- 
sonal Absences, Canadian Practices, by 
Harold Stieglitz. New York, 1957. Pp. 56. 

Contains information based on a survey 
of practices in 301 companies in the United 
States employing almost two million workers. 
Includes chapter on industrial vacations and 
holidays in Canada. 

Engineers 

18. Armsby, Henry Horton. Engineering 
and Scientific Manpower; Organized Efforts 
to improve its Supply and Utilization. 
Washington, U.S. Office of Education, 1956. 
Pp. 48. 

Briefly describes the manpower activities 
of 14 nongovernmental organizations, nine 
federal agencies, and two Presidential com- 
mittees. 

19. Engineers Joint Council. Raising 
Professional Standards and improving Em- 
ployment Conditions for Engineers. New 
York, 1956. Pp. 14. 

Report recommends: (1) Management 
should use the services of engineers more 
effectively; (2) Engineers should feel they 
are part of management; (3) Management 
should treat engineers as professionals; (4) 
The engineer should have a professional 
attitude towards his work; (5) Engineering 
societies should promote proper recognition 



of the profession; (6) Engineering schools 
should emphasize the characteristics of the 
profession. 

20. Great Britain. Ministry of Labour 
and National Service. Scientific and En- 
gineering Manpower in Great Britain; a 
Report on the Number and Distribution of 
Scientists and Engineers now employed in 
Great Britain, and a Study of the Likely 
Trend in the Future Demand for Scientific 
and Engineering Manpower. Prepared by 
the Ministry of Labour and National Serv- 
ice and the Advisory Council on Scientific 
Policy, Committee on Scientific. Manpower. 
London, H.M.S.O., 1956. Pp. 28. 

Contents: Present Distribution of Scien- 
tists and Engineers and Stated Requirements 
in 1959; Results of the Ministry of Labour 
Inquiry. The Long-Term Demand for Scien- 
tists and Engineers; Assessment by the 
Committee on Scientific Manpower. 

21. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Engineering Union Contracts, by 
James J. Bambrick, Jr., and Hermine Zagat, 
Division of Personnel Administration. New 
York, 1956. Pp. 99. 

An analysis of 16 collective bargaining 
contracts between firms employing large num- 
bers of engineers and several major engineer- 
ing unions. 

22. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on 
Atomic Energy. Interim Report of the 
Subcommittee on Research and Develop- 
ment on the Shortage of Scientific and 
Engineering Manpower. Washington, G.P.O., 
1956. Pp. 6. 

The Subcommittee on Research and 
Development recommends: "(1) Establish- 
ment of a federal mathematics scholarship 
award program; (2) Earlier identification of 
potentially ablest students; (3) Increased pay 
for high school teachers and greater flexibility 
in salary scales; (4) Federal contribution to 
private scholarship foundations; (5) Estab- 
lishment of a national educational reserve; 

(6) Better utilization in private industry; 

(7) Better utilization in the armed services; 

(8) Aid to universities in training technical 
assistance representatives; (9) Marshaling 
free world's scientific resources; and (10) 
Atomic energy; Expansion of reactor train- 
ing programs." 

23. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee on 
Atomic Energy. Shortage of Scientific and 
Engineering Manpower. Healings before the 
Subcommittee on Research and Develop- 
ment of the Joint Committee on Atomic 
Energy, Congress of the United States, 
Eighty-fourth Congress, Second Session. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1956. Pp. 487. 

The Subcommittees on Research and 
Development heard testimony on the shortage 
of scientists and engineers in the United 
States particularly in connection with the 
atomic energy program. 

Human Relations 

The following twenty-three papers were 
prepared as Background Papers for the 
Duke of Edinburgh's Study Conference on 



885 



the Human Problems of Industrial Com- 
munities within the Commonwealth and 
Empire, held in Oxfdrd in June 1956. 

24. Casson (Sir) Hugh. The Look of 
Industry in Britain. Oxford, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1956. Pp. 9. 

An indictment of the ugly physical aspects 
of industrialization which have a psycho- 
logical effect on the worker. 

25. Croudhury, H. K. The Plantation 
Workers of Malaya. Oxford, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1956. Pp. 7. 

The author, who is Financial Secretary of 
the Malayan National Union of Plantation 
Workers, describes the organization of 
Malayan plantation workers. 

26. Darling, Frank Fraser. Some 
Thoughts of an Ecologist on Industrializa- 
tion. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1956. 
Pp. 6. 

The author develops his contention that 
"... a modern concentrated industrial com- 
munity is a group of people under pressures 
which they may not be able to sustain at 
the present stage of human evolution". 

27. Deshmukh, Durgabai. The New 
Dimensions of Woman's Life in India. 
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 9. 

Discusses the place of the woman worker 
in India. 

28. Elkan, Walter. Incentives in East 
Africa. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 
1956. Pp. 7. 

The author points out the difference be- 
tween African workers and European workers 
with regard to incentives. 

29. Firth, Raymond William. Work and 
Community in a Primitive Society. Oxford, 
Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 12. 

The author says: "We can start with the 
idea that any working group has certain 
elementary requirements. These include incen- 
tives to attract members to the work; and 
organization which will distribute tasks and 
arrange for their co-ordination: a leadership 
which will take the initiative; controls which 
will apply a spur if need be; and technical 
standards to which the work must conform. 
Study of them throws light on what is a 
basic human situation common to men in all 
societies." 

30. Gaitskill, Arthur. Planned Regional 
Development in Underdeveloped Countries; 
Reflections from Experience in the Gezira 
Scheme in the Sudan. Oxford, Oxford 
University Press, 1956. Pp. 12. 

"The Gezira Scheme in the Sudan is an 
irrigation project covering a million acres 
of land a little south of Khartoum. It is 
probably the largest peasant estate under 
one management in the free world." The 
author was formerly Chairman and Managing 
Director of the Sudan Gezira Board. 

31. Garland, T. O. Health, Welfare and 
Safety in New Zealand. Oxford, Oxford 
University Press, 1956. Pp. 6. 

The author elaborates on the theme that 
"welfare services imposed from above may 
be one more factor in the conflict between 
the individual and the group". 



32. Hamilton, J. A. Problems of training 
for Industrialization in the Gold Coast. 
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 8. 

The author explains the problems involved 
in training workers for industry on the 
Gold Coast. 

33. Harding, Denys Wyatt. Values in an 
Industrial Society. Oxford, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1956. Pp. 6. 

The author points out that "... industry 
is only one segment of a community whose 
range of interest is wide and whose values 
and potential satisfactions extend far beyond 
anything that industry as such can compass". 

34. Hock, Lim Yew. Problems of Trade- 
Union Growth. Oxford, Oxford University 
Press, 1956. Pp. 7. 

The author is Minister of Labour and 

Welfare in Singapore. He describes labour 

union problems which have arisen in Singa- 
pore since World War II. 

35. Jennings, (Sir) William Ivor. The 
Changing Quality of Political Life. Oxford, 
Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 7. 

The author points out, among other things, 
that industrialization has increased the urban 
proletariat which has resulted in a transfer 
of political power. 

36. Jephcott, Pearl. Going Out to work; 
a Note on the Adolescent Girl in Britain. 
Oxford. Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 7. 

Describes the entry of young women into 
the labour market and their attitude towards 
work: suggests the probable future of the 
girls: suggests snrne means of helping the 
working girls to get more benefit from their 
jobs. 

37. Lewis. William Arthur. Some Eco- 
nomic and Social Problems of Transition 
to an Industrial Economy. Oxford, Oxford 
University Press, 1956. Pp. 8. 

Discusses industrialization as it concerns 
the following topics: (1) changes in land 
tenure; (2) the growth of working for 
wages: (3 1 urbanization; (4) saving and 
investment; (5) competition; (6) the growth 
of population; (7) an increase in taxation 
and in government activity. 

38. Mace, Cecil Alec. The Will to work. 
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 6. 

Discusses findings of industrial psycho- 
logists on motives for working. 

39. Madan, M. D. Factory and Com- 
munity; Three Case Studies, by M. D. 
Madan, Elmer Luchterhaud and R. L. Prain. 
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1956. 3 
parts. 

Contents: (1) The Tata Steel Works at 
Jamshedpur, by M. I). Madan; (2) Social 
Planning and Adjustment at Kitimat, by 
Elmer Luchterhaud; and (3) The Stabiliza- 
tion of Labour in the Rhodesian Copperbelt, 
by R. L. Prain. 

These three papers discuss the relationship 
between employer and employees in company 
towns remote from established communities. 

40. Mitchell, James Clyde. Africans in 
Industrial Towns in Northern Rhodesia. 
Oxford. Oxford Uuniversity Press, 1956. 
Pp. 9. 



886 



Discusses the changes in social relation- 
ships among native African workers in the 
towns. 

41. Nicol, Davidson. Some Notes on the 
Impact of Industrialization and Science on 
Morality and Religion. Oxford, Oxford 
University Press, 1956. Pp. 9. 

The author, a medical scientist engaged 
on research work at Cambridge University, 
discusses some of the changes in social 
morality which industrialization is causing 
in West Africa and considers some of the 
effects of science and industrialization in 
Africa and in Western civilization, with par- 
ticular reference to education. 

42. Sherlock, Philip Manderson. Aims 
and Priorities in Education. Oxford, Oxford 
University Press, 1956. Pp. 6. 

The author discusses the problem of 
whether to give priority to primary, second- 
ary, technical, university and adult education 
when resources of men and money are scarce. 
He speaks with reference to the British West 
Indies because he is Vice-Principal and Direc- 
tor of Extra-Mural Studies, University Col- 
lege of the West Indies. 

43. Stevens, Siaka. The West African 
Miner. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 
1956. Pp. 6. 

A survey of the West African miner with 
particular reference to labour force, trade 
unionism, safety, health and welfare, living 
conditions, technical education and social 
security. 

44. Toombs, Farrell Chesley. The Con- 
tribution of the Social Scientist to Manage- 
ment. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 
1956. Pp. 9. 

The author states, "the essential contribu- 
tion of social science to management is the 
suggestion of useful ways for thinking and 
speaking about human affairs". 

45. Weickhardt, Leonard William. Hu- 
man Problems of the Large Enterprise. 
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1956. 
Pp. 10. 

Among various aspects of management the 
author touches briefly on leadership, train- 
ing, discipline, participation, communications, 
specialist assistance, decentralization, and 
delegation. 

46. Worthington, E. B. The Use of 
Science in Underdeveloped Countries. Ox- 
ford, Oxford University Press, 1956. Pp. 6. 

The author states that in the backward 
countries of Africa scientific methods are 
often handicapped by the conservatism of the 
majority of the population. 

Industrial Relations 

47. American Management Association. 
Progress in Labor-Management Relations. 
New York, 1956. Pp. 68. 

Partial Contents: Forecasting Tomorrow's 
Industrial Relations. Trends and Problems 
in Industrial Relations. Supplemental Unem- 
ployment Benefits: The Operational Prob- 
lems. The National Labour Relations Board: 
its Functions and Philosophy. 

48. Employers' Association of Chicago. 
Industrial Relations Survey, 1956. Chicago, 
1956. Pp. 46. 



49. Great Britain. Central Office of 
Information. Labour Relations and Work- 
ing Conditions in Britain. Rev. ed. London, 
1956. Pp. 56. 

Contents: Industrial Relations. Working 
Conditions in Practice. Human Relations in 
Industry. 

Labour Supply 

50. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. The 
Secondary Labor Force and the Measure- 
ment of Unemployment, by Richard C. Wil- 
cock. Urbana, 1957. Pp. 167-210. 

The author suggests that it is possible to 
differentiate between regular and temporary 
workers in compiling labor force statistics 
and thus contribute to the analysis and 
understanding of employment and unemploy- 
ment fluctuations in the American economy. 

51. Japan. Prime Minister's Office. 
Bureau of Statistics. Labor Force Survey 
of Japan. Tokyo, 1956. Pp. 37. 

52. Quebec (City). Universite Laval. 
Departement des relations industrielles. 
La stabilite de I'emploi, par Gerard Dion 
(et d'autres) Quebec, Les Presses universi- 
taires de Laval, 1956. Pp. 162. 

Proceedings of the Eleventh Congres des 
relations industrielles, held in Quebec City, 
April 16 and 17, 1956. 

Partial Contents: Prosperite economique et 
paradoxe de I'emploi, par Charles Lemelin. 
Le chomage structural et cyclique, par Rene 
Tremblay. Le chomage saisonnier et friction- 
nel, par Jean-Marie Martin et Jacques St- 
Laurent. Implications sociologiques de l'ins- 
tabilite de I'emploi, par Fernand Dumont. 
L'experience canadienne: le secteur prive de 
l'entreprise, par Eugene Forsey, R. B. Mac- 
Pherson et W. M. Berry. Aspect normatif 
de la stabilite de I'emploi, par Maurice 
Tremblay. 

53. Stigler, George Joseph. Trends in 
Employment in the Service Industries. 
Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1956. 
Pp. 167. 

Analyzes employment trends since 1870 
in the service industries, which include retail 
and wholesale trade, finance, real estate, the 
professions, domestic and personal services, 
government, banking, entertainment and 
recreation services, hotel industry, etc. 

Labouring Classes 

54. Dale, Leon Andrew. Marxism and 
French Labor. 1st ed. New York, Vantage 
Press, 1956. Pp. 273. 

The author points out that the French 
labor movement since its beginning has been 
at the mercy of the government, employers 
and political parties. At the present time 
the communists control the French labor 
movement and have weakened it. 

55. Fabian Society. Plan for Industrial 
Pensions, by a Group of Trade Unionists. 
Preface by Margaret Cole. London, 1957. 
Pp. 11. 

The authors of this pamphlet state that 
the industrial pensions presently paid in 



887 



Great Britain are inadequate. They recom- 
mend "the introduction of a compulsory 
National Industrial Pension Plan which 
would be financed out of contributions vary- 
ing according to income". The plan is out- 
lined. 

56. Illinois. University. Institute of 
Labor and Industrial Relations. Labor 
Patterns and Trends, by Solomon B. Levine. 
Urbana, 1957. Pp. 102-112. 

A survey of the trade union movement 
in Japan. 

57. McMurray, Donald le Crone. The 
Great Burlington Strike of 1888: a Case 
History in Labor Relations. Cambridge, 
Harvard University Press, 1956. Pp. 377. 

The Burlington Strike of 1888 involved 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad 
Company and the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers and the Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Firemen. The strike lasted from Feb- 
ruary 27, 1888, to January 8, 1889. The 
strikers were asking for more money and 
better working conditions and more con- 
siderate treatment from some of their bosses. 

58. Newfoundland Federation of Labour. 
Journal of Proceeding, 20th Annual Conven- 
tion, by W. Frank Chafe, July 16th-21st, 
1956. St. John's, 1956. Pp. 3-21. 

59. U.S. Bureau of Apprenticeship. Na- 
tional Apprenticeship and Training Stand- 
ards for Glaziers and Glassworkers adopted 
by the National Joint Glaziers and Glass- 
workers' Apprenticeship Committee, repre- 
senting the Employers in the Glass and 
Glazing Industry and the Brotherhoods of 
Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of 
America, in Conformance with the Funda- 
mentals recommended by the Federal Com- 
mittee on Apprenticeship. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 28. 

60. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. An- 
nual Digest of State and Federal Labor 
Legislation, October 1, 1954 to December 31, 
1955, January 1, 1956 to October 15, 1956. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1956. Pp. 287. 

Office Management 

61. American Management Associations. 
Engineering for Paperwork Control, includ- 
ing a Paper on Integrated Procedures Con- 
trol. New York, 1956. Pp. 56. 

Contents: Office Investments. When are 
they justified? Objectives and Techniques of 
Forms Control. Integrated Procedures Con- 
trol: a New System for Analysis, Measure- 
ment, and Control of Office Work. Records 
Retention and Disposal: The Engineering 
Approach. 

62. American Management Association. 
New Dimensions in Office Management. 
New York, 1956. Pp. 46. 

Contents: Office Management and the Chal- 
lenge of an Expanding Economy. Bringing 
Office Service Management up to Date. Mak- 
ing Constructive Use of the Office Grapevine. 
Employee Roundup-Western Style. (Describes 
how employees of Western Union Telegraph 



Company in Chicago were encouraged to refer 
their friends to the company for employment 
during a labour shortage). The Art in 
Scientific Management. 

63. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Operations Research; What it is; 
How it is conducted; What it offers Busi- 
ness, by Lawrence C. Lockley. New York, 
1957. Pp. 20. 

"In simplest terms, operations research 
can be defined as research into the relation- 
ships and functions of an organized activity. 
The purpose, when applied to business prob- 
lems, is generally how to use the resources 
on hand so as to achieve optimum results." 

Older Workers 

64. Clark, Frederick le Gros. Bus Work- 
ers in Their Later Lives; a Study of the 
Employment of 300 Drivers and Conduc- 
tors from the Age of 60 Onwards. London, 
Nuffield Foundation, 1957. Pp. 26. 

"It is... characteristic of service on the 
buses that drivers and conductors have 
usually to carry out their full duties or else 
transfer to some alternate job." It is some- 
times difficult for the employer to find suffi- 
cient alternate jobs for bus drivers who 
have to give up their regular jobs because 
of health or other reasons. 

65. Federation Employment and Guid- 
ance Service, New York. Memo to Mature 
Workers re: How to get a Job. New York? 
New York State Joint Legislative Com- 
mittee on Problems of the Aging, n.d., 1957? 
Pp. 16. 

66. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee 
on Labor and Public Welfare. Studies of 
the Aged and Aging; Selected Documents. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1956-1957. 9 volumes. 

Contents: v. 1. Federal and State Activi- 
ties, v. 2. Health and Health Services, v. 3. 
Income and Income Maintenance, v. 4. Em- 
ployment, v. 5. Public and Private Services 
for Older People: Rehabilitation, Housing 
and Living Arrangements, Education, Com- 
munity Services, v. 6. Care of the Aging by 
the Veterans Administration, v. 7. Guide to 
Significant Publications, v. 8. Population: 
Current Data and Trends, v. 9. Research, 
Demonstration and Training. 

67. U.S. Library of Congress. Legislative 
Reference Service. Studies of the Aged, 
and Aging ; Summary of Federal Legislation 
relating to Older Persons, prepared for the 
Committee on Labour and Public Welfare, 
United States Senate. Washington, G.P.O., 
1957. Pp. 34. 

Productivity of Labour 

68. Greenberg, Leon. Productivity ; Pros- 
pective Trends and Historical Factors. (An 
address) before the Dartmouth Conference 
on Economic Growth, Dartmouth College, 
Hanover, N.H., June 21, 1956. Washington? 
U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1956. Pp. 15. 



888 



69. Productivity Conference, London, 
1957. The London Productivity Conference ; 
the Record of a Meeting... Church House, 
Westminster, 1 March, 1957. London, British 
Productivity Council, 1957. Pp. 42. 

Some of the topics dealt with were: the 
work of the British Productivity Council, 
trade union education and training courses, 
action by employers' organizations to increase 
productivity in their own industries, local 
productivity committee activities and the role 
of the technical colleges. 

Social Security 

70. International Labour Office. Sys- 
tems of Social Security, Great Britain. 
Geneva, 1957. Pp. 73. 

Describes the five main social security 
schemes in Great Britain which are: "(a) 
National insurance, providing the benefits 
normally covered by social insurance other 
than employment injury benefit; (b) Indus- 
trial injuries insurance, providing for em- 
ployment injury benefit; (c) Family allow- 
ances; (d) National assistance, providing 
assistance, normally in cash, in case of need; 
(e) The National health service, providing 
treatment in every condition requiring 
medical care". 

71. U.S. Women's Bureau. What Social 
Security means to Women. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1957. Pp. 25. 

Contents: Women's Stake in Social Secur- 
ity. Old-Age and Survivors Insurance. 
Workers brought under OASI since 1950. 
What OASI means to — Employed Women, 
Self-Employed Women, Working Wives, 
Women Who Employ Others, Women Who 
Support Others, Women Depend ~nt on In- 
sured Workers. Older Women. Your Social 
Security Account. 

Wages and Hours 

72. Conference on Shorter Hours of 
Work, Washington, D.C., 1956. The 
Shorter Work Week. Papers delivered at 
the Conference on Shorter Hours of Work 
sponsored by the American Federation of 
Labor and Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions. Washington, Public Affairs, 1957. 
Pp. 96. 

Contents: Labor's Basic Position, by 
George Meany. Historical Background, by- 
George Brooks. Comments on Paper by 
George Brooks. The Worker's Viewpoint, by 
Woodrow L. Ginsburg and Ralph Bergmann. 
Economic Considerations, by Nat Goldfinger. 
Comments on Papers by Nat Goldfinger and 
by Woodrow L. Ginsburg and Ralph Berg- 
mann. Recent Accomplishments, by Seymour 
Brandwein. Which Way to Greater Leisure? 
By Pete Henle. Comments on Papers by 
Seymour Brandwein and Peter Henle. 

73. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Clerical Salary Survey. New York, 
1957. Pp. 32. 

This study, which covers salaries in 13 
clerical jobs in 20 American cities is based 
on a survey of nearly 80,000 clerical em- 
ployees of 953 plants. 



74. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Union Wages and Hours: Motortruck 
Drivers and Helpers, July 1, 1956 and 
Trend 1936-56. Washington, G.P.O., 1957. 
Pp. 32. 

"The information presented in this report 
was based on union scales in effect on July 1, 
1956 and covered approximately 260,000 
drivers and 38,000 helpers in 52 cities with 
populations of 100,000 or more." 

75. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Wages and Related Benefits, 17 Labor 
Markets, 1955-56: Occupational Earnings, 
Earnings Trends, Intercity Comparisons, 
Occupational Wage Relationships, Supple- 
mentary Practices. Washington, G.P.O., 
1956. 

Besides information on occupational earn- 
ings, this bulletin includes information on 
shift operations and differentials, weekly 
work schedules, and supplementary wage 
benefits such as paid vacations and paid 
holidays. 

Workmen's Compensation 

76. Manitoba. Workmen's Compensation 
Board. Report for 1956. Winnipeg, 1957. 
Pp. 31. 

77. Nova Scotia. Workmen's Compen- 
sation Board. Report for 1956. Halifax, 
Queen's Printer, 1957. Pp. 26. 

Miscellaneous 

78. Canadian Council of Foremen's 
Clubs. The Organization and Program of 
a Community Foremen's Club ; a Manual of 
the Canadian Council of Foremen's Clubs 
affiliated with the Y.M.CA. Toronto, 1956. 
Pp. 31. 

Partial Contents: The Values of a Fore- 
men's Club. How to organize a Foreman's 
Club. Club Meeting Techniques. The_ Club 
Meeting Program. Educational Activities 
sponsored by Clubs. 

79. Great Britain. Central Office of 
Information. Technological Education in 
Britain. London, 1956. Pp. 36. 

Describes provisions made in Britain for 
training in engineering and in the applied 
science such as industrial chemistry and 
applied physics. 

80. Great Britain. Central Youth Em- 
ployment Executive. The Medical Labora- 
tory Technician. 2d ed. London, H.M.S.O., 
1957. Pp. 16. 

Describes the job of the medical laboratory 
technician, the necessary professional train- 
ing and personal qualities and the openings 
and salaries. 

81. Great Britain. Civil Service Com- 
mission. Civil Service Posts for Graduates. 
3d ed. London, H.M.S.O., 1956. 

Describes the work done in some of the 
permanent positions open to university 
graduates in the British Civil Service. 



889 



Page 

Tables A-l and A-2— Labour Force 890 

Table B-l — Labour Income 892 

Tables C-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 892 

Tables D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 898 

Tables E-l to E-4 — Unemployment Insurance 904 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 906 

Tables G-l and G-2— Strikes and Lockouts 907 



A — Labour Force 



TABLE A-l.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION WEEK ENDED APRIL 20 1957 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



— 


Canada 


Nfld. 


P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 

Sask. 
Alta. 


B.C. 


The Labour Force 


5,748 

712 

5,036 

4,381 

687 

3,694 

1,367 

25 

1,342 

5,748 

520 

722 

2,653 

1,624 

229 

5,442 
4,102 
1,340 

706 
4,736 

4,286 
3,059 
1,227 

306 

5,178 
1,049 
4,129 


104 

* 

104 

* 83 
83 

21 

21 

104 
15 
17 
45 
25 
* 

91 
70 
21 

* 
91 

80 
61 
19 

13 

159 
53 
106 


430 

42 

388 

339 

40 

299 

* 91 
89 

430 
41 
54 
188 
126 
21 

382 

294 

88 

42 
340 

299 
221 

78 

48 

465 
102 
363 


1,625 

175 

1,450 

1,261 

171 

1,090 

364 

360 

1,625 
191 
232 
750 
404 
48 

1,498 

1,142 

356 

173 
1,325 

1,189 
861 
328 

127 

1,476 

265 

1,211 


2,130 

181 

1,949 

1,557 

173 

1,384 

573 

* 

565 

2,130 
168 
247 
992 
629 
94 

2,059 

1,498 

561 

180 
1,879 

1,730 

1,211 

519 

71 

1,649 

310 

1,339 


985 
293 
692 

785 
283 
502 

200 

10 

190 

985 
73 
122 
456 
288 
46 

957 
759 
198 

291 
666 

597 
421 
176 

28 

945 
202 
743 


474 




21 




453 




356 




20 




336 




118 








117 


All Ages 


474 




32 


20—24 years 


50 




222 




152 




18 


Persons with Jobs 


455 




339 




116 


Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 


20 
435 

391 




284 




107 


Persons Without Jobs and Seeking Work 


19 


Persons not in the Labour Force 


484 


Males 


117 




367 







Less than 10,000. 



890 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended 
April 20, 1957 


Week Ended 
March 16, 1957 


Week Ended 
April 21, 1956 




Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 

Work (i) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
Work (i) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 

Work (i) 




321 

306 

76 

108 

102 

12 

15 

* 

11 


305 
292 

13 

* 


360 

343 
77 

161 
91 
10 

17 
12 


333 
318 

15 

* 

10 


274 

257 

57 
96 
81 
14 

17 

* 

12 


255 




240 




















13—18 months 





19 — and over 

Worked 


15 




* 




11 







(') To obtain number seeking part-time work, subtract figures in this column from those in the "Total" column. 
* Less than 10,000. 



TABLE A-3.— DESTINATION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Soukce: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Period 


Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


B.C. 

Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Canada 
Total 


Adult 
Males 


1953 Total 


4,049 
3,849 
3,067 
3,029 
644 
1,407 


34,294 
28,419 
22,117 
31,396 
3,643 
12,798 


90, 120 
83,029 
57,563 
90,662 
10,209 
32,157 


27,208 
26,638 
15,559 
17,957 
2,111 
7,669 


13,197 
12,292 
11,640 
17,930 
2,356 
8,429 


168,868 
154,227 
109,946 
164,857(0 
18,963 
62,460 


68,269 


1954 Total 


64,551 


1955 Total 


56,828 


1956 Total 


89,541 


1956 1st Three Months 

1957 1st Three Months 


10,077(2) 
36,224(2) 



0) Total includes 3,883 whose destination is not specified. 
(2) Males (All Ages). 



TABLE A-4.— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA BY OCCUPATIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 









T3 


T3 






M.9 










- 


73 

s 
a-* 

I'i 

5 ? 


1 
O 


J "J 

"5 § 
11 

ft 3 

02 — 

£ C 
So 
HO 


3 

a o 

5 <= 

- =3 

5.9 


> 
1 


a 
c 

"3 
o 

Si 

< 


£2 

n 

is 


I'ii 

c3 <D O 


2 

3 

3 

o 
►J 


£ 

42 

6 


m 
9 
M 

1 

3 

o 
H 


1953 Total 


10,021 
9,933 
8,563 

10,339 


6,339 
0,775 
5,775 

9,492 


1,855 
1,938 
1,190 
2,255 


3,185 
2,735 
2,146 
3,823 


13,766 
11,974 
9,588 
13,800 


17,250 
10,920 
7,036 
7,500 


879 

763 

514 

1,649 


26,492 
25,699 
15,117 
29,264 


10,380 
13,011 

7,687 
12,482 


966 
578 
371 
435 


91,133 


1954 Total 


84,376 


1955 Total 


57,987 


1956 Total 


91,039 


1956 1st Three Months. 


1,512 


1,050 


240 


476 


1,976 


1,144 


75 


2,770 


1,268 


51 


10,562 


1957 1st Three Months. 


4,001 


3,739 


1,249 


1,577 


3,990 


2,191 


682 


13,436 


4,681 


167 


35,713 



891 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



1949 Average 

1950 Average 

1951 Average 

1952 Average 

1953 Average 

1954 Average 

1955 Average 

1956 Average 

1956— April 

May 

June 

My 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December . 

1957 — January 

February . . 

March 

April 



Agricul- 
ture 
Forestry, 
Fishing, 
Trapping, 
Mining 



99 
104 



Manu- 
facturing 



214 
231 
272 
303 
329 
323 
342 
379 

371 

377 
381 
382 
382 
392 
394 
397 
397 

384 
389 
393 
395 



Construc- 
tion 



47 
47 
52 
63 
70 
69 
78 
93 

79 
92 
105 
105 
108 
110 
114 
101 
90 



Utilities, 
Transpor- 
tation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 



208 
233 
252 
261 
278 
307 

291 
301 
311 
317 
319 
324 
324 
325 
327 

310 
316 
317 
324 



Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 



147 
156 
178 
199 
217 
239 
256 
283 

277 
281 
288 
281 
286 
299 
294 
300 
295 



299 
302 
300 



Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 



Total 



810 

906 

976 

1,000 

1,068 

1,190 

1,126 
1,169 
1,215 
1,223 
1,236 
1,268 
1,273 
1,265 
1,248 

1,197 
1,205 
1,205 
1,217 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 



Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At March 
in the principal non-agricultural Industries reported a total employment of 2,666,784. 



employers 



TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100). (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 





Industrial Composite 1 


Manufacturing 


Year and Month 


Index Numbers 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers 


Average 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 


Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 


Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 




100.0 
101.5 
108.8 
111.6 
113.4 
109.9 
112.5 
120.1 
113.2 
113.5 
115.2 
119.7 
124.2 
125.4 
125.7 
125.9 
126.2 
125.7 

121.4 
118 6 
118.0 


100.0 
106.0 
125.6 
140.3 
151.5 
151.3 
160.1 
180.5 
167.3 
168.4 
172.3 
179.0 
187.6 
189.9 
191.0 
194.5 
195.4 
194.3 

180.3 
184.7 
185.7 


100.0 
104.4 
115.5 
126.0 
133.4 
137.1 
141.7 
149.4 
147.1 
147.6 
148.8 
148.8 
150.3 
150.8 
151.3 
153.8 
154.2 
153.9 

148.0 
155.2 
156.8 


42.96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 
57.30 
58.88 
60.87 
64.18 
63.20 
63.43 
63.93 
63.93 
64.56 
64.77 
65.01 
66.07 
66.24 
66.11 

63.58 
66.66 
67.37 


100.0 
100.9 
108.0 
109.3 
113.3 
107.7 
109.3 
115.4 
112.3 
113.4 
114.1 
115.4 
118.0 
117.9 
118.0 
118.6 
118.6 
118.0 

114.8 
115.1 
115.0 


100.0 
106.2 
126.1 
139.7 
152.4 
150.0 
158.4 
175.5 
168.5 
171.2 
174.2 
175.6 
180.6 
179.2 
180.1 
184.4 
185.9 
185.6 

171.7 
182.0 
182.3 


100.0 
105.1 
116.6 
127.6 
134.2 
138.6 
144.1 
151.2 
149.1 
150.1 
151.7 
151.1 
152.1 
151.1 
151.7 
154.6 
155.9 
156.4 

148.8 
157.3 
157.7 


S 
43.97 


1950 — Average 

1951 — Average 

1952 — Average 


46.21 
51.25 
56.11 
59.01 


1954 — Average 


60.94 
63.34 




66.47 


1956— Mar. 1 . . . . 


65.57 


April 1 


66.02 


May 1 


66.70 
66.46 


July 1 .. 


66.89 


Aug. 1 


66.44 


Sept. 1 . . 


66.71 


Oct. 1 . . 


67.97 


Nov. 1 


68.53 


Dec. 1 . . 


68.78 


1957— Jan. 1 


65.44 


Feb. 1 


69.17 


Mar. 1 


69.33 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recrea- 
tional service). 



892 



TABLE C-2.— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Area 



(a) Provinces 



Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta (including Northwest Territories). 
British Columbia (including Yukon) 



Canada 



Employment 
Index Numbers 



Mar. 1 Feb. 1 Mar. 1 
1957 1957 1956 



(b) Metropolitan Areas 

St. John's 

Sydney 

Halifax 

Saint John 

Quebec 

Sherbrooke 

Three Rivers 

Drummondville 

Montreal 

Ottawa— Hull 

Peterborough 

Oshawa 

Niagara Falls 

St. Catharines 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

Brantf ord 

Gait 

Kitchener 

Sudbury 

London 

Sarnia 

Windsor 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 

Winnipeg 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Edmonton 

Calgary 

Vancouver 

Victoria 



114.6 
95.3 
97.8 
103.1 
117.6 
120.9 
106.2 
112.6 
144.1 
115.4 

118.0 



113.0 
92.2 
120.4 
112.2 
105.6 
109.4 
112.0 
77.2 
120.7 
115.5 
109.1 
173.4 
118.9 
124.2 
129.3 
113.7 
86.2 
113.7 
113.2 
138.7 
118.7 
130.7 
103.1 
129.8 
104.0 
103.1 
112.5 
114.4 
167.2 
153.1 
116.0 
117.5 



119.7 
113.2 
99.9 
106.4 
118.0 
121.5 
106.1 
113.6 
145.4 
113.9 

118 6 



111.8 
92.3 
119.4 
108.4 
105.2 
109.3 
111.3 
76.6 
120.4 
115.7 
109.7 
174.3 
119.7 
125.5 
129.2 
113.0 
86.8 
112.2 
113.9 
139.2 
119.1 
129.3 
105.8 
129.6 
107.0 
103.8 
114.4 
116.0 
170.0 
153.2 
115.7 
117.2 



119.5 
125.7 
100.4 
105.4 
112.1 
115.5 
102.8 
107.1 
132.0 
110.9 

113 2 



112.0 

89.1 
117.0 
106.1 
103.7 
104.3 
106.7 

78.0 
114.0 
113.4 

96.4 
159.9 
114.4 
115.9 
124.0 
108.8 

90.4 
105.5 
105.5 
131.1 
113.8 
124.6 
107.9 
117.7 
103.6 
102.1 
108.2 
108.4 
153.8 
139.9 
109.3 
113.1 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Mar. 1 Feb. 1 Mar. 1 
1957 1957 1956 



60.74 
52.02 
56.37 
59.05 
64.97 
69.67 
62.76 
64.70 
69.75 
72.84 

67.37 



49.26 
66.84 
54.85 
52.80 
55.42 
57.64 
63.00 
57.38 
65.28 
60.34 
74.18 
69.27 
76.73 
77.33 
70.19 
73.89 
63.60 
60.86 
63.58 
82.87 
63.12 
80.13 
72.62 
84.50 
67.57 
59.67 
61.21 
59.15 
64.97 
64.36 
70.53 
64.97 



59.44 
46.74 
55.40 
57.51 
64.16 
69.39 
62.46 
63.84 
68.80 
71.09 

66.66 



48.51 
67.88 
54.40 
52.11 
54.61 
57.89 
63.08 
57.28 
64.96 
59.90 
74.02 
75.12 
77.84 
78.38 
69.63 
73.41 
63.69 
60.58 
62.38 
82.73 
62.11 
81.08 
73.53 
83.37 
66.33 
59.02 
60.46 
57.47 
65.20 
63.62 
69.77 
63.35 



55.58 
44.40 
52.43 
55.01 
60.83 
65.67 
59.79 
59.67 
65.53 
68.13 

63.20 



63.51 
52.26 
51.99 
52.40 
53.96 
58.57 
54.47 
61.60 
58.13 
66.79 
71.97 
72.10 
71.73 
66.44 
67.91 
62.71 
57.75 
60.04 
77.95 
60.75 
78.07 
72.39 
78.12 
64.13 
56.66 
57.39 
56.21 
60.27 
61.45 
65.44 
61.44 



893 



TABLE C-3. 



INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 
WAGES AND SALARIES 



(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Industry 



Employment Index Numbers 



Mar. 1 
1957 



Feb. 1 
1957 



Mar. 1 
1956 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Mar. 1 Feb. 1 Mar. 1 
1957 1957 1956 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas. 
Non-metal 



Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables. 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Biscuits and crackers 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery mfg 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 



Construction 

Building and general engineering. 

Building 

Engineering work 

Highways, bridges and streets. . 



Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants . 
Other service 



Industrial composite. 



124.5 

131.4 
76.2 
182.8 
113.2 
64.4 
292.6 
127.7 

115.0 

99.5 

117.0 

72.4 

103.0 

106.0 

87.5 

98.3 

111.9 

113.3 

90.9 

95.2 

87.9 

88.4 

73.6 

87.5 

96.7 

103.2 

98.3 

83.4 

102.7 

100.8 

112.7 

93.1 

121.6 

123.4 

117.4 

118.1 

115.2 

68.1 

167.3 

100.8 

100.0 

105.5 

128.6 

126.5 

108.3 

144.1 

380.7 

128.0 

118.5 

93.4 

158.9 

131.2 

135.4 

108.7 

156.1 

153.1 

122.6 

90.8 

127.6 

135.1 

129.2 

115.7 

139.0 

111.3 

112.7 

126.3 
133.1 
98.1 
91.1 

124.6 

117.8 
108.7 
167.7 

118.0 



124.1 

130.5 
76.4 
181.0 
113.3 
66.0 
287.6 
127.7 

115.1 

100.0 

118.8 

77.3 

102.4 

106.4 

88.2 

96.5 

110.8 

113.9 

89.6 

93.5 

88.3 

88.7 

74.9 

87.2 

95.4 

101.9 

95.7 

83.2 

101.1 

98.3 

112.3 

93.1 

121.5 

122.8 

118.2 

118.3 

114.4 

59.6 

166.1 

100.9 

102.6 

107.0 

129.0 

125.7 

108.7 

147.9 

376.8 

142.7 

122.1 

96.0 

153.2 

131.5 

137.8 

109.2 

156.0 

153.4 

123.4 

93.6 

128.1 

134.8 

128.5 

115.1 

136.7 

110.2 

113.9 

127.3 
134.6 
97.5 
92.3 

124 9 

118.2 
109.3 
167.4 

118.6 



115.9 

119.8 
76.3 
160.4 
107.8 
71.2 
229.7 
123.8 

112.3 

98.0 

115.7 

67.6 

101.9 

107.0 

89.1 

99.8 

102.0 

110.0 

91.7 

94.9 

88.3 

90.5 

74.0 

88.8 

97.0 

101.1 

98.2 

84.5 

105.3 

106.2 

109.4 

93.6 

118.0 

119.8 

113.6 

113.3 

108.9 

70.4 

141.3 

107.8 

104.6 

106.1 

114.0 

116.5 

107.7 

141.8 

349.8 

144.5 

117.5 

88.9 

147.7 

126.2 

127.9 

113.8 

146.2 

146.0 

125.5 

103.6 

130.7 

126.6 

124.0 

114.7 

127.3 

104.0 

101 9 

111.2 
116.3 
89.3 

87.1 

115 9 

109.6 
103.6 
153.7 

113.2 



83.35 

85.72 
71.92 
91.09 
82.58 
63.25 
98.23 
74.29 

69.33 

62.05 
71.03 
58.13 
64.02 
58.28 
50.42 
77.50 
59.08 
71.56 
48.92 
46.63 
55.93 
52.94 
53.13 
61.51 
45.73 
44.80 
47.17 
45.24 
59.58 
61.43 
57.80 
54.25 
81.31 
87.43 
65.40 
73.68 
78.14 
76.48 
80.91 
71.16 
67.24 
75.81 
75.99 
88.08 
74.09 
75.66 
82.49 
75.80 
74.61 
71.41 
71.27 
78.27 
74.53 
72.71 
84.61 
75.10 
71.78 
69.04 
68.02 
95.15 
77.63 
70.28 
87.65 



74.36 

80.22 
79.76 
82.79 
61.38 

44 93 

37.77 
39.84 
65.42 

67.37 



82.51 

84.32 
71.40 
89.41 
82.54 
66.27 
96.26 
74.02 

69 17 

61.05 
71.10 
55.98 
64.00 
57.19 
50.03 
76.49 
59.20 
71.74 
48.04 
45.99 
55.91 
52.65 
53.61 
61.89 
45.30 
44.05 
47.15 
45.16 
56.73 
57.28 
57.10 
53.21 
81.49 
87.92 
64.95 
73.17 
78.07 
76.35 
79.72 
71.41 
66.08 
75.77 
76.31 
88.34 
73.77 
76.45 
81.03 
79.23 
77.40 
71.29 
71.49 
78.42 
73.37 
73.21 
85.07 
75.68 
72.27 
68.16 
70.33 
97.02 
77.08 
70.02 
87.36 
59.72 

72.94 

78.93 
78.65 
80.49 
59.74 

44.36 

37.08 
39.43 
65.11 

66.66 



894 



Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 
(The latest figures are subject to revision ) 





Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




April 1, 
1957 


March 1, 
1957 


April 1, 
1956 


April 1, 
1957 


March 1, 
1957 


April 1, 
1956 




43.1 
41.5 
41.7 
42.3 
40.7 
40.6 
40.2 
40.3 
38.7 


43.2 
40.7 
41.8 
42.4 
40.4 
40.6 
39.7 
40.1 
38.1 


41.8 
40.5 
42.2 
41.9 
41.0 
40.6 
40.3 
40.1 
38.2 


156.0 
142.6 
140.4 
141.7 
168.0 
147.6 
164.2 
163.9 
189.0 


150.3 
143.7 
138.8 
141.3 
166.5 
146.4 
162.5 
163.6 
188.0 


145 6 




132 7 




133 8 




133 9 




159 1 




141 




159 1 


Alberta (') 


155 8 


British Columbia ( 2 ) 


179 3 







(!) Includes Northwest Territories. 
( 2 ) Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: Information on hours and earnings by cities is obtainable from Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics.) 



895 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 
Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Average Hours 



Apr. 1 Mar. 1 Apr. 1 
1957 1957 1956 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



Apr. 1 
1957 



Mar. 1 Apr. ] 
1957 1956 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



Apr. 1 Mar. 1 Apr. 1 
1957 1957 1956 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables . . 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

* Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

* Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

* Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor veil icles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

* Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment. . 

Radios and radio parts 

Batteries 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and appliances 

Miscellaneous electrical products 

Wire and cable 

* Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

* Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



no. 

42.3 
43.2 
42.6 
43.4 
40.4 
37.9 
44.8 
42.2 
41.1 
40.7 
39.8 
39.7 
41.1 
42.4 
40.1 
39.8 
41.1 
41.4 
41.4 
41.8 
38.9 
42.9 
45.0 
39.5 
38.8 
38.7 
40.8 
41.6 
40.5 
43.0 
43.2 
42.1 
42.4 
41.3 
40.1 
41.6 
41.2 
42.0 
41.6 
40.7 
41.6 
42.7 
41.1 
41.0 
40.4 
40.9 
39.8 
40.0 
39.7 
41.8 
40.9 
41.3 
41.1 
40.7 
40.7 
41.1 
39.7 
40.4 
40.7 
40.7 
41.5 
43.0 
42.6 
42.5 
41.5 
41.0 
40.7 
41.5 
41.6 
41.2 
41.0 
42.2 
42.6 
41.1 
44.7 
40.1 
40.3 
40.6 



43.1 

43.6 

43.2 

43.8 

42.4 

39.8 

47.0 

42.2 

40.9 

40.6 

39.5 

40.0 

41.1 

42.3 

39.5 

40.4 

41.5 

41.7 

41.5 

42.5 

40.7 

43.7 

44.2 

39.5 

39.1 

38.2 

41.2 

41.3 

40.2 

43.0 

43.0 

41.7 

41.9 

41.0 

39.8 

41.7 

40.9 

42.2 

41.6 

41.5 

41.9 

43.0 

41.0 

40.7 

39.6 

41.8 

35.5 

39.1 

40.1 

41.0 

40.9 

41.0 

40 

40 

40.6 

41.6 

39.3 

41.8 

40.1 

40.0 

42.3 

42.5 

42.4 

42.1 

40.3 

41.2 

40.8 

41.9 

41.5 

40.9 

41.0 

41.6 

42.5 

39.2 

44.7 

40.1 

40.5 

40.0 



42.6 
43.3 
45.1 
42.6 
40.9 
38.9 
46.0 
42.2 
41.1 
41.3 
42.3 
38.3 
41.3 
44.7 
40.5 
39.5 
40.9 
40.1 
39.9 
41.5 
40.3 
42.3 
42.9 
38.0 
38.3 
36.3 
39.1 
40.8 
39.8 
42.4 
42.4 
42.4 
42.8 
41.3 
40.2 
41.5 
41.3 
41.5 
42.3 
41.2 
42.6 
42.0 
40.9 
40.9 
41.2 
41.2 
42.2 
41.3 
41.0 
39.8 
41.5 
40.8 
42.9 
41.4 
40.9 
41.4 
39.0 
40.3 
41.2 
41.3 
42.0 
43.1 
43.6 
42.9 
40.8 
41.3 
41.5 
42.2 
41.5 
41.3 
40.7 
39.6 
39.1 
40.9 
44.9 
40.4 
40.3 
41.3 



cts. 

183.5 
190.8 
159.0 
204.1 
173.1 
151.1 
205.8 
168.0 
158.7 
138.8 
165.9 
126.5 
145.9 
125.4 
180.0 
145.7 
165.0 
109.2 
105 6 
120.0 
120. i 
111.9 
126.6 
104.7 
105.6 
111.1 
100.2 
138.2 
148.2 
126.7 
118.9 
184.7 
198.3 
143.9 
188.5 
181.1 
180.8 
178.0 
162.0 
153.3 
177.1 
169.4 
209.2 
173.0 
179.9 
182.3 
192.5 
180.5 
175.2 
171.0 
178.8 
157.0 
166.4 
194.1 
165.5 
183.1 
145.2 
163.5 
168.0 
152.7 
179.8 
160.0 
151.5 
153.5 
215.4 
167.4 
132.8 
190.5 
128.3 
171.1 
144.9 
177.1 
187.4 
146 6 
156.9 
93.2 
93.3 
88.0 



cts. 

182.7 
189.0 
158.6 
201.4 
174.1 
152.5 
206.9 
168.2 
157.6 
137.9 
165 3 
124.9 
144.3 
124.3 
179.0 
135.1 
163.7 
108.6 
104.7 
119.6 
120.7 
111.3 
126.3 
104.7 
105.0 
111.0 
100.8 
137.2 
147 
125.5 
117.4 
183 
197.2 
143.2 
186.5 
180 2 
178.7 
177.3 
160.7 
152.3 
176 
169.1 
208.2 
171.0 
179.2 
183.6 
192.0 
178.5 
175.0 
170.2 
178 
155.6 
166.2 
193.4 
165.5 
182.8 
145.7 
162.3 
167.9 
151.9 
181.7 
158.9 
150.6 
152.8 
210.9 
166.5 
132.4 
190.0 
128.1 
170.3 
143.6 
174.9 
185.4 
144.2 
156.6 
93.2 
93.6 
87.3 



cts. 

168.5 
173.5 
143.5 
188.2 
160.9 
150.0 
184.0 
159.3 
150.5 
132.2 
158.3 
119.1 
141.9 
114.9 
167.8 
140.2 
153.9 
103.4 
99.4 
113.1 
112.0 
106.2 
120.9 
99.9 
100.3 
104.5 
97.7 
132.6 
142.9 
120.1 
111.2 
172.4 
184.5 
135.9 
179.8 
170.0 
178.3 
168.7 
156.3 
142.3 
166.5 
161.6 
191.0 
161.4 
171.8 
173.7 
184.5 
175.7 
163.0 
162.4 
170.2 
146. 
158. 
185. 
157.2 
170.1 
137.7 
156.0 
161 
149.8 
174.2 
153.3 
140.6 
152.4 
206.8 
156.8 
130.0 
180.2 
120.5 
162.2 
137.1 
164.9 
175.9 
135.4 
149.3 
89.1 
89.1 
84.9 



77.62 

82.43 

67.73 

88.58 

69.93 

57.27 

92.20 

70.90 

65.23 

56.49 

66.03 

50.22 

59.96 

53.17 

72.18 

57.99 

67.82 

45.21 

43.72 

50 16 

46.84 

48.01 

56 97 

41.36 

40.97 

43.00 

40.88 

57.49 

60.02 

54.58 

51.36 

77.76 

84.08 

59.43 

75.59 

75.34 

74.49 

74.76 

67.39 

62.39 

73.67 

72.33 

85.98 

70.93 

72.68 

74.56 

76.62 

72.20 

69.55 

71.48 

73.13 

64.84 

68.39 

79.00 

67.36 

75.25 

57. 

66.05 

68.38 

62.15 

74.62 

68.80 

64.54 

65.24 

89.39 

68.63 

54.05 

79.06 

53.37 

70.49 

59.41 

74.74 

79.83 

60.25 

70.13 

37.37 

37.60 

35 73 



Durable manufactured goods industries. 



896 



TABLE C-6.— EARNINGS HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

Source: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, D.B.S. 



Period 



Monthly Average 1949 

Monthly Average 1950 — 

Monthly Average 1951 

Monthly Average 1952. .. . 
Monthly Average 1953 — 

Monthly Average 1954 

Monthly Average 1955 

Monthly Average 1956 

Week Preceding: 

March 1,1956... 

April 1,1956... 

May 1,1956... 

June 1,1956... 

July 1,1956... 

August 1,1956... 

September 1, 1956... 

October 1,1956... 

November 1, 1956... 

December 1, 1956 

January 1, 1957 — 
February 1,1957... 
March 1, 1957 (i) 



Average 
Hours 

Worked 
Per 
Week 



42.3 
42.3 
41.8 
41.5 
41.3 
40.6 
41.0 
41.1 



41.3 
41.1 



41. 2" 
40.9 
41.0 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



cts. 



103.6 
116.8 
129.2 
135.8 
140.8 
144.5 
151.5 



148.5 
150.5 
151.1 
151.9 
152.7 
152.4 
152.1 
153.3 
154.7 
155.5 

158.0 
157.5 
157.6 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 
57.16 
59.25 
62.27 



61.33 
61.86 
62.56 
62.13 
62.91 
62.18 
62.51 
63.62 
64.36 
64.53 

65.10* 
64.42 
64.62 



Index Numbers (Av. 1949 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 



100.0 
105.1 
117.0 
128.6 
134.5 
1370 
142.1 
149.8 



147.0 
148.3 
150.0 
149.0 
150.8 
149.1 
149.9 
152.5 
154.3 
154.7 



1561 
154.4 
154.9 



Consumer 
Price 
Index 



100.0 
102.9 
113.7 
116.5 
115.5 
1162 
116.4 
118.1 



116.4 
116.6 
116.6 
117.8 
118.5 
119.1 
119.0 
119.8 
120.3 
120.4 

120.3 
120.5 
120.5 



Average 

RealWeekly 

Earnings 



100.0 
102.1 
102.9 
110.4 
116.5 
117.9 
122.0 



126.3 
127.2 
128.6 
126.5 
127.3 
125.2 
126.0 
127.3 
128.3 
128.5 

129.8 
128.1 
128.5 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
*Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures for January 1, 1957 are 37.9 and $59.88. 
( l ) Latest figures subject to revision. 



897 



91463—8 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These statistics are compiled from two different reporting 
forms, UIC 751: statistical report on employment operations by industry, and UIC 757: 
inventory of registrations and vacancies by occupation. The data on applicants and 
vacancies in these two reporting forms are not identical.' 

TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Period 



Date Nearest: 

June 1,1951... 

June 1,1952... 

June 1,1953... 

June 1,1954... 

June 1,1955... 

June 1,1956... 

July 1,1956... 

August 1,1956... 

September 1, 1956... 

October 1, 1956 

November 1, 1956.... 

December 1, 1956.. . 

January 1, 1957 — 

February 1,1957.... 

March 1,1957.... 

April 1,1957.... 

May 1, 1957 (') 

June 1, 1957 0) 



Unfilled Vacancies* 



Male 



48,353 
26,915 
24,564 
14,284 
21,675 

44,157 
40,016 
38,195 
39,324 
40,726 
31,997 
27,634 

19,784 
18,117 
14,218 
19,523 
28,999 
28,041 



Female 



17,701 
18,253 
21,143 
15,790 
18,451 

22,612 
22,292 
19,636 
22,039 
21,827 
17,154 
16,442 

13,440 
12,376 
12,694 
14,760 
18,200 
19,163 



Total 



66,054 
45,168 
45,707 
30,074 
40,126 

66,769 
62,308 
57,831 
61,363 
62,553 
49,151 
44,076 

33,224 
30,493 
26,912 
34,283 
47,199 
47,204 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



101,384 
163,530 
152,488 
237,848 
205, 630 

160,642 
116,849 
105,417 
101,718 
97,699 
108,703 
171,326 

343,956 
447,210 
474,661 
479,539 
378,062 
226,022 



Female 



49,677 
61,295 
49,614 
76,782 
76,273 

68,697 
72,618 
69,272 
60,377 
59,502 
65,017 
74,709 

92,207 
112,994 
113,489 
111,129 
96,250 
80,973 



Total 



151,061 
224,825 
202, 102 
314,630 
281,903 

229,339 
189,467 
174,689 
162,095 
157,201 
173,720 
246,035 

436,163 
560,204 
588,150 
590,668 
474,312 
306,995 



* Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
0) Latest figures subject to revision. 



898 



TABLE D-2.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT 

APRIL 30 1957 (0 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry- 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal , 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GEAND TOTAL 



Male 


Female 


Total 




Change from 




March 29, 
1957 


April 30, 
1956 


2,331 


347 


2,668 


+ 


1,037 


- 


1,040 


4,203 


16 


4,219 


+ 


1,935 


- 


1,408 


1,914 


82 


1,996 


+ 


775 


+ 


702 


876 


15 


891 


+ 


7 


+ 


95 


867 


52 


919 


+ 


688 


+ 


635 


63 


4 


67 


+ 


7 




15 


10 

98 




10 

109 


+ 
+ 


3 
70 


+ 


14 


11 




6,108 


2,860 


8,968 


+ 


1,885 


__ 


1,952 


416 


306 


722 


+ 


258 


— 


176 


6 


18 


24 


+ 


6 







25 


16 


41 




6 


— 


31 


122 


141 


263 


+ 


38 


— 


26 


197 


160 


357 




12 


— 


15 


150 


1,260 


1,410 


+ 


75 


— 


125 


1,006 


68 


1,074 


+ 


648 


+ 


186 


249 


71 


320 


+ 


52 




164 


209 


120 


329 


+ 


44 


— 


107 


834 


136 


970 




90 


— 


619 


1,118 


85 


1,203 


+ 


271 


— 


393 


547 


72 


619 


+ 


238 


+ 


94 


420 


110 


530 


+ 


13 




345 


159 


34 


193 


+ 


12 


— 


2 


132 


25 


157 


+ 


79 


+ 


50 


393 


134 


527 


+ 


232 




189 


125 


104 


229 


+ 


27 


- 


90 


4,590 


152 


4,742 


+ 


2,349 


+ 


1,099 


3,844 


104 


3,948 


+ 


2,108 


+ 


1,269 


746 


48 


794 


+ 


241 


- 


170 


1,744 


457 


2,201 


+ 


265 


_ 


687 


1,489 


251 


1,740 


+ 


116 


— 


427 


103 


23 


126 


+ 


40 


+ 


25 


152 


183 


335 


+ 


109 




285 


452 


50 


502 


+ 


170 


- 


112 


2,875 


2,793 


5,668 


+ 


1,233 


_ 


1,311 


1,005 


574 


1,579 


+ 


301 


— 


592 


1,870 


2,219 


4,089 


+ 


932 


- 


719 


686 


975 


1,661 


+ 


69 


- 


565 


5,888 


10,679 


16,567 


+ 


5,143 


_ 


2,702 


920 


1,753 


2,673 


+ 


1,003 


+ 


418 


2,946 


600 


3,546 


+ 


1,258 




2,115 


143 


142 


285 


+ 


48 


— 


158 


810 


395 


1,205 


+ 


256 


— 


443 


1,069 


7,789 


8,858 


+ 


2,578 


- 


404 


30,781 


18,411 


49,192 


+ 


14,861 


- 


7,976 



£0 Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



91463— 8£ 



899 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 2 1957 <« 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 



Professional and managerial workers. 
Clerical workers 



Sales workers. 



Personal and domestic service workers. 
Seamen 



Agriculture and fishing. 



Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (incl 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and lumber products 

Pulp, paper (inc. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metalworking 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) — 
Communications and public utility . 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 



Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products . 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 



GRAND TOTAL. 



Unfilled Vacancies 121 



Male 



4,774 
1,465 
1,255 
1,724 
49 
2,461 



74 

231 

4,347 

92 

173 

12 

1,476 

222 

71 

297 

1,519 

1,169 

148 

350 

1,870 

235 

173 

4,812 

132 

503 

497 

2,077 

1,603 



28,999 



Female 



1,037 
4,441 
1,299 
8,821 



1,825 

11 
1,325 

2 

18 
48 

5 
10 
30 



2 
17 

4 

295 

55 

2 

1 

730 

114 
22 



575 



18,200 



Total 



5,811 
5,906 
2,554 

10,545 

49 

2,508 

14,284 

85 

1,556 

4,349 

110 

221 

17 

1,486 

252 

71 

297 

1,521 

1,186 

152 

645 

1,925 

237 

174 

5,542 

246 

525 

516 

2,077 

2,178 



47,199 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



12,252 
5,369 

31,800 

2,087 

3,370 

188,422 

1,531 

2,865 

40,163 

964 

1,155 

596 

12,285 

1,939 

932 

2,063 

53,272 

37,078 

835 

3,308 

19,591 

4,716 

5,129 

129,048 

4,924 

23,404 

4,762 

65,982 

29,976 



378,062 



Female 



1,486 
24,372 
11,841 

18,245 

15 

432 

18,518 

895 

10,553 

161 

405 

952 

89 

1,174 

1,370 

56 



95 

4 

1,449 

974 

321 

14 

21,341 

6,082 

400 

641 

5 

14,213 



96,250 



Total 



7,200 

36,624 

17,210 

50,045 

2,102 

3,802 

206,940 

2,426 
13,418 
40,324 

1,369 

2,107 

685 

13,459 

3,309 
988 

2,063 

53,278 

37,173 

839 

4,757 
20,565 

5,037 

5,143 

150,389 
11,006 
23,804 
5,403 
65,987 
44,189 



474,312 



U) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



900 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 2, 1957 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Live Applications 


Office 


0) 

May 2, 
1957 


Previous 

Month 

March 28, 

1957 


Previous 

Year 

May 3, 

1956 


(0 

May 2, 

1957 


Previous 

Month 

March 28, 

1957 


Previous 

Year 

May 3, 

1956 




245 

10 

16 

219 

205 

117 

88 

1,534 

24 

21 

1,238 


2,005 

3 

1,174 

828 

110 

70 

40 

1,207 

14 

34 

940 


267 

42 

4 

221 

250 

190 
60 

1,403 

34 

56 

1,058 


23,402 

5,606 
2,886 
14,910 

3,773 

2,274 
1,499 

22,024 

1,139 
1,204 
4,459 
1,076 
2,559 
552 
2,610 
1,045 
3,625 
1,671 
2,084 

30,152 

4,897 
3,206 
2,923 
1,794 

771 
5,759 
3,625 
3,025 
1,711 

589 
1,852 

164,612 

729 
841 
1,467 
4,039 
2,232 
2,104 
2,460 
1,549 
904 
2,260 
2,105 
1,915 
3,479 
3,496 
2,070 
701 
2,062 
967 
4,513 
1,548 
729 
1,817 
4,053 
1,530 
1,784 
2,767 
38,300 
2,204 
1,218 
13,816 
5,026 
4,626 
1,938 
4,031 
1,210 
665 
1,464 
4,179 
1,823 
1,238 
1,406 
1,842 
4,712 
4,190 
1,453 
2,074 
3,898 


26,666 

5,583 
3,028 
18,055 

5,094 

3,192 
1,902 

28,561 

1,288 
1,829 
5,032 
1,263 
3,617 
738 
3,653 
1,065 
5,168 
2,037 
2,871 

35,301 

6,559 
3,384 
3,110 
2,250 

831 
8,667 
3,685 
2,390 
1,680 

809 
1,936 

200,421 

954 

959 
1,733 
3,824 
2,641 
2,749 
2,649 
2,301 
1,055 
2,169 
2,325 
1,838 
4,424 
4,396 
2,807 

891 
2,950 

891 
5,351 
1,822 

841 
1,922 
4,635 
1,723 
1,966 
3,008 
50,482 
2,503 
1,998 
16,705 
5,384 
6,998 
1,719 
3,110 
1 ,527 
1,328 
2,010 
4,408 
2,449 
1,771 
1,943 
1,968 
5,114 
5,400 
2,231 
2,225 
6,034 


20,427 




5,070 


Grand Falls 


2,511 




12,846 




3,105 




1,817 




1,288 




21,113 




937 




1,358 


Halifax 


4,229 




948 




52 

11 

110 


43 

6 

54 


64 
11 
71 

2 

40 
61 

6 

1,434 

17 

45 

320 

176 

90 

494 

5 

234 

8 

36 

9 

15,361 

72 

60 

8 

438 

3 

577 

61 

86 

24 

13 

44 

189 

109 

141 

50 

113 

452 

193 

59 

12 

34 

461 

27 

13 

40 

5,841 

286 

24 

825 

297 

191 

12 

283 

16 

106 

73 

61 

354 

124 

49 

61 

119 

272 

36 

61 

832 


2,326 




458 




2,875 




737 




20 
37 
21 

1,197 

14 
37 
21 

182 
88 

612 
7 

185 

11 

5 

35 

13,232 

19 

31 

12 

347 

1,324 
358 

75 

35 

436 

3 

70 
371 
142 
302 

26 


69 
31 
16 

1,023 

15 

81 

51 

130 

106 

412 

13 

179 

8 

7 

21 

7,255 

17 

22 

8 

5 

3 

114 

12 

59 

17 


3,634 


Truro 


1,838 




1,773 




25,756 




4,520 




2,709 




1,962 




1,606 




800 




4,823 




2,775 




3,205 


St. Stephen 


1,334 




780 




1,242 




151,142 




614 




685 




1,271 




3,778 




2,162 




2,070 




2,764 




1,350 




1,050 




1,881 




1,295 




84 
72 
84 
67 
14 
44 

119 
55 
5 
4 
4 
9 
3 

25 

3,319 

6 

488 

512 

98 

49 

16 

93 

4 

62 

62 

104 

55 

61 

39 

167 

49 

170 

128 

68 

1 208 


1,449 


Hull 


3,178 




3,254 




2,230 




647 




2,397 




665 
205 

64 
5 

72 
8 
9 

12 

33 

4,965 

5 

18 
830 
576 
261 

13 
105 

24 
103 

96 

70 

42 
101 

48 
332 

54 
192 
111 

78 
1 301 


730 




2,690 




1,328 




499 




1,055 




4,303 




1,396 




1,497 




2,094 




38,174 




2,102 


Port Alfred 


1,012 




13,082 




4,813 




4,103 




1,688 




3,881 




997 




937 


Ste. ThonXse 


1,261 


St. Georges Est . . 


3,539 




1,375 




1,547 




1,379 




1,777 




3,446 




3,116 


Sorel 


1,821 
1,940 




3,260 



901 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 2, 1957 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Live Applications 


Office 


C 1 ) 

May 2, 
1957 


Previous 

Month 

March 28, 

1957 


Previous 

Year 

May 3, 

1956 


0) 

May 2, 
1957 


Previous 

Month 

March 28, 

1957 


Previous 

Year 

May 3, 

1956 


Quebec— Con. 

Vald'Or 


24 
58 
56 
144 

13,934 

49 

109 

37 

228 

33 

93 

19 

3 

105 

8 


49 
51 
67 
60 

11,913 

57 
56 
49 
76 
57 
80 
23 
1 
70 
4 
26 

210 
50 
14 

197 

221 

6 

34 

111 

841 
30 
31 
28 
48 

102 
79 
81 
36 
42 
37 

587 

42 

5 

26 

125 

117 
35 
91 
33 
86 
1,991 
57 
3 

180 
40 
54 
31 

359 
9 
15 
15 

119 
81 
76 

622 
23 
14 
14 
33 
6 

524 
85 
3,250 
53 
49 
9 
78 

130 

128 
21 

2,707 

235 
96 
80 

210 

90 

1,996 


268 
109 
189 
31 

20,773 

105 
203 

19 
213 
142 
168 

52 

276 

15 

28 

148 

58 

35 

394 

145 

25 

30 

232 

1,149 

31 

85 

115 

157 

197 

133 

117 

112 

84 

57 

1,018 

40 

10 


2,727 
1,581 
2,243 
2,627 

129,116 

251 

953 

1,394 

995 

575 

2,145 

275 

174 

2,248 

629 

438 

2,672 

272 

434 

1,384 

767 

158 

394 

1,154 

9,113 

948 

624 

1,372 

501 

1,387 

1,040 

1,983 

994 

458 

301 

4.050 

542 

510 

826 

2,095 

1,347 

1,372 

389 

573 

2,871 

4,134 

1,245 

249 

1.718 

441 

2,622 

268 

3.311 

498 

522 

442 

2,644 

950 

1,985 

1,383 

967 

253 

263 

689 

1,018 

3,197 

2,093 

34,430 

642 

370 

677 

1,169 

1,734 

7,649 

945 

18,990 

1,726 
997 
157 
887 
116 
15,107 


2,577 
2,119 
2,570 
3,024 

165,565 

519 

1,228 

1,978 

1,354 

835 

2,460 

469 

321 

2,571 

843 

807 

3,398 

456 

553 

2,233 

1,065 

346 

660 

1,506 

10,849 

1,365 

1,010 

1,055 

675 

1,850 

960 

3,222 

1,333 

775 

466 

4,766 

1,213 

824 

1,072 

2,817 

2,126 

1,872 

559 

963 

3,876 

6,489 

2,027 

453 

2,153 

631 

3,191 

641 

4,033 

737 

865 

689 

3,912 

987 

2,655 

1,436 

1,546 

248 

464 

930 

1,268 

3,824 

2,096 

40,482 

847 

710 

1,029 

1,709 

2,335 

8,793 

1,135 

25,173 

2,445 
1,541 

166 
1,254 

162 
19,605 


2,209 


Valleyfield 


1,661 




1,883 


Ville d'Alma 


2,472 


Ontario 


93,676 




268 




1,143 




1,223 




608 




375 




1,469 




278 




233 




1,744 




465 




409 




336 
51 
35 
561 
227 
9 

40 

136 

1,040 

26 

63 

63 

151 

160 

133 

99 

66 

39 

35 

635 

38 

11 

44 

159 

116 

38 

106 

38 

134 

1,804 

59 

2 

237 

48 

89 

17 

400 

23 

41 

17 

123 

110 

91 

649 

40 

19 

17 

46 

8 

509 

119 

3,598 

67 

40 

5 

90 

182 

185 

26 

3,788 
670 
61 
119 
205 
59 
2.674 


1,762 


Fort Erie 


349 




438 


Fort William.... 


1,449 


Gait 


456 




129 




279 




940 




6,648 




787 




235 




1,497 




293 




1,083 




1,060 




1,095 




528 




513 




240 




2,581 


Midland 


461 




500 








386 

162 

82 

327 

49 

271 

4,179 

59 

18 

394 

29 

242 

25 

582 

23 

21 

23 

222 

143 

129 

451 

104 

19 

12 

91 

2 

435 

110 

5,480 

99 

58 

23 

69 

454 

360 

46 

2,901 

334 
52 

64 

58 

24 

2,369 


1,431 




1,084 




982 




210 


Orillia 


521 




1,913 




4,085 


Owen Sound 


1,175 




310 




1,418 


Perth 


407 




2,229 




348 




3,374 




337 




854 




331 




1,447 


St. Thomas 


820 


Sarnia 


920 




1,246 




909 




217 


Smiths Falls 


286 




323 




1,025 




2,962 




1,906 


Toronto 


21,253 


Trenton 


630 




374 




347 


Welland 


809 




1,038 




4,112 




505 


Manitoba 


20,474 




1,812 




977 


Flin Flon 


139 




1,005 


The Pas . 


70 


Winnipeg 


16,471 



902 



TABLE D-L— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 2, 1957 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 



Saskatchewan 

Estevan 

Moose Jaw 

North Battleford 

Prince Albert 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Swift Current 

Wey burn 

Yorkton 

Alberta 

Blairmore 

Calgary 

Drumheller 

Edmonton 

Edson 

Lethbridge 

Medicine Hat 

Red Deer 

British Columbia. . . 

Chilliwack 

Courtenay 

Cranbrook 

Dawson Creek. . . 

Duncan 

Kamloops 

Kelowna 

Kitimat 

Mission City 

Nanaimo 

Nelson 

New Westminster 

Penticton 

Port Alberni 

Prince George 

Prince Rupert 

Princeton , 

Trail 

Vancouver 

Vernon 

Victoria 

Whitehorse 

Canada 

Males 

Females 



Unfill 


ed Vacancies 


(2) 


L 


ve Applications 


(') 


Previous 


Previous 


0) 


Previous 


Previous 




Month 


Year 




Month 


Year 


May 2, 


March 28, 


May 3, 


May 2, 


March 28, 


May 3, 


1957 


1957 


1956 


1957 


1957 


1956 


3,808 


1,953 


2,822 


12,078 


18,375 


13,207 


199 


111 


125 


506 


398 


260 


446 


338 


452 


878 


1,503 


916 


90 


45 


130 


844 


1,366 


861 


164 


102 


77 


2,078 


2,153 


2,121 


1,856 


540 


953 


2,625 


4,574 


2,700 


508 


396 


624 


2,340 


4,027 


3,342 


214 


143 


230 


501 


1,125. 


437 


93 


78 


76 


243 


474 


336 


238 


200 


155 


2,063 


2,755 


2,234 


5,983 


3,195 


5,355 


23,127 


26,725 


19,931 


5 


7 


32 


492 


365 


384 


2,821 


1,320 


1,650 


6,588 


7,182 


4,632 


9 


16 


28 


483 


655 


504 


1,606 


1,111 


1,845 


10,558 


12,536 


10,828 


61 


162 


87 


561 


420 


332 


1,069 


307 


1,408 


2,070 


2,948 


1,464 


283 


204 


208 


933 


1,233 


591 


129 


68 


97 


1,442 


1,386 


1,186 


3,273 


2,915 


5,045 


47,038 


58,787 


34,168 


140 


96 


64 


1,134 


2,025 


915 


33 


38 


94 


567 


1,125 


407 


25 


7 


9 


950 


1.118 


773 


46 


28 


66 


804 


669 


754 


44 


45 


82 


310 


561 


450 


46 


44 


140 


1,578 


1,685 


1,015 


20 


14 


18 


1,150 


1,646 


1,146 


255 


286 


525 


700 


594 


243 


31 


19 


90 


761 


1,207 


736 


26 


38 


78 


934 


1,406 


635 


24 


30 


75 


944 


1,357 


821 


339 


246 


343 


5,200 


6,873 


3,771 


35 


52 


11 


895 


1,458 


720 


38 


17 


105 


562 


679 


242 


131 


82 


209 


3,490 


2,555 


2,381 


87 


75 


127 


976 


1,146 


877 


8 


2 


12 


305 


490 


203 


4 


10 


18 


836 


1,070 


786 


1,468 


1,238 


2,167 


20,434 


24,822 


13,760 


23 


30 


71 


1,555 


2,396 


1,004 


339 


340 


484 


2,579 


3,541 


2,041 


111 


178 


257 


374 


364 


488 


47,199 


34,283 


55,611 


474,312 


590,668 


402,989 


28,999 


19,523 


35,698 


378,062 


479,539 


313,750 


18,200 


14,760 


19,913 


96,250 


111,129 


89,239 



W Preliminary subject to revision. 

(2) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-5.— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1952—1957 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1952.... 


980,507 
993,406 
861,588 
953,576 
1,046,979 
267.065 
236, 106 


677,777 
661,167 
545,452 
642,726 
748,464 
183,851 
154,496 


302,730 
332,239 
316,136 
310,850 
298.515 
83.214 
81,610 


84,640 
76,913 
67,893 
67,619 
68,522 
19.806 
15,817 


251,744 
259,874 
209,394 
222.370 
252.783 
62,433 
59,010 


320,684 
342,678 
277,417 
343.456 
379,085 
99,663 
89,055 


207,569 
201,670 
175,1!)!) 
178,015 
210,189 
51,476 
47,759 


115 870 


1953 


112 271 


1954.... 


131,685 


1955 


142,116 


1956 


136,400 


1956 4 months. 

1957 4 months. 


33,687 
24,465 



903 



E — Unemployment Insurance 

TABLE E-l.— BENEFICIARIES AND REGULAR AND SEASONAL*BENEFIT PAYMENTS 

BY PROVINCE, APRIL 1957 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Estimated 
Average 

Number of 
Beneficiaries 

Per Weekf 
(in thousands) 


Number 

Commencing 

Benefit on 

Initial and 

Renewal 

Claims 


Weeks Paid t (Disability 
Days in Brackets) 


Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 




24.2 

3.9 

25.3 

29.8 

173.6 

125-1 

20.3 

14.9 

21.1 

39.7 


6,259 

836 

7,463 

9,626 

59,962 

39,915 

5,664 

3,809 

8,177 

13,612 


96,873 

15,484 

101,200 

119,073 

694,478 

500,481 

81,225 

59,558 

84,381 

158, 843 


(891) 

(504) 

(5,513) 

(3,754) 

(51,970) 

(41,585) 

(7,504) 

(3,943) 

(5,112) 

(15,110) 


2,217,732 




289,923 




1,955,104 




2,443,363 




14,926,396 




10,370,850 




1,664,660 




1,272,117 




1,860,154 




3,392,258 






Total, Canada, April 1957 


477.9 
498.3 
415.2 


155,323 
168,726 
126,654 


1,911.596 
2,093,065 
1,743,909 


(135,886) 
(129,304; 
(137.339) 


40,392,557 


Total, Canada, March 1957 


44,125,523 


Total, Canada, April 1956 


33,201,609 







* In 1957 seasonal benefit period ended April 20, in 1956 April 21. 

t Based on the number of payment documents for the month. 

% Under the old Act, payment was made on the basis of "days", whereas now the basis is "weekly". 

TABLE E-2.— REGULAR CLAIMANTS* HAVING AN UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER IN 

THE "LIVE FILE" ON THE LAST WORKING DAY OF THE MONTH, BY DURATION, 

SEX AND PROVINCE , APRIL 30, 1957 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Duration on the Register (weeks) 


April 30, 


Province and Sex 


Total 


1 


2 


3-4 


5-8 


9—12 


13-16 


17-20 


Over 
20 


1956 
Total 


CANADA 


373.609 

300,990 

72,619 


52,303 
40,421 
11,882 


26,533 
21,610 
4,923 


40,252 

33,480 

6,772 


64,579 
54,221 
10,358 


52,140 

42,434 

9,706 


55,201 
44,815 
10,386 


40,549 

34,343 

6,206 


42,052 
29,666 
12,386 


292,063 


Male 


228,257 




63,806 








16,671 

16.123 

548 

2.333 

2,033 

300 

19,429 
17,208 
2,221 

22,782 

20,405 

2,377 

132.867 
110,774 
22,093 

101,650 
72,823 

28,827 

14,242 
10,366 
3,876 

9,517 
7,757 
1,760 

19,697 
17,206 
2,491 

34,421 

26,295 

8,126 


1,300 

1,246 

54 

167 
145 

22 

2,813 

2,504 

309 

3,401 

3,092 

309 

16,340 
12,478 
3,862 

16,965 
11,876 
5,089 

2,135 

1,475 

660 

964 
789 
175 

2,885 

2,533 

352 

5,333 
4,283 
1,050 


816 
796 
20 

104 
90 
14 

1,160 

1,061 

99 

1,401 

1,285 

116 

9,808 
7,903 
1,905 

7,237 
5,281 
1,956 

649 
459 
190 

684 
610 
74 

2,362 

2,189 

173 

2,312 

1,936 

376 


1,330 

1,292 

38 

132 

120 

12 

1,765 

1,589 

176 

2,098 

1,941 

157 

15,043 
12,757 
2,286 

10,926 
8,202 
2,724 

1,341 

1,016 

325 

882 
780 
102 

2,791 

2,540 

251 

3,944 

3,243 

701 


2,598 

2,533 

65 

217 
192 
25 

2,889 

2,573 

316 

3,739 

3,457 

282 

27,361 
24,111 
3,250 

16,547 
12,331 
4,216 

2,028 

1,511 

517 

1,126 
922 
204 

2,994 

2,603 

391 

5,080 
3,988 
1,092 


2,223 

2,158 

65 

328 
279 
49 

2.411 

2,042 
369 

3,317 

2,984 

333 

20,811 
18,165 
2,646 

13,357 
9,353 
4,004 

1,889 

1,358 

531 

1,185 
952 
233 

2,370 

2,061 

309 

4,249 
3,082 
1,167 


3,866 

3,749 

117 

547 

481 

66 

3,569 

3,227 

342 

3,706 

3,324 

382 

17,667 
15,084 
2,583 

14,584 
10,537 
4,047 

2,374 

1,697 

677 

1,786 

1,383 

403 

2,460 

2,070 

390 

4,642 
3,263 
1,379 


2,600 

2,546 

54 

482 
434 

48 

2,274 

2,117 

157 

2,836 

2,539 

297 

13,285 

11,685 

1,600 

10,100 
7,660 
2,440 

1,709 

1,363 

346 

1,539 

1,277 
262 

1,929 

1,702 

227 

3,795 

3,020 

775 


1,938 

1,803 

135 

356 

292 

64 

2,548 

2,095 

453 

2,284 

1,783 

501 

12,552 
8,591 
3,961 

11,934 
7,583 
4,351 

2,117 

1,487 

630 

1,351 

1,044 

307 

1,906 

1,508 

398 

5,066 
3,480 
1,586 


13,595 


Male 


13,109 




486 


Prince Edward Island 


2,045 
1,712 




333 




16,488 




14,536 




1,952 




19,401 


Male 


17,126 




2,275 




112,037 




91,744 




20,293 




67,755 




45,194 




22,561 




13,277 


Male 


9,174 




4,103 




9,118 


Male 


7,173 




1,945 




15,418 




12,755 




2,663 




22,929 


Male 


15,734 




7,195 







Seasonal benefit is no longer applicable, the period having expired on April 20 (in 1956, April 21). 



904 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, 

APRIL 1957 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims and Claims Pending 
at End of Month 


Province 


Total* 


Initial t 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposed 

oft 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 


Newfoundland 


5,930 

917 

8,526 

10,723 

52,555 

46,985 

5,991 

3,932 

9,922 

15,823 


5,163 

806 

6,099 

8,027 

39,103 

32,406 

4,400 

3,161 

7,361 

10,518 


767 

111 

2,427 

2,696 

13,452 

14,579 

1,591 

771 

2.561 

5,305 


6,054 
961 

9,212 
11,215 
64,162 
48,907 

6,430 

4,348 
10,589 
16,972 


2,804 

329 

6,371 

6,369 

40,966 

32,191 

3,920 

2,243 

7,348 

11,179 


3,250 
632 

2,841 
4,846 
23,196 
16,716 
2,510 
2,105 
3,241 
5,793 


2,345 

272 




1,869 
2,709 
15,280 
11 601 










881 




755 




2,873 
3 693 








Total, Canada, April 1957 


161,304 
192,365 
135,369 


117,044 
143,269 
99,870 


44,260 
49,096 
35,499 


178,850 
192,087 
157,040 


113,720 
127,643 
96,902 


65,130 
64,444 
60,138 


42 278 


Total, Canada, March 1957 


59,824 
33 654 


Total, Canada, April 1956 







* In addition, revised claims received numbered 29,113. 
t This total includes initial claims considered for seasonal benefit. 

t In addition, 29,113 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 2,903 were special requests not granted and 1,314 
were appeals by claimants. There were 4,539 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4. 



ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 



Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Beginning of Month of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants* 


1956— March 


3,666,000 
3,675.000 
3,502,000 
3,519,000 
3,601,000 
3,644,000 
3,651,000 
3.647,000 
3.663,000 
3,728,000 

3,802,000 
3,866,000 
3,873,000 


3,155,000 
3,163,900 
3,209,900 
3,330,100 
3,465,000 
3,505.500 
3,518,700 
3,518,600 
3,523,600 
3,512,600 

3,403,800 
3,320,000 
3,300,600 


511,000t 




511, lOOf 




292,100 


June 

July 


188,900 
136,000 




138,500 




132,300 




128,400 




139,400 


December 


215,400f 




398,200t 




546,000t 




572,400f 







* Claimants having an unemployment register in the live file last working day of preceding month, 
t Includes seasonal benefit claimants. 






905 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

(1949 = 100) 
Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



1951— Year 

1952— Year. 

1953— Year 

1954— Year 

1955— Year 

1956— Year 

1956— April 

May 

June 

July 

August 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 

1957 — January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



Total 

113.7 

116.5 

115.5 

116.2 

116.4 

118.1 

116.6 
116.6 
117.8 
118.5 
119.1 
119.0 
119.8 
120.3 
120.4 

120.3 
120.5 
120.5 
120.9 
121.1 
121.6 



Food 



117.0 
116.8 



112.6 

112.2 

112.1 

113.4 

109.7 
109.3 
112.5 
114.4 
115.9 
115.5 
117.4 
117.9 
117.5 

117.1 
117.2 
116.4 
116.7 
116.7 
117.7 



Shelter 



114.4 
102.2 
123.6 
126.5 

129.4 

132.5 

131.9 
132.1 
132.6 
132.7 
133.0 
133.1 
133.3 
133.4 
133.5 

133.6 
133.8 
134.0 
134.0 

134.2 
134.8 



Clothing 



109.8 
111.8 
110.1 
109.4 
108.0 



108.7 
108.8 
108.6 
108.6 
108.4 
108.4 
108.5 
108.4 



107.6 
107.4 
108.2 
108.5 
108.5 
108.4 



Household 
operation 



113.1 
116.2 
117.0 
117.4 
116.4 
117.1 

116.6 

116.5 
116.7 
116.7 
116.8 
117.1 
117.7 
118.1 
118.6 

119.0 
119.1 
119.5 
119.4 
119.2 
119.1 



Other 
Commodi- 
ties and 
Service 



111.5 

116.0 

115.8 

117.4 

118.1 

120.9 

120.1 
120.5 
120.6 
121.1 
121.3 
121.4 
121.6 
122.8 
122.9 

123.1 

123.8 
124.2 
125.1 
126.3 
126.5 



TABLE F-2.— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA 
AT THE BEGINNING OF MAY 1957 

(1949 = 100) 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


House- 
hold 
Operation 


Other 
Com- 
modities 

and 
Services 




May 
1956 


April 
1957 


May 
1957 


<«St. John's, Nfld 


106.6 
114.7 
117.5 
116.6 
117.7 
119.1 
116.1 
114.6 
114.3 
117.7 


108.7 
119.4 
122.1 
120.5 
122.4 
124.2 
119.2 
117.9 
117.7 
122.2 


109.3 
119.1 
121.9 
120.7 
122.8 
125.0 
119.2 
117.9 
118.1 
122.0 


107.2 
111.2 
114.8 
118.7 
115.6 
116.8 
114.0 
113.4 
113.0 
117.5 


110.5 
128.1 
131.9 
138.8 
141.2 
150.1 
128.9 
118.9 
121.2 
130.7 


101.7 
114.0 
117.3 
104.9 
112.0 
112.0 
111.8 
117.9 
116.6 
114.3 


108.8 
125.5 
121.1 
115.8 
118.8 
120.1 
116.3 
120.2 
119.1 
127.5 


116.0 




124.1 




130.3 




125.6 




129.8 




129.6 




126.0 




120.9 




123.6 




124.7 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city, and should not be used to compare 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

(0 St. John's Index on the base June 1951 = 100. 



906 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 
TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS JANUARY-MAY 1956, 1957J 



Date 1957* 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Cumulative Totals 

1956 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Cumulative Totals 



Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



24 1 

17 

32 

15 

30 



118 



14t 

12 

12 

15 

30 



S3 



-, In 

Existence 



Approximate 
Number of Workers 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



7,477f 
5,797 
6,585 
6,158 
14,051 



40,068 



17,341f 
3,884 
2,308 
2,535 

16,470 



42,538 



In 

Existence 



7,477 
8,080 
9,912 
8,022 
15,393 



17,341 

20,150 

3,172 

2,877 

17,911 



Time Loss 



In 

Man- 
Days 



52,680 
49,130 
71,430 
51,820 
144,700 



369,760 



338,355 

234,945 

16,955 

10,350 

136,520 



737,125 



Per Cent 
of 
Esti- 
mated 

Working 
Time 



0.06 
0.05 
0.08 
0.06 
0.16 

0.08 



0.36 
0.25 
0.02 
0.01 
0.14 

0.15 



* Preliminary figures. 

t Strikes unconcluded at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

t The record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more employees and lasting at least one working 
day. Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not 
included in the published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused but a separate record of 
such strikes is maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The 
records include all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the 
methods taken to obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance. 
Information as to a strike involving a small number of employees for a short period of time is frequently 
not received until some time after its commencement. 



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912 



C^UmCJKE^J^I M. AUGUST 15, 1957 

manpower and labour relations 

REVIEW 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

A RAPID rise in the labour force was one of the dominant features of 
-^*- 1957. Although the rate of growth showed signs of moderating in July, 
the increase over the year was still substantial. In the first seven months of 
the year, the labour force was 3.4 per cent higher, on the average, than in 
the same period last year. This increase represents 193,000 workers, close 
to 50,000 more than the 1955-1956 rate of growth would have produced. 

Changes in the labour force are the result of natural increase, immigra- 
tion, emigration, and the proportion of the adult population participating 
in the labour force. These factors have produced an average annual increase 
of 1.7 per cent in the past six years. The additional increase this year is 
attributable almost entirely to the greater flow of immigrants. It has been 
estimated that about 130,000 immigrant workers came into the country in the 
12 months before June, almost double the number entering in the preceding 
12 months. Changes in the other growth factors have been negligible by com- 
parison. 

The increase in immigration has also been largefy responsible for a rise 
in the labour force participation rate, because the proportion of workers 
among immigrants is larger than in the native population. In July, 55.3 
per cent of the non-institutional population of working age was in the labour 
force, the highest proportion in more than six years. 

Employment has also increased at a high rate in 1957, though not as 
rapidly as the labour force or as rapidly as the record employment growth 
of last year. The seven-month average shows a rise of 2.9 per cent over the 
year, against a long-run average of 1.7 per cent. 

This substantial growth conceals significant changes in the two main 
employment divisions — agriculture and non-agriculture. In past years, periods 
of high economic activity have resulted in a marked shift of workers from 
agriculture to non-agricultural industries. This year both the increase in 
non-agricultural industries and the decrease in agriculture have been con- 
siderably smaller than in either 1956 or 1955 (see accompanying table). The 
smaller movement from the farms probably reflects the slackness that, has 
developed in a number of non-farm industries. 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



913 

92423—1 



LABOUR FORCE AND PERSONS WITH JOBS PERCENTAGE CHANGES 
IN ANNUAL AVERAGES 





Labour 
Force 


Persons with jobs 


Change from 


Total 


Non- 
Agriculture 


Agriculture 


1949 to 1950 


% 

+2.1 
+1.0 
+ 1.9 
+1.3 
+0.8 
+2.4 
+2.7 
+3.4 


% 

+1.5 
+2.3 
+1.5 
+1.2 
-1.0 
+2.6 
+3.7 
+2.9 


% 

+2.8 
+4.8 
+3.4 
+1.7 
-1.6 
+4.4 
+5.4 
+3.9 


% 
-5.7 


1950 to 1951 


-7.7 


1951 to 1952 


-7.4 


1952 to 1953 


-1.4 


1953 to 1954 


+1.7 


1954 to 1955 


-6 3 


1955 to 1956 


-5.5 


1956 to 1957 (0 


-3.7 







(!) First seven months. 

The record growth in the labour force and the more moderate rise in 
employment have caused unemployment to fall more slowly than usual through 
the spring and early summer. So far this year, the number of persons without 
jobs and seeking work has averaged 4.4 per cent of the labour force, compared 
with 4.1 per cent for the same period in the years 1953-1956. 

A measure of the local distribution of the increase in unemployment has 
been obtained by comparing the number of workers registered at National 
Employment Service offices this year with registrations in earlier years.* The 
results of this investigation, summarized in the accompanying table, show 
that at the end of July, registrations were below the 1951-1956 average in 
only six of the 109 local areas surveyed. Registrations were above the long- 
term average in more than three-quarters of the areas. 

LOCAL AREAS IN WHICH THE NUMBER OF REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

AT NES OFFICES WAS: 



(end of month) 



Much 

Below 

Average 



Below 
Average 



Average 



Above 
Average 



Much 
Above 
Average 



1957 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



43 
49 
46 
39 

32 
34 

38 



24 
22 
25 
l(j 
27 
38 
40 



The fact that unemployment in 1957 has not fallen as rapidly as usual 
is also reflected in the above table. At the beginning of the year there were 
only 24 areas in which registrations were much above the average. By July, 
this figure had risen to 46. The change was apparent in all regions but was 
most marked in Ontario. In this region, the areas in the above-average 
categories increased from 18 to 31 over the seven-month period. The main 
contributing factors were declines in the construction, lumber and lumber 
products, automobile and heavy equipment industries. 



*In each area. NES registrations for employment for each month of the years 1951-1956 were adjusted 
for seasonal changes and divided by the number of wage earners in the area. The resulting proportions 
were ranked and divided into five intervals, which were identified as: much above average, above average, 
average, below average, and much below average. Proportions for the current year were then calculated 
and classified according to this system. 



914 



Industrial Distribution 







EMPLOYMENT IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES 
(Seasonally Adjusted) 



Manufacturing 




Agriculture 



Transportation, Storage 
and Communication 



Construction 



Mining 



12341 2341234 1234 1 234 
1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 

Source of original data: Labour Force Survey, D.B.S. 

a_i ; _*_ ; — ; 



In contrast to the experience of the 
past two years, the goods-producing 
industries have contributed little to the 
total growth in employment. Most of 
the gain in the first half of 1957 stemmed 
from the continued expansion of the 
service industries. The year-to-year 
increase in services during the period 
was twice as great as in all industry. 

Apart from seasonal changes, em- 
ployment in mining was maintained at 
a high level through the first half of 
1957. However, the aggregate conceals 
lower output and employment in many 
of the component groups. Minerals 
produced in lower quantities in the first 
quarter of this year compared with last 
include cement, coal, copper, gold, gyp- 
sum, lead, silver and zinc. Mining 
output is higher in total because of a 
much greater production of petroleum, 
natural gas and uranium. During July, 
further layoffs occurred in Nova Scotia 
coal mines and in metal mining in 
British Columbia. On the other hand, there were reports of increased hiring 
in new uranium and base metal mining developments in the northern areas of 
Ontario, the Prairie Provinces and the North West Territories. 

Employment in forestry has shown surprising strength in view of the 
generally weak markets for almost all forest products. With allowance for 
seasonal change, employment in the second quarter of the year was con- 
siderably higher than in the first. This may be partly because pulpwood 
workers have been more readily available this year than last, and partly 
because of the flurry of activity in British Columbia before the labour dispute 
in the lumber industry was settled. After the settlement more than 1,000 
loggers were laid off. 

Any further upswing in forestry will depend on the recovery of European 
demand for lumber and an upturn in housing construction in the United 
States and Canada. There is as yet, little evidence of any substantial improve- 
ment in either of these markets. Reports of cut-backs in pulpwood production 
this fall have also been made by a number of large companies operating in 
Eastern Canada. 

The high level of construction activity was maintained through the first 
half of 1957, although a shift in emphasis from residential to institutional 
building and large engineering projects caused the distribution of labour 
demand and supply to be more unbalanced than usual. Total construction 
employment, seasonally adjusted, changed little in the first half of 1957 from 
the record level of last fall. At the same time, unemployment among con- 
struction workers increased more than in other trades, particularly in the 
more densely populated areas. 



915 



92423— 1£ 



There has been some rise in residential building in the last month or 
two, although the seasonally-adjusted annual rate of new housing starts in 
the first six months of the year was still about 15 per cent below the 
corresponding figure for 1956 and total units under construction at the end 
of June were 16 per cent fewer. One important factor tending to strengthen 
the demand for new housing is the sharp rise in the number of new families. 
Family formation in the first quarter of 1957 was 11,700 against 5,600 in 
the same period of 1956. This increase was caused by a sharp rise in the 
number of marriages, and the high level of immigration. 

The effect of the drop in house-building this year has been offset by 
an increase in other types of construction. During 1957, investment in non- 
residential construction is expected to be 17 per cent higher than in 1956. 
Much of this increase is accounted for by substantially higher investment 
in schools, hospitals and commercial buildings. The Trans-Canada Pipeline 
and the St. Lawrence Seaway have been largely responsible for an important 
increase in engineering work. New construction in the forest industries is 
expected to be 14 per cent lower than in 1956 and other industrial construction 
is also expected to be lower. But outlays for construction by mining enter- 
prises, especially those connected with uranium, petroleum and natural gas, 
may exceed expenditures in 1956 by more than 10 per cent. 

Many of the difficulties experienced in the marketing of products in 
primary industries have their counterparts in manufacturing. Employment 
in the manufacture of wood products has declined slowly since the beginning 
of the year and at June 1 was 3.5 per cent lower than a year earlier. A similar 
trend is evident in the manufacture of non-ferrous metal products, accen- 
tuated recently by a strike in the Quebec aluminum industry. In the manu- 
facture of agricultural implements the employment index in June had fallen 
to a new low of 57.3 (1949=100). 

The motor vehicle industry had nearly completed the output of 1957 
cars in July and production of 1958 models is scheduled to begin in late 
August or in September. So far, sales have not been up to the optimistic 
expectations expressed by the industry at the beginning of the year. Sales in 
the first three months were 18 per cent above the corresponding period last 
year but began to lag in the second quarter, with a corresponding drop in 
production. During June production of cars and trucks was down 23 and 
34 per cent respectively from the same month last year. At the end of July 
the cumulative production total was down 8 per cent from the corresponding 
seven months of 1956. 

Production and employment losses in the foregoing manufacturing indus- 
tries during the first half of 1957 have been offset by expanded production of 
such products as food and beverages, chemicals, and petroleum, for which 
long-term demand has risen steadily. In addition, a high rate of expansion has 
continued in some of the less stable sectors of the manufacturing industry. 
Aircraft production has increased steadily since last summer and employment 
in the second quarter reached its highest level since 1953. Shipbuilding and 
railway rolling stock have also recovered in the past year, though not as 
sharply as the aircraft industry. The high level of engineering and other 
non-residential construction has been reflected in the fabricated and structural 
steel industry, in which employment in the first half of 1957 was on the 
average 19 per cent higher than in the same period last year. 

916 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of August 10, 1957) 



Principal Items 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) 

Total persons with jobs 

At work 35 hours or more 

At work less than 35 hours 

With jobs but not at work 

With jobs but on short time 

With jobs but laid off full week 

Persons without jobs and seeking work 

Persons with jobs in agriculture 

Persons with jobs in non-agriculture 

Total paid workers 

Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Claimants for Unemployment Insurance 

benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Strikes and Lockouts 

No. of days lost 

•No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



Date 



July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 

July 20 



July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 

July 18 



July 1 
June 

June 1 
June 1 

1st 3 mos 



July 
July 
July 



June 
June 
June 
June 
July 
June 
May 



May 
May 
May 
May 



Amount 



6,112,000 

5,949,000 

5,085,000 

366,000 

498,000 

42,000 
14,000 

163,000 

880,000 
5,069,000 

4,630,000 



28,900 
77,900 
90,300 
28,700 
31,400 
257,200 



204,516 
$14,356,036 



123.4 
116.6 



62,460 



237,740 

16,298 

34 



$67.77 

$ 1.61 

40.5 

$65.04 

121.9 

128.2 

1,263 



288.7 
287.0 
343.0 
251.2 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 


Previous 


Month 


Year 


+ 1.9 


+ 3.8 


+ 2.0 


+ 2.8 


- 3.0 


+ 1.2 


-11.4 


+20.8 


+181.4 


+ 8.0 


+ 13.5 


+110.0 


+27.3 


— 


+ 0.6 


+59.8 


+13.7 


- 1.9 


+ 0.2 


+ 3.6 


+ 0.7 


+ 3.1 


-13.5 


+35.0 


- 6.9 


+37.1 


- 2.9 


+56.2 


- 4.0 


+20.6 


+ 1.9 


+61.0 


- 5.0 


+43.4 


-18.3 


+50.3 


-45.4 


+44.6 


+ 3.4 


+ 3.4 


+ 0.7 


+ 1.0 


— 


+229. 4(c) 


. 


- 5.1(c) 


— 


-18.0(c) 


— 


+ 9.8(c) 


+ 0.6 


+ 6.0 


+ 0.4 


+ 5.7 


- 0.3 


- 1.0 


+ 0.1 


+ 4.7 


+ 0.2 


+ 2.9 


- 0.3 


+ 0.7 


+ 3.8 


+ 8.0 


+ 0.8 


+ 1.9 


0.0 


- 0.4 


- 0.9 


- 3.7 


+ 0.9 


+ 2.8 ' 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour Force, a monthly 
publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also inside back cover, February Labour Gazette. 

(b) See inside back cover, February Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with total for same period 
previous year. 



917 



Labour-Management Relations 

The Bargaining Scene 

Since May 15 the number of major contracts subject to negotiation has 
declined steadily each month. At the May 15, peak negotiations were under- 
way for 59 large agreements covering nearly 190,000 workers; by mid- August 
only 38 contracts, affecting some 90,000 workers, were under negotiation or 
scheduled to terminate within six weeks. Of these, more than half had been 
open for two or more months. 

The accompanying chart shows the bargaining status of the 38 collective 
agreements, covering bargaining units of 1,000 or more employees, currently 
subject to negotiation. Five contract settlements were effected between July 15 
and August 15. The wage settlements varied widely, but as in other agree- 
ments signed in past months, increases in rates were spread over the life of 
the agreement, which in all five cases exceeded 18 months. The largest settle- 
ment, involving 4,000 steelworkers at Dominion Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., in 
Sydney, N.S., featured the introduction of a Supplemental Unemployment 
Benefit plan, the first such plan to be adopted in the basic steel industry in 
Canada. A new contract signed between Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting 
Co. and eight AFL-CIO/CLC unions, at Flin Flon, Man., introduced a 40-hour 
week, without loss in take-home pay. 

At August 15, 31 agreements were still under negotiation. At the bargain- 
ing stage were contracts covering workers in aircraft manufacturing plants 
in the Toronto district, broadcasting and television personnel employed by 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, and employees of the Ontario Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission. 

More than half the contracts currently open were in conciliation or 
post-conciliation stages of negotiation. The 11 agreements in conciliation 
include the West Coast pulp and paper mills' contracts with the International 
Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers and the International 
Brotherhood of Papermakers. United Steelworkers of America, representing 
employees of the Aluminum Co. of Canada plant at Kitimat, B.C., have 
requested the appointment of a conciliation board. 

The strike by almost 7,000 aluminum workers at Arvida entered its fourth 
month at mid-August. The CCCL syndicate's demands for a master contract 
covering all four Alcan-owned plants in Quebec and for wage increases have 
been refused by the company. 

Recent Strikes 

In recent months several other important strikes have occurred among 
bargaining units not included in the above survey. Several of these strikes 
have been lengthy, lasting more than 50 working days. In Murdochville, Que., 
the five-month-old strike by the United Steelworkers of America for recogni- 
tion as bargaining agent for employees of Gaspe Copper Mines continued; 
the smelter is reported to have begun production for the first time since early 
March. A company writ, preventing decision on the union's certification, is 
at present before the Quebec courts. 

Production was also reported resumed at the Lever Brothers Ltd. plant 
in Toronto, where more than 500 members of the International Chemical 
Workers of America, Local 32, had been on strike since May 13. 

918 



THE BARGAINING SCENE AUGUST 15, 1957 

Bargaining Units of 1,000 or More Employees, 
July 1 to September 30, 1957 



In Negotiations and Terminating in Period: 38 agreements, 90,100 workers 

Bargaining carried over from June: 23 agreements, 59,400 workers 

Terminating in period July 1— Sept. 30: 15 agreements, 30,700 workers 



Settlements Achieved, July 15 — Aug. 15: 5 agreements, 9,800 workers 



Major Terms of Settlements (preliminary information) 

*Wages and Duration — 

5 agreements, covering 9,800 workers, are for periods ranging from 18 months 
to 2 years, with wage increases spread over the term of the agreement. 

3 agreements, covering 4,300 workers, provide wage increases ranging from 
5 to 15 cents an hour. 

2 agreements, covering 5,500 workers, provide wage increases ranging from 
15 to 35 cents an hour. 

*Hours of Work — ■ 

Reduced from 42 to 40 a week under 1 agreement covering 2,200 workers. 

*Vacations — 

1,000 workers under 1 agreement to receive third week after 15 years' service. 

*Statutory Holidays — 

2,600 workers under 2 agreements to receive 1 additional day. 

*Welfare Benefits — 

1 agreement, covering 4,000 workers, improves pension benefits. 

*Supplemental Unemployment Benefits — 

1 agreement, covering 4,000 workers, introduces a SUB plan. 

No strike action was involved in any of the settlements. 



Negotiations Continuing, at August 15: 31 agreements, 77,200 workers 

Bargaining in progress: 11 agreements, 33,500 workers 

Conciliation in progress: 11 agreements, 20,009 workers 

Post-conciliation: 5 agreements, 7,400 workers 

Arbitration in progress: 3 agreements, 9,500 workers 

Work stoppages: 1, involving 6,800 workers 



Other Agreements Terminating in Period: 2 agreements, 3,100 workers 

Expiring in September: 2 agreements, 3,100 workers 



919 



Two important strikes in the construction industry occurred during the 
first two weeks of August but were settled by the middle of the month. In 
Saint John, N.B., 975 carpenters, members of the United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, settled their dispute with the Saint John 
Builders' Exchange after four days on strike. Members of the same union at 
Kitimat, B.C., resumed work after more than a week on strike against the 
Saguenay-Kitimat Co. Both unions signed two-year contracts, with wage 
increases of more than 15 cents an hour spread over the length of the contract. 

Construction Agreements 

Bargaining for 1957 agreements in the construction industry was largely 
concluded by mid-August. Still to sign were some important groups of 
workers, including ironworkers and operating engineers on the West Coast and 
painters and plumbers in the Toronto area; most contracts, however, had 
been completed. Many construction trades signed two-year agreements in 
1956; as a result less than half the total number of construction contracts 
across the country opened this year. 

Settlements ranged as high as 40 cents an hour but the most common 
increase was from 15 to 20 cents, usually spread over two years. The Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners carried on bargaining in most parts of the 
country and was involved in nearly half the strikes that occurred in construc- 
tion during the bargaining period. Some of the interesting results of the 
bargaining by this union were the establishment of the country's highest 
carpenters' rate of $2.54 an hour in Kitimat, B.C., and the setting of a separate 
wage scale for the highly skilled millwrights in the Ontario region. 

Individual Negotiations 

A number of significant settlements resulting from recent negotiations, 
not included in the above survey, are summarized below. 

Employees of Consolidated Denison Mines Ltd., located near Elliot Lake, 
Ont., will receive an average wage increase exceeding 50 cents an hour 
over a 14-month period under the terms of a contract negotiated on their 
behalf by the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers. The 
new agreement also provides for the reduction of weekly hours to 40 from 
the present 48, six paid holidays, and a comprehensive health and welfare plan. 

New contracts covering hotel employees in Regina and Montreal were 
signed recently. A wage increase of 12.2 per cent over a period of two years 
was accepted by employees of the CPR Hotel Saskatchewan, represented by 
the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway Employees and Other Transport 
Workers. A three-year contract gives approximately 1,000 employees of the 
Sheraton-Mount Royal and the Laurentian hotels, members of the Hotel, 
Restaurant and Club Employees Union, a wage increase amounting to 12^ 
cents an hour spread over the duration of the contract. 

Information has been received, too late to be included in our survey 
figures, of an agreement signed by four CLC unions representing 1,000 workers 
employed by Canadian Vickers Ltd. in Montreal. The unions are the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Boilermakers, the International Brotherhood of 
Plumbers and Pipefitters, the International Association of Machinists, and 
the International Sheet Metal Workers' Association. The contract is effective 
for one year, and provides for an hourly wage increase of 6 cents, a reduction 
in the work week from 45 to 42^ hours, and improved vacation and seniority 
clauses. 

920 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 




ATLANTIC 

THE general level of economic activity 
changed very little in the Atlantic 
region during July. Farm employment 
showed the usual seasonal increase in 
response to demand for harvest help 
but the gain was largely offset by lay- 
offs in some non-farm industries. Fairly 
large-scale layoffs occurred in construc- 
tion at Gagetown, N.B., as a result of a 
carpenters strike which interrupted work 
being done by other building tradesmen. 
Employment in coal mining also fell as 
the MacBean Mine at Stellarton, N.S., 
closed for a month in addition to the 
annual two-week vacation period. A 
cut-back of CNR orders, the traditional 
summer market for coal, was reported 
to have brought about the mine closure; 
about 500 workers were affected. 

The lumber and pulpwood industries continued operating at much lower 
levels than last year, and there was little evidence of increasing demands for 
these products. Manufacturing, trade, and services recorded employment gains 
during the month but they were not sufficiently large to offset layoffs in other 
sectors of the eeonomy. Total non-agricultural employment was estimated 
at 483,000 at July 20; this was 14,000 below the figure for a month earlier 
but 4,000 above that for the comparable date in 1956, the smallest year-to-year 
increase recorded since the beginning of the year. 

Only three of the 21 areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month, two from the moderate surplus to the balanced category and one from 
balance to the moderate surplus category. At August 1, the area classification 
was as follows (last year's figures in brackets) : in moderate surplus, 8 (2) ; 
in balance, 13 (19). 

Local Area Developments 

St. John's (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 2. The employment situation 
showed only slight improvement during July. Construction employment picked 
up as a result of increased work on the Trans-Canada Highway but the 
industry as a whole continued to be much more sluggish than last year; defence 
construction recorded a particularly sharp decline. The fishing industry had 
a generally poor year with below-average catches of cod and lobster. The 
Bonavista Cold Storage Company at Grand Bank closed operations during 
the month because of reduced catches of fresh fish; about 130 workers were 
released. 

Corner Brook (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Residential construction showed little or no improvement during the month 
but activity in road building and airfield construction rose considerably. 
Pulp cutting employment declined seasonally but remained higher than a 
year earlier. 



921 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS — AUGUST 1, 1957 







APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




Windsor 


Quebec-Levis 
St. John's 
Vancouver-New 


Calgary 

Edmonton 

Hamilton 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Westminster 


Montreal 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 






Ottawa-Hull 

Toronto 

Winnipeg 
















Brantford 

Cornwall 

Farnham-Granby 

Joliette 

Lac St. Jean 


— >-CORNER BROOK 
Fort William- 
Port Arthur 
Guelph 
Halifax 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Moncton 


Kingston 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 60 




NEW GLASGOW -<-— 


Kitchener 




per cent or more in non- 




Oshawa 


London 




agricultural activity) 




Peterborough 
Rouyn-Val d'Or 
Saint John 
Shawinigan Falls 
Sherbrooke 
Trois Rivieres 


Niagara Peninsula 

Sarnia 

Sudbury 

Sydney 

Timmins- 

Kirkland Lake 
Victoria 








CHATHAM -< — 
Thetford-Megantic- 
St. Georges 


Barrie 

Brandon 

Charlottetown 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 






Lethbridge 




AREAS 






Moose Jaw 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 40 






North Battleford 




per cent or more in agriculture) 






Prince Albert 

Red Deer 

Regina 

Riviere du Loup 

Saskatoon 

Yorkton 








Bathurst 


Beauharnois 


— »*SWIFT 






CENTRAL 


Belleville-Trenton 


CURRENT 






VANCOUVER 


Bracebridge 


— >-WEYBURNJ 






ISLAND ■< — 


Brampton 








Campbellton 


Bridgewater 








Gaspe 


Chilliwack 








Montmagny 


Cranbrook 








Newcastle 


Dauphin 








Rimouski 


Dawson Creek 








STE. AGATHE-ST. 


Drumheller 








j£r6me -< — 


DrummondvHle 








St. Stephen 


Edmundston 








Victoriaville 


Fredericton 
Gait 

Goderich 
— >-GRAND FALLS 
Kamloops 




MINOR?AREAS 






Kentville 




(labour force 10,000-25,000) 






Lachute-Ste. Ther£se 
Lindsay 
Listowel 
Medicine Hat 
North Bay 
Okanagan Valley 
Owen Sound 


















Pembroke 










Portage la Prairie 










— >-PRINCE GEORGE 










Prince Rupert 










— ^QUEBEC NORTH 










SHORE 










Sault Ste. Marie 










Simcoe 










St. Hyacinthe 










Sorel 










St. Jean 










St. Thomas 










Stratford 










Summerside 










Trail-Nelson 










Truro 










Valleyfield 










Walkerton 










Woodstock-I ngersoll 










Woodstock, N.B. 










Yarmouth 





►The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 
moved. 



922 






LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -QUEBEC 
1956 1957 







New Glasgow (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
The temporary shutdown of the Acadia Coal Company's MacBean Mine was 
responsible for a rise in unemployment during the month. High production 
costs and the cancellation of orders by the Canadian National Railways were 
the reported reasons for the mine closure. The mine was scheduled to be 
opened by mid-August but there was little evidence that conditions would 
warrant a return to continuous full production. Manufacturing employment 
held up well but there were indications that sizeable staff reductions would 
take place at Eastern Car Company at the end of August, when an order 
for gondola cars would be completed. 

Moncton (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. Unemployment was 
higher than usual in this area owing to the reduced volume of construction 
this year and a general slackness in forestry. Some increase occurred in 
construction activity during the month, however, as two large contracts were 
awarded for work on the Trans-Canada Highway. 

QUEBEC 

CHANGES in the employment situation 
in the Quebec region were more moderate 
in July than a month earlier; the labour 
force increased very little during the 
month and employment increased by 
less than during the previous month, 
though at much the same rate as a year 
ago. Unemployment decreased rather 
more sharply than during June, though 
much less sharply than last year, mak- 
ing the proportion of persons without 
jobs and seeking work in the labour 
force smaller than last month but larger 
than last year. At July 20, persons with 
jobs were estimated at 1,655,000, about 
33,000 more than a month before and 
65,000 more than a year earlier. During 
the month, the number of persons with- 
out jobs and seeking work fell by 8,000 
to 54,000. 

Employment rose in both the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors 
of the economy but more moderately in the latter than in the former. However, 
bad weather so delayed the hay harvest that demand for farm workers 
remained low and the usual shortages did not develop, although shortages 
of apple-pickers were anticipated in the Eastern Townships. In the woods, 
heavy rain aided log driving operations and employment was at its summer 
peak, though at a level somewhat lower than last year. There were indications 
that the cutting period would be shorter this summer than last, a number 
of firms planning smaller quotas than last year. Employment in sawmills 
was at a lower level than a year ago, and layoffs in many areas were 
anticipated in the near future. The manufacture of wood products, in 
particular of doors, sashes and veneers, showed a year-to-year weakening, 
owing to the decline in residential construction. 



FMAMJ JASOND 



923 



Employment in construction rose during the month but registrations at 
NES offices from construction workers remained higher and vacancies fewer 
than a year earlier. Aggravating the unemployment situation resulting from 
a year-to-year decline in residential construction was the fact that road 
building had dropped slightly from last year's unusually high level of activity. 
However, there was considerable activity on larger projects — industrial and 
commercial building — which in some measure offset the decline of employ- 
ment opportunities elsewhere. Few labour shortages were registered even 
among skilled construction occupations. 

Manufacturing employment levelled off during the month, as a number 
of plants closed for holidays. Registrations of metalworkers and workers 
in the manufacture of transportation equipment rose. Unemployment in the 
textile industry also increased during the month. Market demand in this 
industry was little if at all stronger than last year and employment was not 
expected to show more than the usual seasonal increase after the holidays. 

Only two of the 24 local areas in this region were reclassified during the 
month. At August 1, the area classification was as follows: (last year's 
figures in brackets) ; in balance, 10 (20) ; in moderate surplus, 14 (4) . 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. NES registrations for 
employment remained markedly higher than last year in the seasonal indus- 
tries and increased during the month in metalworking and in transportation 
equipment manufacturing occupations as plants closed for vacations. How- 
ever, employment in the clothing industry showed some signs of seasonal 
recovery as work on fall lines began. Owing to the decline in residential 
construction there was a slight easing in the manufacture of structural 
steel. 

Quebec-Levis (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. NES registrations for 
employment decreased during the month but remained well above last year's, 
particularly in the seasonal industries. Logging vacancies were down sharply 
from last year; fewer men were in the woods and the quota of wood to be 
cut was lower. Employment in construction was higher than a month earlier 
and some shortages of skilled workers were registered. However, layoffs were 
expected in plants manufacturing building materials. At the shipyards there 
was very little activity during the month. 

Quebec North Shore (minor) . Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

Ste. Agathe-St. Jerome (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 

ONTARIO 

"EMPLOYMENT in Ontario continued to increase during July. The 
■^ number of persons with jobs at July 20 was estimated at 2,186,000, an 
increase of 36,000 from last month and of 49,000 from last year. Agricultural 
employment accounted for nearly 40 per cent of the month-to-month increase 

924 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -ONTARIO 
1956 1957 




JFMAMJJASOND 



but was 24,000 lower than last year. 
The year-to-year increase in non- 
agricultural employment amounted to 
73,000. Unemployment remained vir- 
tually unchanged from the previous 
month and was considerably higher than 
last year. 

Employment during July continued 
to lag behind the growth of the labour 
force. The rate of increase in seasonal 
hiring was generally lower than last 
year, while many non-seasonal industries 
remained static or showed a decline in 
activity. The practice of closing down 
for holidays appeared to be more wide- 
spread than last year and in many 
plants the holiday period was extended 
by a week or more. This contributed to 
the increase in unemployment and reduced the number of workers hired for 
holiday replacements. The industrial distribution of employment underwent 
little change, except for a seasonal increase in agriculture and food processing. 
Construction employment increased seasonally but construction workers were 
in surplus in all areas. In the automobile industry, the adjustment of output 
to reduced sales resulted in further layoffs. The situation in the lumber and 
lumber products industry remained unchanged. Weather conditions in south- 
western and northern Ontario had an unfavourable effect on harvesting opera- 
tions and the tourist trade. 

Heavy industry remained fairly active, with the exception of a seasonal 
decline in agricultural implement manufacturing and some reduction in 
primary iron and steel production. There were signs of a pick-up in the 
production of radio and television receiving sets, which had been at a low 
level since last fall, and in secondary textiles. 

During July, only one of the 34 areas in the region was reclassified, from 
balance to the moderate surplus category. At August 1, the area classification 
was as follows (last year's figures in brackets) : in substantial surplus, 1 (0) ; 
in moderate surplus, 5 (3); in balance, 28 (23); in shortage, (8). 



Local Area Developments 

Hamilton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Considerable numbers of 
workers were released from the local farm implement plant following the 
completion of seasonal orders, and from the automotive plant, partly as a 
result of preparations for model change-over. Employment in non-agricultural 
construction improved markedly. 

Ottawa-Hull (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Both employment and 
unemployment were higher than a year earlier. Government and industrial 
construction projects reached a high level of activity. The anticipated shortage 
of farm labour was relieved by workers from other areas and by immigrants. 

Toronto .(metropolitan) . Remained in Group 3. Employment in construction 
and secondary textiles improved slightly. Extensive seasonal layoffs occurred 
at the farm implements producing plant. Curtailment in production resulted 
in layoffs in the automobile industry. There were shortages of experienced 
farm hands and of technical personnel. 



925 




LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -PRAIRIE 
— 1956 1957 



| 650,000—^ 



With Jobs: 
Non-Agriculture 



--^ 



Windsor (metropolitan). Remained in Group 1. A seasonal rise in activity 
was not sufficient to make any substantial change in unemployment. Agricul- 
tural activity was hampered by heavy rainfall and extensive layoffs occurred 
in the automobile industry. Non-residential construction increased during the 
month, while home-building remained at a low level. 

Chatham (major agricultural). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Layoffs in the local truck manufacturing plant and reduced demand for 
agricultural labour as a result of heavy crop damage brought the area back 
into the moderate surplus category. 

PRAIRIE 

APART from seasonal employment ex- 
pansion in agriculture, the labour market 
situation changed very little in the 
Prairie region during July. Nevertheless, 
total employment reached an all-time 
record as activity in most of the basic 
industries held firm. At July 20, persons 
with jobs were estimated at 1,053,000, 
an increase of 23,000 from the previous 
month and 15,000 from the previous 
year. The labour force showed a similar 
rise over the month so that unemploy- 
ment continued at the June level, which 
was slightly higher than last year. 

The oil and gas industries remained 
very active during the month, with a 
boom in pipeline construction. Mining, 
too, showed substantial strength, par- 
ticularly in the new base metal and uranium developments. Prospecting 
increased notably in Saskatchewan's Lac La Ronge area ; several major com- 
panies as well as independent prospectors were reported to have moved into 
the district. Hot, dry weather, accompanied by severe hailstorms, inflicted 
heavy damage to crops in some areas, resulting in a lesser demand for 
harvesters than usual. 

Two of the 20 areas in the region were reclassified during the month, 
from the balanced to the shortage category. At August 1, the area classifica- 
tion was as follows (last year's figures in brackets) : in balance, 18 (8) ; 
in shortage, 2 (12). 

Local Area Developments 

Calgary (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 3. Unemployment fell sharply 
in this area during July as staff requirements increased markedly in the larger 
seasonal industries. By the end of the month the area approached a labour 
shortage situation, with suitable workers scarce in a number of occupations. 
More experienced farm workers were reported to be available than in other 
years, however, and this was attributed to a reduction in the volume of 




Wirt, Jobs: 
Agriculture 



JFMAMJJ ASO ND 



926 



residential construction. The number of building permits issued in the first 
half of 1957 was about 700 below that for the comparable period last year. 
Apart from construction, business conditions in the area differed little from 
the favourable situation of a year earlier. 

Edmonton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Unemployment increased 
as a result of the entry of students into the labour force and of a heavy flow 
of workers from other areas. Business activity generally lacked much of 
the vigour of a year ago. While employment continued to show a year-to-year 
gain, certain weaknesses were apparent in the area. Oil drilling operations 
were curtailed during the month. Residential construction showed continuing 
year-to-year slackening, which was reported to have caused a substantial drop 
in the volume of trade by building supply firms. Engineering construction 
maintained employment at a high level though completion of the DEW line 
resulted in the release of 550 workers in July. Total employment remained 
higher than last year largely because of expansion in manufacturing. At the 
beginning of June, manufacturing employment was about 10 per cent higher 
than a year earlier and accounted for 28 per cent of total industrial 
employment. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan) . Remained in Group 3. Employment continued to 
rise during July, particularly in construction. Manufacturing, which plays 
an important role in the economy of this area, changed little during the 
month but showed an increase in employment over last year. 

Fort William-Port Arthur (major industrial). Remained in Group 3. The 
economy of the area showed further strengthening during the month as 
employment increased and unemployment declined. Labour supplies were 
reduced to a very low level in almost all occupations but there was no 
evidence of serious labour shortages. Manufacturing employment remained 
fairly stable during the month though further staff reductions occurred at 
the Canadian Car and Foundry plant at Fort William, bringing the number 
released in a six-week period ending in July to more than 200; lack of 
orders was responsible for the layoff. 

Swift Current and Weyburn (minor) . Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 
4.. A tight labour market situation developed in these areas as farming and 
construction activity approached a seasonal peak. 

PACIFIC 

THE settlement of labour disputes in the lumber and fishing industries 
during the first half of July averted serious economic consequences for the 
Pacific region. However, immediate improvement in the employment situation 
was limited by decreased production in the forestry industries after the 
settlement of the dispute, in order to reduce the inventories of logs and 
lumber that had accumulated in the preceding weeks. 

Persons with jobs rose to 500,000, some 18,000 higher than in July 1956. 
Increases in employment and in the labour force during the month were about 
equal. Hence, instead of the usual seasonal decline, unemployment continued 
at approximately the same level as in June, the highest for July since 1952, 
when a major strike was in progress in the lumber industry. 

927 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -PACIFIC 
1956 1957 



Persons 
With Jobs 



The principal reasons for the high 
unemployment were unfavourable lum- 
ber markets, curtailed base metal mining- 
operations, restricted . housing activity 
and higher immigration this year than 
in 1956. Employment in most manu- 
facturing industries, other than wood 
products, was higher than last year. 
Construction employment at June 1 was 
about 15 per cent higher than a year 
before, and activity in the housing sec- 
tor has increased considerably since 
then. However, total housing starts for 
the first seven months of 1957 are still 
fewer than for the corresponding period 
last year. Total construction contracts 
awarded for the first half of 1957 were 

■:-.- ■ ' ..; ■ . „ 

about 3 per cent higher in value than 
for the same period last year, with increases of 30 and 24 per cent in the 
business and engineering sectors, and declines of 21 and 26 per cent in the 
residential and industrial sectors. Demands for berry pickers and workers 
for fruit and vegetable canneries were easily met. There were substantial 
surpluses of clerical, sales, and service workers and of loggers, metal workers, 
lumber and construction workers, in sharp contrast with the marked shortages 
of labour in 1956. 

Two labour market areas were reclassified during the month, one from 
balance to moderate labour surplus and one from moderate labour surplus to 
balance. At August 1, classification of the ten labour market areas in the 
region was as follows (last year's figures in brackets) : in moderate surplus, 
2 (1) ; in balance, 8 (8) ; in shortage, (1). 



Local Area Developments 

Vancouver (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. A year earlier this area 
was in Group 3. The settlement of the strike in the lumber industry did 
not result in any significant improvement in the employment situation; 
unemployment was the highest since 1952. Substantial surpluses of labour 
existed in most occupations, in sharp contrast to July 1956, when shortages 
were widespread. Although some firms hired loggers during the month, others 
laid off workers because of high log inventories. Sawmill activity was 
restricted by holidays and decreased demand for lumber after the labour 
dispute ended. Hiring lessened in the construction industry, indicating that 
firms had full crews. As a result of the general slackness, farm labour require- 
ments were more easily satisfied than for some years past; in July the demand 
from agricultural labour was limited mainly to berry pickers. 
Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 2. The employment situa- 
tion improved immediately after the settlement of the labour dispute in the 
lumber industry. However, unemployment was higher than usual for this 
time of year. There was little change in logging, sawmilling and construction 
activity during the month. Demand for berry pickers was much higher 
than a year earlier. 

Central Vancouver Island (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Prince George (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 



928 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Labour Day Messages 

Hon. Michael Starr 
Minister of Labour 



I welcome my first opportunity since 
becoming the Minister of Labour to extend 
greetings to Canadian organized labour 
on Labour Day. 

Very likely you have been wondering 
about the plans of the new administration 
and how they will affect the working 
people of Canada. I want to assure you 
that as the member of the Cabinet respon- 
sible for matters affecting labour, I intend 
to always keep before me the interests of 
the working people of this country in all 
questions of importance, and your Govern- 
ment intends to see that organized labour 
is adequately represented on government 
boards dealing with matters of direct in- 
terest to Labour. Organized labour has 
reached a degree of maturity and strength 
which entitles it to consideration in all 
matters affecting those for whom it speaks. 

With regard to the specific legislation 
and the programs for which the Dominion 
Department of Labour is responsible, you 
can be certain that nothing which has 
proved of benefit to Canada will be dis- 
turbed. Some programs may be intensified 
and new programs will undoubtedly be 
introduced. However, the legislation and 
*the programs of the Department are 
being reviewed in consultation, where 



necessary, with Labour and Management 
so that we will have the benefit of the 
views and experience of those most affected. 

Such problems as the difficulty of people 
past 40 getting employment, rehabilitation 
and employment of the disabled, dis- 
crimination in employment because of race, 
colour or creed, and unemployment result- 
ing from cold weather in the winter have 
concerned me, as they have concerned all 
thinking Canadians, for some years now. 
Now, as Minister of Labour I am taking 
particular interest in reviewing programs 
of my Department connected with these 
problems to see where they might be 
improved and intensified, or what new steps 
might be initiated. I know that organized 
labour has assisted in attempts to alleviate 
these problems and that I can count upon 
them to help us in any practical steps 
which, in co-operation with provincial 
authorities, are undertaken in the future. 

When we look at the broad economic 
picture, Canada is not without problems, 
but I can tell you that this administration 
will not refuse to face up to them, and 
with courage and determination do every- 
thing possible to the end that our national 
prosperity is translated into prosperity for 
the individual. 



Claude Jodoin 

President, Canadian Labour Congress 



The months since we last celebrated 
Labour Day have been important ones 
for the Canadian labour movement. The 
spirit of unity which brought about the 
formation of the Canadian Labour Con- 
gress in April 1956 has continued with 
increased force, resulting in the consolida- 
tion of our new organization. The values 
of our united movement have become 
increasingly apparent in day-to-day con- 
ditions. 

When the CLC was founded some 16 
months ago a two-year period was set for 
the merger of provincial federations and 



92423—2 



local labour councils. The vast majority 
of these mergers have been complete for 
some time and these groups are now 
functioning in a united manner. All our 
provincial federations have now merged 
and in the few instances where this action 
still has to be taken by labour councils 
it is apparent that such steps will be taken 
well before the two-year period has expired. 
This means that the internal organizational 
problems of bringing together two con- 
gresses into one united body are now 
practically complete and we are in a posi- 
tion to exert greater efforts towards our 

929 



general objectives in both the organization 
and legislative fields. 

Wie recognize that the majority of 
Canadian employees are still outside the 
labour movement and lack the benefits of 
organization and collective bargaining. We 
have drawn attention to this situation 
within the past year and we look forward 
to increased activity so that more men 
and women can, through the free, co-opera- 
tive efforts of the labour movement, help 
each other towards a better standard of 
living. 

The Canadian Labour Congress, in 
accordance with the policy adopted at our 
founding convention, supports no particular 
political party. Our organization has, how- 
ever, a very definite legislative program, 
designed in the interests of all Canadians. 
We recognize that, over a period of many 
years, progress has been made in Canada's 
social legislation. We have by no means 
exhausted the possibilities, and in many 
instances we feel progress has been far 
too slow. 

This year has obviously been a highly 
important one from the political point of 
view. The membership of the Canadian 
Labour Congress will be watching the 
policies and actions of our new government 
with keen interest. We are concerned with 
results and we are quite prepared to 
co-operate with Prime Minister Diefen- 
baker and his colleagues, particularly in 
implementing such parts of the Progressive 
Conservative Party's program as we have 
already expressed interest in through the 
legislative program of our Congress. 

The fact that the social benefits and 
living standard which we now enjoy are 
greatly improved over those of years past 
does not by any means mean that we have 
reached the ultimate. We are living at a 
time when great technical changes are 
opening new possibilities for the produc- 
tion of goods and services. In Canada we 
are seeing unprecedented expansion. This 
means new opportunities for all our people; 
but we know all too well from past 
experience that the benefits of these 
developments are not likely to be fairly 
shared unless pressures are applied in 
the interests of the people as a whole. This, 
as it has been in the past and it always 
will be in the future, is one of the primary 
and inescapable responsibilities of any true 
labour movement. 

We have seen, in recent times, too much 
of a trend towards the concentration of 
our natural resources in the hands of a 



few. We know that automation and other 
such developments may be used in the 
same way. We must use our collective 
bargaining strength to protect the interests 
of the people. 

At the same time we must continually 
remember that we, as Canadians, cannot 
be a people unto ourselves. We are citi- 
zens of a world community and our 
responsibilities are as broad as the world 
itself. It is encouraging that there is 
increasing interest on the part of Canadian 
union members in the welfare of people 
in other countries. This is being expressed 
through our participation in and support 
of the International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions and the International 
Labour Organization. It is to be hoped 
that this will continue and expand, and 
that there will be increased response by 
the Canadian Government to the con- 
tinued proposals by our Congress for 
additional assistance to less fortunate coun- 
tries. 

Within the next few weeks we will see 
in Canada a practical demonstration of the 
possibilities of co-operation and the 
development of a closer understanding 
between peoples of various countries. The 
Canadian Labour Congress, in co-operation 
with the International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions, will be hosts to some 
80 trade unionists, 60 of them from out- 
side our borders and many from distant 
parts of the world. 

Not only will they share experience and 
give serious consideration to their prob- 
lems, but they will have an opportunity 
to see at close range the living and working 
conditions of Canadians. We hope that 
from this experience they will go home 
with an increased realization of the desire 
of Canadian workers to have the friendliest 
of relations with workers of all other coun- 
tries. We hope, too, that from this con- 
ference will come methods by which we 
can work together with increased effective- 
ness toward our objective of "bread, peace 
and freedom for all". 

Thus, while much has been accomplished, 
a great deal more remains to be done. As 
a united and growing organization we are 
prepared to meet this challenge. With the 
continued support of our membership and 
with the help of those who we hope will 
become associated with the labour move- 
ment, we can accomplish our objectives. 
By so doing the Canadian Labour Con- 
gress will make a great contribution to 
the welfare of people throughout the 
world. 



930 



J. G. McLean 



National Legislative Committee, International 
Railway Brotherhoods 



To many citizens of our Nation, Labour 
Day is another holiday created for rest 
and recreation, to others it may mean no 
more than a temporary cessation of indus- 
trial and commercial activity with a pro- 
portionate loss of productive profit, but 
to the workers generally and to the trade 
unionists particularly it is a memorable 
day carrying a distinctive mark of pro- 
gress in the Canadian Labour Movement. 

The National Legislative Committee, 
International Railway Brotherhoods, is 
pleased to have the opportunity again to 
extend fraternal greetings on this Labour 
Day to our affiliates, all other labour 
organizations, all Canadian workers and 
their families. 

During the past half century organized 
Labour has been successful in securing for 
the workers many benefits including im- 
proved working conditions and rates of 
pay. The Legislative Committee, Inter- 
national Railway Brotherhoods, has con- 
sistently been in the forefront in seeking 
and securing legislation to promote the 
welfare of the workers and to reduce the 
hazards incident to their employment in 
industry. We are appreciative of the 
social security legislation now on the 
provincial and federal statutes. However, 
we recognize that the foundation on which 
the legislation is based was founded in 
Conventions passed by the International 
Labour Organization; also, that the stand- 
ards of benefits in several of the Acts are 
ILO "minimum standards". Further, our 
Government as a member of the ILO has a 



distinct obligation to have enacted addi- 
tional social security legislation, such as 
medical care, sickness benefit, maternity 
benefits and survivors' benefits. 

The railway brotherhoods are presently 
highly concerned over the loss of jobs to 
what we term "automation". Techno- 
logical changes are recognized as progres- 
sive and necessary in the development of 
the economic life of our Nation, but they 
can affect many persons adversely unless 
made with reasonable and equitable con- 
sideration of the human element involved. 
Early and co-ordinated measures should be 
taken to avoid or to hold to a minimum 
the social dislocations and human costs 
which may be involved in technological 
progress and to ensure the greatest pos- 
sible benefit to all sectors of the com- 
munity. 

The Brotherhoods are concerned regard- 
ing the railway workers who lose their 
employment by reason of abandonment of 
terminals or lines, and are not entitled 
by law to a dismissal wage. 

The right of the worker to organize and 
bargain collectively is clearly established. 
A review shows that approximately only 
40 per cent of the workers are under an 
agreement. This should have the im- 
mediate attention of the Trade Union 
Movement. 

When we celebrate this holiday in honour 
of Labour it is fitting that we should be 
thankful for the progress made, the free- 
dom we enjoy, and to reflect on the many 
important questions needing our collective 
attention. 



Gerard Picard 



General President, Canadian and Catholic 
Confederation of Labour 



(Translation) 

From ocean to ocean, throughout the 
length and breadth of the country, Cana- 
dian workers are celebrating "their" holiday 
today. 

For all the people of Canada, this affords 
an opportunity to gain a better understand- 
ing of the role of primary importance that 
workers are playing in this country's 
economic life. The prosperity and the 
future of Canada rest more and more 
on them. 



The production of almost all those things 
that make up our national wealth, and 
which form the very basis of the material 
well-being enjoyed by Canadians, is assured 
by the workers. Even agriculture, in spite of 
its continuing importance in our economy, 
can no longer do without the machines, 
the instruments and the tools manufactured 
for it by the workers. Our natural resources, 
the common heritage of all Canadians, 
would be wasted wealth without active, 
competent labour to develop them. 

(Continued on page 1004) 



92423— 1\ 



931 



Engineer Shortage 
Now Less Severe 

The expected shortage of professional 
engineers and scientists in Canada this 
year has been relieved by immigration, 
and Canadian engineering and science 
graduates are not finding such an intense 
demand for their services as was expected, 
according to an article by Leslie Wilson 
in a recent issue of The Financial Post. 

In the United States also, the much 
advertised dearth of engineers is dis- 
counted by the findings of a study made 
by Drs. David M. Blank and George J. 
Stigler under the auspices of the National 
Bureau of Economic Research, it was 
reported in the New York Times. 

Mr. Wilson, who bases his statements 
on a spot check of personnel managers and 
university placement officials, says that 
although most of this year's 2,850 engineer- 
ing and science graduates from Canadian 
universities found jobs at salaries about 
10 per cent higher than last year, some 
have not yet been placed. 

Some companies which had feared that 
their plans for expansion or research would 
be hampered by shortage of professional 
manpower had been able to fill their needs 
with British or other European engineers. 
Col. J. K. Bradford, Director of Place- 
ment of the University, is quoted by the 
Financial Post writer as saying: "There 
seems to be a fair balance between supply 
of engineering graduates in Canada and 
demand for them." He added, however, 
that metallurgists, electronics engineers and 
some types of chemists are still scarce. 

The Financial Post estimates that dur- 
ing the last six months 3,000 engineers and 
draughtsmen have entered Canada from 
the United Kingdom, and 500 from the 
Netherlands, France, West Germany and 
Italy. The number of engineering graduates 
in Canada this year is 1,800, and there 
have been 1,050 science graduates. The 
number of professional persons who have 
entered Canada as immigrants this year 
is therefore significant. 

The study of Messrs. Blank and Stigler 
in the United States was based on the 
levels of pay received by engineers; and 
on the evidence of these earnings the study 
suggested that, up to 1955 at least, there 
had not only been no shortage of engineers 
but there had been in fact an increasingly 
ample supply. Demand for engineers, it 
was found, had grown rapidly; but supply 
had grown even faster. Temporary short- 
ages had undoubtedly been felt in certain 
types of engineering and in some parts of 
the country, but there was no evidence 
of any substantial general shortage. 



As a consequence of the increased supply 
of engineers in relation to demand, the 
study shows, salaries have drifted down- 
wards. Engineers are said to have lost 
ground in earnings in comparison with 
doctors, dentists, lawyers and college 
teachers. This decline has been especially 
pronounced since 1939, except for a minor 
increase after the outbreak of the Korean 
War. 

An increase in the supply of engineers 
is expected to continue, according to the 
study. Projections predict that from be- 
tween 35,000 and 40,000 engineering grad- 
uates in 1960 the annual number of 
graduations may rise to between 80,000 
and 90,000 by 1970. The present annual 
total is put at 32,000. 

An article in a recent issue of Business 
Week also supports the belief that "the 
worst of the shortage of engineers may 
be abating". It goes on to say: "Where 
a year ago nearly everyone insisted that 
the shortage of engineers was practically 
a national emergency, today you'll find 
plenty of hedging and 'don't quote me, 
but' talk that shows there has been a 
distinct change in the situation." 

The article quotes the reports of a 
number of companies, nearly all of which 
state that there has been decidedly less 
difficulty in getting engineers than there 
was last year. 

However, notwithstanding the easing of 
the shortage, the starting salaries offered 
to engineers have continued to rise, the 
article says. The rise seems to be about 
$50 a month higher than last year. As an 
example, Bell Telephone Laboratories 
increased its minimum starting salary from 
$400 to $450 per month. 

"For the immediate future at least it 
looks as if the panic has gone out of the 
quest for engineers," the article concludes. 
"But companies must continue to pay 
engineers well, and put them to work at 
engineering jobs if another shortage is to 
be avoided. Many companies are still 
reluctant to admit that the shortage could 
even be easing." 



Ford Starting On-the-job 
Apprenticeship Program 

First on-the-job apprenticeship training 
program for the Ford Motor Company will 
be inaugurated this September at its 
Windsor manufacturing division. 

The apprentices, expected to number 25, 
will work alongside qualified journeymen 
for 8,000 hours. They will receive appren- 
ticeship pay and normal company benefits. 
Preference will be given to sons of the 
company's Windsor employees. 



932 



U.S. Disabled Aged 50 
Now Receiving Pension 

More than 100,000 disabled persons in 
the United States this month will receive 
their first disability pension cheques as 
a result of an amendment last year to the 
U.S. social security law that made such 
pensions available to disabled workers at 
the age of 50. 

To be eligible for the pension, according 
to the Social Security definition, a worker 
must have a disability that makes him 
"unable to engage in any substantial gainful 
activity". The disability must be the kind 
of physical or mental condition that shows 
up in medical evidence, hospital records or 
special tests; it must have lasted at least 
six months and be expected to continue for 
a long and indefinite period. 

In general, "substantial gainful activity" 
means the performance of a substantial 
amount of work with reasonable regularity 
in emplo} T ment or self-employment. 



Compulsory Retirement 
Said "Cruel, Wasteful' 9 

One of the most ' orrible examples of 
fuzzy thinking, in the opinion of William 
Mercer, President of William M. Mercer 
Limited, employee benefit plan consultants, 
is the idea that the mass of Canada's 
population can and should stop working 
at 65. He made the statement in an article 
in the July 20 issue of Maclean's. 

Compulsory retirement of men who are 
mentally and physically young and want 
to work, Mr. Mercer believes, is cruel, 
unnatural and wasteful. He adds that he 
is not suggesting taking away a man's right 
to retire in his sixties— he refers to those 
men who are able and want to work 
beyond their sixties. 

Mr. Mercer sees two fundamental 
approaches to retirement. The one in 
which he believes allows a man to retire 
between the ages of 50 and 90 and provides 
him with a pension. He is not forced to 
retire at any given age. 

The second approach, which he opposes, 
is typified by insurance company and 
government-annuity advertisements show- 
ing happy retired men smoking pipes and 
fishing, who have been compelled to quit 
work at age 65. 

Compulsory retirement at 65 is often 
justified, says Mr. Mercer, by saying 
that it is difficult for management to decide 
who should stay and who shouldn't if the 
compulsory retirement rule is waived. 

"That argument is wrong whichever way 
you look at it. It implies that management 
has not the ability or courage" to carry 



out a prime responsibility: deciding which 
employees are productive and which are 
not. 

"It is also argued," says Mr. Mercer, 
"that compulsory retirement at 65 is neces- 
sary to provide for the promotion of 
junior employees." 

He refutes that by saying that under a 
flexible retirement plan, a man of 60 who 
has lost interest and is just waiting for 
65 so he can draw his pension can be 
retired at 60 to make way for the younger 
individual. 

Four Working, One Idle 

Another point he makes is that if all 
people stopped work at 65 there would be 
one person idle for every four working. 
This would impose a necessary 20 per cent 
contribution of their salaries on the part 
of working people to maintain the idle. He 
doubts that society would care to pay that 
much for other people's leisure. 

The whole problem of compulsory 
retirement at 65 needs a searching look 
by both Management and Labour, says 
Mr. Mercer, and he also notes: 

"I must direct some of my criticism of 
shallow thinking on security against our 
federal Government... The Old Age 
Security Act that will soon pay every 
citizen $46 per month at 70. The principle 
involved in this is so wrong that I find 
myself embarrassed when I try to explain 
it to friends in other countries." 

As an example, he pictures two men who, 
respectively, have no income and $6,000 
annually at age 70. The first gets the Old 
Age Pension of $46, which "allows him 
to live like an animal," while the other 
receives $36.80— the $46 less 20 per cent 
income tax deduction — to add to his $6,000. 

"In my mind Canada can afford to 
provide all its indigent citizens with a 
minimum subsistence income and, in terms 
of 1957 dollars, that is probably $80 a 
month for single persons and $130 for a 
married couple. 

"I don't think Canada can afford, and I 
believe it is morally wrong, to provide 
any additional income to citizens for- 
tunate enough to have an adequate one. 

"If $80 per month for a single person 
and $130 per month for a married couple 
provides a subsistence living," concludes 
Mr. Mercer, "and if it is paid to everyone 
over a certain age, it should be subject to 
a steeply graded income tax so that any- 
one that has an income of, say, over $2,500 
per year would have it all taxed away 
from him." 



933 



Govt. Arranges Program 
To Ease CNR Layoffs 

The federal Government will finance a 
special work program in an effort to 
minimize the effect of country-wide layoffs 
that were scheduled on the Canadian 
National Railways. 

This was announced in a statement issued 
July 12 by Hon. George Hees, Minister of 
Transport, after a conference with Hon. 
Michael Starr, Minister of Labour, and 
Donald Gordon, President of the CNR. 

Layoffs were planned by the railway at 
Pointe St. Charles (near Montreal), Monc- 
ton, N.B.; Transcona and Fort Rouge 
(Winnipeg) ; Edmonton and Port Mann, 
B.C. 

"While a severe decline in traffic has 
called for an adjustment of total em- 
ployees," the statement said, "the Govern- 
ment has undertaken to finance the cost 
of a special program of car repairs and 
other shop work; and on that understand- 
ing the CNR will re-employ the required 
shop working force at the end of the 
coming vacation period. 

"It is uncertain how long or to what 
extent the proposed special program will be 
continued; but in any event the intention 
is to spread the work so that if down- 
ward adjustments remain necessary, they 
can be effected gradually. 

"It is also hoped that the declining 
trend in traffic will be arrested in the 
meantime so that existing levels of em- 
ployment may be maintained." 

The Transport Minister reported that 
forecasts of capital investment released 
that day by the Department of Trade and 
Commerce indicated a definite upturn, "so 
that it is reasonable to regard the sharp 
drop in railway traffic as being a tem- 
porary situation only". 

The statement said the CNR was ex- 
pected to open conversations immediately 
with union leaders to explore the adjust- 
ments in the existing seniority rules of the 
working groups affected that will be needed 
to make the program effective. 



UAW Is Partner in Plan 
To Fight Discrimination 

A new step in the fight to eliminate 
racial discrimination in employment was 
the signing of an agreement between the 
United Automobile Workers of America, 
and the National Urban League, a volun- 
tary inter-racial organization devoted to 
education and the improvement of housing, 
health and welfare services for negroes. 



Existence of the document, which will 
affect 200,000 negroes, was made known 
by UAW President Walter P. Reuther and 
Theodore W. Kneel, president of the 
League. 

The pact provides machinery to deal 
with cases of discrimination in all indus- 
tries in which the UAW has collective 
bargaining agreements. Both Mr. Reuther 
and Mr. Kheel hailed the pact as a "volun- 
tary" Fair Employment Practices Com- 
mission. 



International Employers 9 
Group to Meet in Canada 

The World Congress of Christian Em- 
ployers this year will be held in Canada, 
beginning September 15, at the Windsor 
Hotel in Montreal. 

The international organization has a 
membership of 18,500 in 14 countries. 
Delegates have been chosen already from 
Argentina, Belgium, Chile, England, Ger- 
many, France, Mexico, The Netherlands, 
Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United 
States. 

The Canadian affiliate of the group is the 
Professional Association of Industrialists. 
Wilfred Girouard, Montreal manufacturer, 
will act as chairman. Prime Minister 
Diefenbaker is scheduled to open the con- 
vention. 



Hold MeGill Conference 
September 11 and 12 

MeGill University's 9th Annual Indus- 
trial Relations Conference will be held 
September 11 and 12. Theme of this 
year's conference is "Industrial Relations 
and Technological Change". 

There will be five speakers and two 
discussion leaders. Speakers and their 
topics are: Dr. William Westley, MeGill, 
"Men and Machines"; Dr. George P. 
Schultz, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. "Concepts of Change in the Labour 
Market"; Ralph Presgrave, J. D. Woods 
and Gordon, Ltd., "What Price Tech- 
nology?"; Dr. Eugene Forsey, Canadian 
Labour Congress Research Director, "Tech- 
nological Change — A Problem for Labour"; 
and S. M. Gossage, Manager of Labour 
Relations, Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany, "Technological Change and the 
Responsibility of Management". 

Leaders of the panel discussion will be 
E. R. Complin, Dupont of Canada, and 
Gerard Pelletier, Director of Public Rela- 
tions, Canadian and Catholic Confederation 
of Labour. 



934 



Arbitration Clause Ruled 
Enforceable in U.S. Court 

Federal courts have the power to enforce 
arbitration clauses in labour-management 
contracts, the United States Supreme 
Court has ruled. 

The 7 to 1 decision was made in three 
cases, all of which had been brought by 
unions against employers who had refused 
to submit grievance disputes to be settled 
by an arbitrator, as provided by the con- 
tracts. 

The principle at issue had been before 
the courts for years, and judges in state 
and federal courts had held various views 
about it. Many lawyers regard the decision 
as one of the most important made in 
labour law for years. 

About 90 per cent of existing collective 
agreements provide for arbitration as the 
final step in the procedure for settlement 
of grievances. The Supreme Court's deci- 
sion thus gives important support to the 
arbitration method of settling disputes. 

Only eight or nine states have statutes 
which provide for enforcement of arbitra- 
tion agreements; and the common law in 
most states, according to legal authorities, 
holds that agreements to arbitrate cannot 
be enforced. 

The ruling will not affect disputes be- 
tween employers and unions over the terms 
of new contracts. 



Publish Analysis of 
Sheet Metal Trade 

An analysis of the sheet metal trade, 
prepared by a national committee appointed 
by the Department of Labour, has been 
published. 

• The analysis, together with analyses of 
six other trades, four of them published 
previously and two more to appear shortly, 
was carried out as a result of a recommen- 
dation made at the First National Con- 
ference on Apprenticeship in Trades and 
Industry, held in Ottawa in May 1952. The 
analyses of the following trades have been 
published previously: machinist, carpen- 
ter, bricklaying, and plastering. Analyses 
of the motor vehicle repair trade and 
plumbing trade will be published in the 
near future. 

Federal and provincial training authori- 
ties hope that by analyses of the various 
skilled trades which are designated as 
apprenticeable in most of the provinces, 
it may be ultimately possible to reach 
agreement on uniform standards of com- 
petence. This would be a step forward 



towards achieving the acceptance in the 
other provinces of apprentices trained in 
any Canadian province. 

The analyses of the various trades are 
recommended as: a basis for training pro- 
grams in industry, courses of study in 
vocational schools and trades institutes, 
etc.; a guide to foremen for on-the-job 
training; a basis on which experience may 
be evaluated and a means of transferring 
apprenticeship credits from one province 
to another. 

As in the case of all the studies, the 
analysis of the sheet metal trade contains 
only those phases of the trade considered 
essential in all provinces. This leaves each 
province free to add to the analysis any 
skills or knowledge peculiar to its particular 
area. The analysis is not intended to be 
a course of study, and accordingly the 
operations need not necessarily be taught 
in the sequence set forth. While the scope 
of the analysis is comprehensive, embracing 
as it does the manipulative features of 
the trade with necessary related knowledge, 
it does view the trade in its broader 
aspects and includes blueprint reading, 
mathematics and science. In addition to 
this, the committee who prepared the docu- 
ment suggests that the trainee be given, 
when opportunity affords, an introduction 
to certain phases of estimating and also of 
design, which involves proportioning sizes 
and determining capacities, and the like. 

The publication is available from the 
Queen's Printer, Ottawa, at 50 cents a copy. 



Canada 9 s Colombo Plan 
Gifts Total $151 Million 

Between 1950, when the Colombo Plan 
began, until April 1958, Canada's contri- 
butions and obligations to the plan will 
have amounted to $151,230,027. 

Canada's share of capital assistance is 
$147,710,159; technical assistance, $3,487,- 
637, with an additional $32,231 going to 
the Colombo Plan Bureau for Technical 
Co-operation. 

To date, Canada has contributed towards 
67 capital assistance projects of varying 
sizes, and at present eight countries are 
benefitting. 

Canada's technical assistance scheme, 
under which experts are sent to Asian 
countries and Asians are trained in Cana- 
dian universities, has been extended to 12 
countries; 636 fellows and scholars have 
trained in Canada, and 94 Canadian 
experts have been sent to Colombo Plan 
areas. 

Of the 94 experts sent abroad since 1950, 
there are 42 at present in Colombo Plan 
areas. 



935 



\c*ir Edition Available 
Of "Labour Standards" 

A new (1956) edition of the Department 
of Labour publication Provincial Labour 
Standards is now available. Revised each 
year, this bulletin brings together under 
one cover information regarding the 
standards set by the provincial laws govern- 
ing child labour, holidays, hours of work, 
minimum wages, equal pay for equal work, 
fair employment practices, weekly rest-day 
and workmen's compensation. 

In a foreword the bulletin reviews 
changes in laws or regulations in 1956. 
These include the enactment of a new 
Annual Holidays Act in British Columbia, 
effective from July 1, 1957, which requires 
employers to grant their employees a 
vacation of two weeks with pay at 4 per 
cent of annual earnings after a year of 
employment. Under the former Act, 
workers were entitled to a vacation of 
one week with pay after a year's service. 

Minimum wage orders in Alberta were 
revised, substantially increasing minimum 
rates. The new rates, applicable in cities 
and towns with a population exceeding 
5.000, are $30 a week for male workers 
of 19 years of age and over and $28 a 
week for women workers. The former rates, 
$26 and $24, respectively, applied to the 
four cities of Edmonton, Calgary, Leth- 
bridge and Medicine Hat. In the remainder 
of the province the minimum rates are 
$26 a week for men and $24 for women, 
representing an increase of $1 a week for 
men and $4 a week for women. 

In British Columbia, the orders govern- 
ing workers in factories, shops and offices 
were among those revised, establishing 75 
cents an hour for male workers and 60 
cents for female workers in factories, 65 
cents an hour for all workers in shops, 
and 75 cents an hour for all workers in 
offices. For male workers in New Bruns- 
wick engaged in the canning or processing 
of fish, vegetables or fruit the minimum 
wage was increased from 55 to 65 cents 
an hour. 

In Nova Scotia and Manitoba, new 
Equal Pay Acts were enacted. Under the 
Nova Scotia Act, which went into force 
on January 1, 1957, women must be paid 
the same wage rates as men for the same 
work done in the same establishment. The 
Manitoba Act forbids discrimination against 
either sex in the payment of wage rates 
in respect to identical or substantially 
identical work in the same establishment. 

Fair Employment Practices Acts for- 
bidding discrimination by employers with 
regard to employment and by trade unions 
with regard to membership on grounds of 



race, colour, religion or national origin 
were adopted in British Columbia, New 
Brunswick and Saskatchewan. 

Under Workmen's Compensation Acts, 
a higher compensation rate in Manitoba, 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, increases 
in the ceiling on earnings in Manitoba, 
Alberta, Ontario and Saskatchewan, and 
larger allowances for widows and dependent 
children in several provinces were among 
the changes provided for. 

Copies of the bulletin in both English 
and French are available from the Queen's 
Printer at 25 cents each. 



ICFTU Holds Fifth 
Biennial Congress 

Affiliation of Finnish unionists, resigna- 
tion of its president, the role of France in 
Algeria and the treatment in Hungary of 
workers in particular and the population 
as a whole were matters taken up at the 
fifth biennial congress of the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions, held 
during July at Tunis, Tunisia. 

Canada was represented at the congress 
by Claude Jodoin, CLC President; Donald 
MacDonald, CLC Secretary-Treasurer ; Wil- 
liam Mahoney, Canadian Director of the 
United Steelworkers of America; E. P. 
O'Connor, General Secretary of the B.C. 
Government Employees' Association; and 
George Hutchens, Canadian Director, In- 
ternational Union of Radio, Electrical and 
Machine Workers. 

The affiliation of the Finnish unionists, 
which brought 300.000 new members into 
the ICFTU, which boasts members from 
92 other countries outside the Iron Cur- 
tain, was enthusiastically approved at the 
opening session of the congress. 

The congress heard with regret that its 
president during the past four years, Omer 
Becu, of Belgium, was quitting the office. 
It was expected that the post would go to 
Arne Geijer, of Sweden, but this had not 
been confirmed at press time. 

A direct plea was made to France in 
the name of the delegates, representing 
55,000.000 organized workers, to begin truce 
negotiations with the independence forces 
of Algeria. 

The congress asked that Hungary, under 
its present regime, be barred from the 
United Nations and all its specialized 
agencies, and demanded that Soviet Russia 
be compelled to withdraw its troops from 
the country and permit free elections. 

The action was taken by a unanimous 
vote, after they heard a speech delivered 
by Anna Kethly, Hungarian emigre 
leader. 



936 



G. D. Ambekar, Indian Trades Union 
Congress, called for an end to atomic 
bomb tests, and expressed the hope that 
all peoples of the world could quickly 
learn to live in peace as brothers. 

Victor G. Reuther, Assistant to the Presi- 
dent of the United Automobile Workers, 
told the congress that United States 
labour was moving swiftly towards estab- 
lishment of a four-day, 32-hour week as 
a safeguard against "automation unemploy- 
ment". 

William C. Doherty, Vice-president of 
the AFL-CIO, blamed "price-gouging by 
profit-hungry monopolists" for a rise in 
living costs last year, and added that 
labour welcomes the present Senate investi- 
gation into the causes of inflation. 



Automation Discussed in 
TUC'S Half -Year Review 

In the belief that there is probably no 
set formula and procedure that can be 
used in every case in which the impact 
of automation on jobs and wages is felt, 
the Trades Union Congress of Great 
Britain has decided to call new meetings 
with groups of unions in order to pin 
down questions that are likely to arise in 
their industries. 

A general point which the TUC makes 
in its half-yearly survey, called "What the 
TUC is Doing," is the need for full con- 
sultation with employees' representatives 
before automation or other changes in 
industrial methods are introduced. It also 
insists that employers and the government 
must accept their responsibilities for ensur- 
ing that changes in industry are introduced 
with as little dislocaton and hardship as 
possible. 

. The TUC says that unions also can help 
to prepare for industrial change that may 
come about through automation or in 
other ways by pressing for general agree- 
ments covering redundancy, consultation, 
compensation, training and so on. 

In order to help unions in this way 
the Congress has been collecting informa- 
tion about agreements covering redun- 
dancy. The four principal matters covered 
in such agreements are found to be: prior 
consultation, selection procedure and notice 
to be given, compensation arrangements, 
and schemes for re-employment. 

Although automation brings difficulties, 
the TUC emphasizes that these are not 
necessarily new. Trade unions have had 
to face these and similar issues before. 
The Congress also contends that the dan- 
ger in Great Britain is not that automation 
will be introduced too rapidly, but it may 



come in too slowly. In the TUC's view, 
for Britain to allow other countries to 
outpace her and threaten her ability to 
compete would endanger jobs and living 
standards. The prospect of Britain's join- 
ing a European Free Trade • Area is held 
to lend added urgency to this considera- 
tion. The TUC states that "even our most 
strongly placed industries would be unable 
to take full advantage of the wider 
European markets unless they made them- 
selves fully competitive". 



Illness Hits 39 in 1,000 
Workers; Cost is High 

Prolonged illness strikes employees at 
the rate of 39 for each 1,000 on the payroll 
annually, a five-year study of non-occupa- 
tional illness in the United States has 
found. A prolonged illness was defined as 
one involving at least four weeks' absence 
from work. 

The survey, conducted by the Research 
Council for Economic Security, an in- 
dependent group, and financed by private 
industry, covered 193,856 employees of 
145 business concerns, both large and small, 
manufacturing and non-manufacturing. 
Groups in labour, management, medical 
and health fields co-operated in the survey. 

The survey also found that: 

— The average absence from work 
because of prolonged illness is a little more 
than 10.8 weeks. 

— The rate of absence because of pro- 
longed illness rises markedly with age 
and is greater among women workers than 
among men and among production workers 
than salaried personnel. 

The cost to workers of prolonged illness 
is high, the researchers found. Even where 
employers have sickness compensation 
plans, prolonged illness costs the average 
worker affected about 13 per cent of his 
normal annual earnings. 

"Large Gaps" 

The "substantial" cost to the worker 
even when the employer shares the cost 
shows that there are "large gaps" to be 
filled, the report said. One gap could be 
filled, it suggested, by setting up indus- 
trial medical departments of preventive 
medicine. 

While benefit provisions of health insur- 
ance programs covered 62 per cent of 
gross medical care costs, as a result of 
heavy emphasis on hospitalization and 
surgical care present benefits meet 80 per 
cent of hospital charges and 61 per cent 
of surgeons' fees but only 16 per cent of 
other costs. 



92423—3 



937 



Farm Population Drops 
5.7 Per Cent in 5 Years 

Canada's farm population showed a fur- 
ther marked drop in the period 1951 to 
1956 but the total farm area was virtually- 
unchanged, according to a Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics report based on the 
national census of 1956. 

Number of persons living on farms, as 
denned by the Census, showed a decrease 
of 165,241, or 5.7 per cent, from 2,911,996 
in 1951 to 2,746,755 in 1956. This was a 
larger proportional decrease than occurred 
in the 10-year interval between 1941 and 
1951, when the total fell 240,453 or 7.6 
per cent. 

While the total number of occupied 
farms showed a decrease from 623,091 in 
1951 to 575,015 in 1956, or 7.7 per cent, the 
total area in farms decreased only 0.1 
per cent from 174,046,654 acres to 173,923,- 
691 acres in 1956, with the result that the 
average size of farm for all Canada in- 
creased from 279.3 acres in 1951 to 302.2 
acres in 1956. 

An important factor contributing towards 
the larger farms has been the use of more 
farm machinery of various classes. 



AFL-CIO Attempts To End 
Craft-Industrial Disputes 

A method of dealing in three steps with 
jurisdictional disputes between building 
trades and industrial unions is being set 
up within the AFL-CIO. The plan, which 
has been worked out by a special com- 
mittee of high-ranking union leaders, does 
not provide for final settlement by arbitra- 
tion if negotiations fail. 

Failure to agree to arbitration has been 
the chief stumbling block in previous efforts 
to work out methods of settling such dis- 
putes. The building trades unionists did 
not like the form of arbitration originally 
proposed. 

General agreement has been reached on 
the main line of division between the 
jurisdictional provinces of the two types 
of unions. New construction is to belong 
to the building trades craft unions, and 
running maintenance is to belong to mem- 
bers of the industrial unions who are 
permanently employed at the plant. 

The doubtful area of jurisdiction con- 
cerns the alteration, repair, and moving of 
plant. Some companies use regular em- 
ployees for work of this kind. Others let 
out the work to outside contractors. 

"In these doubtful areas decision should 
be made on the basis of established past 
practices on a plant, area or industry 



basis," said George Meany, President of 
the AFL-CIO, in a letter outlining the 
new plan addressed to Richard J. Gray, 
President of the Building Trades Depart- 
ment of the federation, and Al White- 
house, Director of the Industrial Union 
Department. 

The plan, as described in Mr. Meany's 
letter, calls for a panel of six persons to 
be set up within the AFL-CIO, three of 
whom are to be nominated by the Build- 
ing Trades Department and three by the 
Industrial Union Department. These six 
persons are to be divided into three teams 
of two men each, one from the Building 
Trades Department and one from the 
Industrial Union Department on each 
team. 

Under Direction of President 

These teams are to work under the 
direction of the President of the AFL-CIO, 
and devote their whole time to mediating 
disputes regarding jurisdiction. The com- 
mittee which reached agreement on the 
setting up of the plan hopes that these 
teams will succeed in settling a great many 
disputes. 

"It was further agreed," said Mr. Meany 
in his letter, "that disputes that are not 
settled by the two-man teams will then 
be referred to a committee to consist of 
the President of the Building Trades 
Department, the Director of the Industrial 
Union Department, and one person repre- 
senting the President of the AFL-CIO. In 
the event this three-man committee cannot 
settle the dispute it will then be referred 
to the Special Committee established by 
the AFL-CIO Executive Council." 

Although the procedure which is being 
set up does not as yet provide any final 
method of settling disputes, Mr. Meany 
says: "The concensus is that it can be 
used to settle a great many of the disputes 
and bring about an atmosphere by which 
it may be possible, at some time in the 
future, if desired, to provide a definite 
terminal arbitration. For the time being, 
however, no final decision has been reached 
on this point." 

Seven More CLC Councils 
Have Received Charters 

In recent months, mergers of local labour 
councils have taken place in three cities 
while in four other centres, existing coun- 
cils were enlarged by the addition of locals 
with a formerly rival affiliation. 

During the same period, it was announced 
that the Brotherhood of Railroad Train- 
men had voted overwhelmingly to affiliate 
with the Canadian Labour Congress. 



938 



The new CLC local labour councils are: 

Regina Labour Council, result of a 
merger between the Regina Trades and 
Labour Council (TLC) and the Regina 
Labour Council (CCL). 

Quebec Labour Council, formed through 
merger of the Quebec and Levis Federated 
Trades and Labour Council (TLC) and 
the Quebec Labour Council (CCL). 

Lindsay and District Labour Council, a 
fusion of the Lindsay Trades and Labour 
Council (TLC) and the Lindsay and Dis- 
trict Labour Council (CCL). 

Fort Frances and District Labour Coun- 
cil, formed when the Fort Frances Trades 
and Labour Council amended its constitu- 
tion to admit former CCL affiliates. 

Hull-Gatineau and District Labour Coun- 
cil, the former Western Quebec Trades 
and Labour Council with the addition of 
former CCL affiliates. 

Prince Rupert Labour Council, formerly 
the Prince Rupert Trades and Labour 
Council (TLC), which now includes former 
CCL locals. 

Pine Falls Labour Council, formerly the 
Pine Falls Trades and Labour Council, 
now open to former CCL affiliates. 

The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
has a membership of approximately 22,000. 



UAW Appoints Canadian 
To Public Review Board 

A Windsor, Ont., magistrate has been 
named by the United Auto Workers as 
a member of the union's Public Review 
Board. He is J. Arthur Hanrahan, who in 
his 12 years as county court magistrate 
in Windsor has presided over 38 concilia- 
tion boards. 

The Public Review Board was estab- 
lished at the UAW's convention last April 
(L.G., May, p. 530) as a safeguard against 
racketeering and injustice in the union. 
Magistrate Hanrahan is the seventh mem- 
ber named to the Board. Other members 
are: Rabbi Morris Adler and Circuit Judge 
Wade H. McCree of Detroit, Bishop G. 
Bromley Oxnam and Mgr. George Higgins 
of Washington, Chancellor Clark Kerr of 
the University of California, and Prof. 
Witte of the University of Wisconsin. 

Of the 38 conciliation proceedings over 
which Magistrate Hanrahan has presided, 
31 resulted in agreements at the concilia- 
tion stage. 

Other recent appointments and a resig- 
nation that are of interest to Labour 
include : 

— The resignation of George Ferguson 
from the Ontario Labour Relations Board 
because of pressure of his law practice. 



— Appointment of J. R. Griffith, one- 
time official of the Brotherhood of Rail- 
way Carmen, to be a Director of the 
Canadian National Railways. Mr. Griffith 
has served as General Chairman and 
System General Chairman of the Brother- 
hood's Joint Protective Board and from 
1944 until 1951 was a labour member of the 
Saskatchewan Labour Relations Council. 

— Election of James Patterson of Toronto 
to be President of the National Association 
of Marine Engineers (CLC). 

—Election of Murray Smith, Works 
Manager of Canadian Industries Limited, 
as President of the Industrial Accident 
Prevention Associations of Ontario. 

—Election of John V. Cuff of the Cen- 
tral Ontario Industrial Relations Institute 
to be President of the Personnel Associa- 
tion of Toronto. 



Jobless Benefits Claimed 
By Vacationing Worhers 

Because of a ruling last January bj' the 
New York State Unemployment Insurance 
Appeals Board, many of the state's work- 
ers are filing claims for unemployment 
insurance benefits for the period they were 
on paid vacation. 

The Appeals Board ruled that vacation 
pay, under many types of collective agree- 
ments, was a "bonus for past services" 
rather than remuneration. Under this 
interpretation, workers in a plant that is 
closed down for vacation are considered 
unemployed, even though they receive 
vacation pay. The theory behind the rul- 
ing is that an employee is not assured of 
his job when the plant re-opens after the 
vacation and. technically, is therefore 
available for employment during the 
period. 

All Claims Scrutinized 

Dr. Isador Lubin, State Industrial Com- 
missioner, reported that only a small per- 
centage of vacationing workers who could 
have applied for benefits have done so, 
and declared that all claims would be 
scrutinized to see if the applicant was 
"truly available for work". 

Where the plant is closed for vacation 
with union consent or according to collec- 
tive agreement, claims are being rejected, 
Dr. Lubin said. 



92423— 31 



939 



Progress Report, Research Program 
on Training of Skilled Manpower 

That rapid technological changes of recent years have expanded demand 
for skilled and technical manpower and changed kinds of knowledge 
and skills required of such workers is one preliminary finding of program 



Rapid technological changes in recent 
years throughout the Canadian economy 
have resulted in a great increase in the 
demand for skilled and technical manpower, 
and have also led to changes in the kinds 
of skill and knowledge required of such 
employees. 

This is one of the conclusions reached at 
the end of the first year of the Depart- 
ment's research program on the Training 
of Skilled Manpower, according to a prog- 
ress report just completed. The program 
is being conducted in co-operation with 
federal and provincial agencies and other 
groups. 

Decision to initiate the research program 
was taken after a review of technical train- 
ing programs in 1955, when ten-year 
federal-provincial agreements were coming 
to an end, had underlined the need to 
analyze changing manpower requirements, 
and after the Vocational Training Advisory 
Council at its February 1956 meeting 
recommended that the Department under- 
take such research. This recommendation 
was subsequently endorsed by the Appren- 
ticeship Training Advisory Committee. 

An interdepartmental committee, com- 
prising representatives of the Department 
of Labour, the Unemployment Insurance 



Commission, the National Research Coun- 
cil, the Defence Research Board, and the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics, was formed 
to plan and direct the program. Chairman 
of the committee is Dr. George V. Hay- 
thorne, Assistant Deputy Minister of 
Labour. 

The committee decided to direct research 
into four main areas: (1) the changing 
requirements for skilled manpower in 
Canada; (2) manpower available for train- 
ing or re-training; (3) an appraisal of 
means and practices of acquiring skills; 
and (4) special factors affecting the train- 
ing of skilled manpower. 

During 1956, the researchers concentrated 
on some aspects of the last three. Field 
inquiries were conducted during the sum- 
mer of 1956 into technological and other 
changes occurring in five selected industries 
in the Montreal and Toronto areas; and 
into the way in which skilled workers in 
five selected occupations had acquired their 
skills. 

Preliminary findings of the research pro- 
gram during its first year are listed below. 
While basically exploratory in nature, the 
initial work provides a basis for further 
studies during the second year. 



Effects of Technological Change on Requirements and Training of Skilled Manpower 



The investigation into the effects of 
technological change on requirements and 
training of skilled manpower was con- 
ducted by means of interviews of manage- 
ment personnel at all levels down to the 
direct supervisors. Interviews were con- 
ducted in five industries: electrical and 
electronic products, heavy industrial ma- 
chinery, aircraft, chemical and automobile. 

There was clear evidence in these indus- 
tries of an increasing application of scien- 
tific methods to both the products manu- 
factured and production processes involved, 
the progress report states. The rapid 
growth of output and increasing wage costs 
have tended to speed up the rate of tech- 
nological change. As a result, requirements 
for skilled and technical manpower have 
increased greatly and the kinds of skill 



and knowledge required of workers have 
undergone modification. The proportion of 
indirect to direct labour employed in 
these industries has increased. 

Some new kinds of skilled and technical 
occupations are emerging, others are chang- 
ing or declining in importance, while many 
are remaining stable. Many of the new 
occupations come within the category of 
"technician" and rank between the skilled 
trades and the professional engineer or 
scientist. The increased requirements for 
skilled tradesmen and technicians have 
tended to reduce, at least relatively, the 
demand for semi-skilled assemblers and 
machine operators. 

Management showed much interest in 
recruiting and training of skilled and tech- 
nical manpower, were placing increased 



940 



emphasis on the importance of training in 
the plant, and had wider recognition of 
the need for increased technical and voca- 
tional training facilities. 

In the managers' view, young persons 
who want to enter skilled trades or ad- 
vanced technical occupations should be 
helped in their choice of subjects to study, 
and encouraged to finish high school. The 
importance of mathematics and science in 
these occupations makes such higher educa- 
tion desirable. 

Some of those interviewed were not 
aware of the training that is or might be 
given in technical and trade schools. 

Apprenticeship and trade school training 
were important in the heavy industrial 
machinery, aircraft and automobile parts 
industries. Owing to the present rapid 
changes in the kinds of skill required in 
various occupations, the effectiveness of 
traditional apprenticeship training was 
regarded as doubtful. 



More consideration should be given to 
the role of public training institutions in 
connection with apprenticeship. 

Employers were almost unanimous in 
believing that more technical .institutions 
were needed beyond the secondary school 
level to provide training for technicians 
and other highly trained specialists. 
Development of such institutions can help 
relieve pressure on the universities' facili- 
ties for training engineers. 

Many employers thought well of the 
national certificates for technicians and 
other types of skilled manpower which had 
been obtained by many workers from the 
United Kingdom. Such certificates were 
held to be a help to an employer in judg- 
ing the qualifications of prospective em- 
ployees. 

It was generally agreed that more mathe- 
matics and science teachers were needed in 
the secondary schools. 



Acquisition of Skills Survey 



During the summer of 1956 about 1,000 
interviews were undertaken of qualified 
workers in five occupations: tool and die 
maker, sheet metal worker, senior draughts- 
man, electronic technician, and floor 
moulder. From 100 to 200 fully qualified 
workers or foremen were interviewed in 
each occupation. 

The object of the interviews was to 
obtain information on the training and 
experience of each worker. "A detailed 
knowledge of how skilled workers have 
acquired their skills and what training they 
have undertaken will assist in providing 
new insights into future desirable changes 
in the nature of training, at least for these 
and similar occupations," the report says. 

Among the "preliminary impressions" 
derived from these interviews was that 
Canadian-born workmen in these occupa- 



tions have acquired their skill in a variety 
of ways, most commonly by informal 
training on the job, rather than through 
apprenticeship or other formal types of 
training. 

Immigrants have generally had more 
formal training than Canadians, through 
apprenticeship or in technical institutions 
of various kinds, 

Informal training methods seem to pro- 
duce results more slowly than organized 
methods such as apprenticeship. 

The newer and growing occupations, 
such as electronic technician and draughts- 
man, appear to require a higher degree of 
general education than the older occupa- 
tions, with special emphasis on mathema- 
tics and science, and often with training 
in technical institutes more advanced than 
high schools. 



Survey of Public Vocational and Technical Training Facilities 



Information on Canada's vocational and 
technical training facilities was obtained 
from provincial authorities. Despite their 
co-operation it has not yet been possible to 
obtain a complete report. Further inquir- 
ies are planned. 

"The returns submitted indicated that 
total annual expenditures on all branches 
of vocational and technical training have 
increased from approximately $29,500,000 



in 1951 to nearly $41,500,000 in 1956; and 
that there has been substantial growth in 
all provinces except Prince Edward Island, 
Manitoba and Saskatchewan," the report 
states. 

"Preliminary figures for enrolment for 
1956 in full-time courses of those public 
schools and institutes which provide some 
form of vocational training totalled 



941 



approximately 97,000, of whom about 
37,000, or 38 per cent, were enrolled in 
industrial and technical courses as distinct 
from commercial, agricultural and home- 
making courses. 



"In addition there were 5,500 persons 
enrolled in provincial vocational corres- 
pondence courses, about 10,000 in special 
classes for indentured apprentices, and 
more than 30,500 in private trade schools." 



Survey of Organized Trade Training Programs in Industry 



In 1956 the Economics and Research 
Branch included a question on organized 
training in selected industries in its annual 
survey of working conditions. Nearly 7,500 
establishments, usually employing more 
than 15 workers, were covered. 

This survey showed that the proportion 
of establishments with organized trade 
training programs was greatest in public 
utilities, in which industry it was 34 per 
cent, followed by manufacturing with 29 
per cent. Of all four industries covered — 
mining, manufacturing, transportation, pub- 



lic utilities — manufacturing accounted for 
89 per cent of all establishments reporting 
training programs. 

In manufacturing there has been a fairly 
substantial increase in the number of estab- 
lishments with organized trade training 
programs since 1951, the percentage in that 
year being 16 compared with 29 per cent 
in 1956. 

In 1956, about half the manufacturing 
establishments with training programs were 
training fewer than five persons; only 9 
per cent were training 25 or more. 



Trends in Requirements and Supplies of Skilled and Professional Manpower 



Requirements for skilled workers, it was 
found in a study conducted for the Gor- 
don Commission, have expanded markedly, 
especially in the postwar years. Skilled 
workers amounted to 11 per cent of the 
labour force in 1931, and were estimated 
to be 16.3 per cent of the labour force in 
1956. Shortages of skilled workers have 
characterized the postwar period in a num- 
ber of years, particularly in 1947, 1948, 
1951 and 1956. 

The rapidly expanding requirements for 
skilled workers have not been matched by 
a comparable increase in the numbers 
available for training. The population aged 
15 to 19 years — the time when most per- 
sons enter the labour force or begin 
specialized training — has remained prac- 
tically unchanged for the past 20 years. 
Between 1955 and 1960, however, it is 



estimated that there will be an increase 
of 340,000 in the number of young persons 
available for training. 

Immigration has filled the gap to a con- 
siderable extent. Immigration during the 
years 1946-55 inclusive added some 108,000 
skilled workers to Canada's labour force. 
This exceeds the number of persons 
graduating from all public training pro- 
grams during recent years. Rapid increases 
are beginning to take place in the number 
of Canadian-born youth of training age. 
In order to obtain a larger supply of 
skilled manpower from this source it will 
be necessary to expand training programs. 
Immigration will continue to furnish some 
skilled workers, but it cannot be relied 
upon too much when demand for skilled 
workers is expanding in other countries 
also. 



The Program for 1957 



Last year's studies show the need for 
more information on the changing demand 
for different kinds of skilled and profes- 
sional workers. Manpower changes which 
have already occurred, or which are ex- 
pected during the next five or ten years, 
will be studied this year. Studies will 
also be made of changing job content in 
representative occupations. 

Information will also be needed on 
changes in production methods and equip- 
ment, on the length of the training period 
required to qualify for different occupa- 
tions, on the reasons for changes in occu- 



pational requirements, and on new occupa- 
tions that may be developing. 

It is planned to conduct more interviews 
with competent workers on the same lines 
as last year in engineering, and possibly in 
a few other occupations. Information will 
be sought on the education and training 
of those engaged in engineering jobs in 
industry, and also on the kind of work 
they are doing. This will help to throw 
light on the sources from which industry 
obtains engineers, and the use it makes of 
them. It is hoped that such information 
will help in singling out from the work 



942 



usually done by professional engineers 
that which might be done by highly trained 
technical workers. 

The review of existing training facilities 
which began in 1956 in co-operation with 
provincial departments will be continued. 

Using statistical information available 
from the Census of Canada and the 
Department's survey of wage rates of 
selected occupations, an attempt will be 
made to obtain more comprehensive data 



on occupational trends during the last few 
decades. 

If resources permit it is planned to 
examine the training provisions contained 
in collective agreements, and to make some 
enquiries on what happens to students 
who drop out of various technical and 
vocational courses, and of the types of 
employment found by those who complete 
such training. 



21 st Annual Convention of the 
Newfoundland Federation of Labour 

Almost entirely new executive elected, with only two vice-presidents 
from former board named to serve again. Ronald Smith is President 



Four new officials and two incumbents 
were elected to guide the destinies for 
the next year of the Newfoundland Federa- 
tion of Labour (CLC) at the 21st annual 
convention of the organization, held in 
St. John's in July. Thirty-six unions with 
a membership of some 20,000 were repre- 
sented at the convention by 70 delegates. 

Ronald Smith of Grand Falls became 
President. Serving with him will be: Alex 
Bannister, of St. John's, as Secretary- 
Treasurer; Philip Oliver, St. John's, Nor- 
man Reynolds, Bell Island, Doyle Sharpe, 
Buchans, and Peter Dicks, Corner Brook, 
Vice-presidents. The two officials re-elected 
were Messrs. Oliver and Sharpe. 

More than 20 resolutions were considered 
by the convention, with particular empha- 
sis being placed on those dealing with 
affiliation of independent unions, prices of 
fish and wages. In keeping with a request 
of the Canadian Labour Congress that the 
Federation change the time of year for 
its convention, it was resolved to hold the 
next convention at Corner Brook in Sep- 
tember 1958. It will be known as the 
Third Convention of the Newfoundland 
Federation of Labour (CLC). 

Mayor H. G. Mews of St. John's wel- 
comed the delegates to the convention, while 
the provincial labour minister, C. H. Ballam 
— one of several guest speakers — praised 
the efforts made on behalf of labour by 
the retiring President and Vice-president, 
Frank Chafe and Cyril Strong, and urged 
them to continue advising the executive 
body of the Federation on matters of 
policy. 



Responding to a committee suggestion 
that independent unions in Newfoundland 
be admitted to membership in the Federa- 
tion, retiring President Chafe pointed out 
that there is no possibility of this occurring 
as unions wishing to affiliate with the Cana- 
dian Labour Congress must first affiliate 
with a national or international body, and 
the outside unions of the province do not 
meet with this provision of the CLC 
Constitution. 

In the resolution on fish prices, the 
fishermen's federal labour union of Burin 
asked the Federation to find out why fish 
plants in Newfoundland pay less for fish 
and less for labour than plants on the 
Atlantic mainland, and urged that the 
Government be requested to launch an 
investigation into the matter. 

Among other resolutions advanced by 
the delegates were those urging: 

— The election of a political education 
committee to note the voting record of 
members of the Newfoundland House of 
Assembly and of the federal House of 
Commons ; 

— The limiting of time that one person 
can serve on boards set up by the govern- 
ment to deal with matters affecting labour 
(it was suggested that appointments in 
the future be limited to a period of not 
more than two years) ; 

— That cooking be designated as a' trade ; 

— That an investigation be made into 
medical fees charged in Corner Brook, 
which "have doubled in the past six years". 
(The Federation was asked to urge pro- 
vincial authorities to investigate the 



943 



matter, and that copies of the resolution 
be sent to the Minister of Labour and 
the Leader of the Opposition) ; 

— Establishment of a vocational school 
to train young men for other trades 
besides those of the paper making industry 
in Corner Brook; 

— That the practice of vacations with 
pay enjoj-ed in other provinces be legislated 
to apply in Newfoundland, and that firms 
employing more than 200 persons be re- 
quired to provide a proper pension plan. 

The Federation heard L. K. Abbott, 
delegate from the Brotherhood of Railway- 
men, complain that seamen in Newfound- 
land serving with Canadian National 
Steamships are still getting lower wages 
than those paid others serving with the 
railway, and asked the NFL to support 
these men in their claims if negotiations 
now under consideration with the railway 
fail to produce desired results. 

A committee will be set up to approach 
the Newfoundland Teachers Association 
and the fishermen's federation in an 
attempt to persuade them to affiliate with 
the NFL. 



Andrew Cooper, international represen- 
tative of the Carpenters, addressing the 
convention "deplored" the oversight of the 
Federation in failing to send invitations 
to international representatives to attend 
their sessions. He hoped the animosity of 
the Federation towards international 
organizations would disappear with the 
old executive. 

G. M. Winter, President of the New- 
foundland Board of Trade, told the 
convention : 

"I am very happy to be present at this 
function. In my official capacity as presi- 
dent of the Board of Trade and in my 
individual role as a businessman, I con- 
sider it quite a distinction to be associated 
with this event. To my mind it is symboli- 
cal of the target that we are always aiming 
for, a mutual understanding of the problems 
that arise from time to time amongst us, 
and a sincere and earnest desire to solve 
them to our mutual satisfaction. Indeed, it 
is our earnest hope that the relationships 
so painstakingly built up in the past shall 
continue to grow stronger in the future." 



First Ontario Conference on Aging 

Conference objectives were to find out what problems of aging existed 
in the province and how to find solutions for them, and to provide 
an opportunity for those working in the field to discuss co-operation 



Some 500 delegates assembled at the 
University of Toronto from May 31 to 
June 3 at the first Ontario Conference 
on Aging. Representatives from nearly all 
sections of society were present, including 
organized labour, various industrial con- 
cerns, religious organizations, educational 
authorities, voluntary and welfare organi- 
zations, the medical and nursing professions, 
community groups, and provincial and 
federal governments. 

The objectives of the Conference were 
to find out what were the problems of 
aging in Ontario and how to find solutions 
for them; and to provide the opportunity 
for those working in the field to learn of 
each other's activities and to discuss future 
co-operation. 

The Conference was sponsored by many 
voluntary organizations, religious bodies, 
professional associations and labour, busi- 
ness and industry, and was organized by a 
special conference committee from the 
many interested organizations with the 



co-operation of the Department of Uni- 
versity Extension of the University of 
Toronto. 

All the many problems arising from the 
aging of our population were taken into 
consideration and discussed in considerable 
detail. Among the aspects discussed were 
aging and employment, counselling older 
people, pension plans, compulsory retire- 
ment plans and problems of the cost of 
living, nutrition and health, housing and 
living arrangements, community services, 
and care, treatment and rehabilitation in 
hospitals and homes. 

The Conference was under the general 
chairmanship of Dr. J. D. Griffin, General 
Director of the Canadian Mental Health 
Association. 

At the opening session, Dr. Malcolm 
Taylor of the Department of Political 
Economy, University of Toronto, discussed 
the effects of proposed health insurance 
plans on older people. He was followed 
by Dr. E. L. Bortz, Chief of Medical 



944 



Services, Lankenau Hospital, Philadelphia, 
who spoke on the challenge of an aging 
population. Dr. Bortz heads a scientific 
research team studying the biological 
aspects of aging. 

Many suggestions were made to meet the 
various needs of our steadily aging popu- 
lation. Among these emphasis was given 
to the need for greater use of existing 
facilities for the training and re-training 
of older persons. It was explained that 
the difficulty of persons in the late 30's, 
40's or 50's in obtaining employment might 
very well be alleviated with re-training for 
suitable employment. 

Considerable attention was given to the 
problem of pensions and the obstacle they 
provided to the emplo3^ment of middle- 
aged and older persons. In these discus- 
sions, Mrs. Barbara Shenfield of the Uni- 
versity of Birmingham, England, explained 
that a joint statement had been issued by 
the insurance companies of Great Britain 
which showed that pension schemes need 
not be as prejudicial to the employment 
of older workers as was generally believed 
to be the case. 

Ian Campbell, National Co-ordinator of 
Civilian Rehabilitation and newly-appointed 
Chairman of the federal Government's 
Interdepartmental Committee on Older 
Workers, told the delegation that a study 
had been made of this specific problem 
under the aegis of this committee, and that 
a report would be forthcoming in the near 
future. The report, he hoped, would show 
ways and means of surmounting the ob- 
stacles to employment of older people 
presented by pension plans. 

A great deal of discussion took place 
concerning compulsory and flexible retire- 
ment. It was stated that compulsory re- 
tirement plans were considered desirable 
by many employers for several reasons. 
Among the reasons given were that em- 
ployee morale would suffer if promotions 
were delayed by postponed retirement, and 
technological improvements often reduced 
the need for manpower. Therefore, it was 



considered more desirable to retire people 
than to lay off younger workers, and that 
compulsory retirement provided an objec- 
tive without reflecting on the individual. 
This last reason was discussed at some 
length and it was felt by some of the 
delegates that compulsory retirement pro- 
vided a "face-saving" device in that if all 
employees automatically went out at the 
same age there would be no reflection on 
their abilities. It was pointed out that 
in the case of flexible retirement, where 
some employees were retained and others 
were retired, it was a reflection on the 
ability of those who were retired at the 
normal age. 

Some of the delegates felt that the time 
had arrived when the generally accepted 
normal age for retirement should now be 
advanced from 65 to 68, 69, or 70, rather 
than placing too much emphasis on flexible 
retirement. 

The concensus of the delegates was that 
the conference had been a worthwhile 
endeavour in that it had stimulated wide- 
spread thinking on the many problems 
involved. A motion was passed urging 
that the organizing committee continue to 
operate as a body to implement the many 
resolutions put forward. 

Planning of the conference was carried 
out under the direction of Mrs. Jean Good, 
Extension Department of the University 
of Toronto. The convenors of the various 
sessions were : Rev. Dr. L. F. Hatfield, 
General Secretary, Department of Christian 
Social Service, Anglican Church of Canada, 
cost of living and retirement income; W. S. 
Goulding, School of Architecture, Uni- 
versity of Toronto, housing and living 
arrangements; Miss Hope Holmstead, 
Chairman, Senior Citizens' Committee, 
Ontario Division, Canadian Red Cross 
Society, community services; Gower 
Markle, Director of Education and Welfare, 
United Steelworkers of America, employ- 
ment, unemployment and retirement; Miss 
Mary B. Millman, School of Nursing, Uni- 
versity of Toronto, care, treatment and 
rehabilitation in hospitals and homes. 



Income received by paid workers in the form of wages, salaries and supplementary 
labour income is estimated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics at $1,263,000,000 in May. 
This was an increase of 3.8 per cent over the April figure of $1,217,000,000 and a rise of 
8 per cent over last year's May total of $1,169,000,000. 

In the January-May period, labour income increased 9.6 per cent to $6,087,000,000 
from $5,556,000,000 a year earlier. 

Increases were posted both in May and the January-May period for all main industry 
groups. 



945 



Industrial Fatalities in Canada 

during First Quarter of 1957 

Deaths from industrial accidents* decreased by 142 from the previous 
three-month period. Of the 292 fatalities in the quarter, largest 
number, 57, occurred in construction; 54 recorded in transportation 



There were 292f industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the first quarter of 1957, accord- 
ing to the latest reports received by the 
Department of Labour. This is a decrease 
of 142 fatalities from the previous quarter, 
in which 434 were recorded, including 60 
in a supplementary list. 

During the first quarter of 1957 there 
were six accidents which resulted in the 
deaths of three or more persons in each 
case. On January 14, a collision between 
a harbour pilot boat and a freighter in the 
Bay of Fundy cost the lives of three pilots 
and the four-man crew of the pilot boat. 
Five men employed on a construction job 
for the Ontario Hydro were drowned on 
January 12 at Gunn Lake, Ont., when the 



*See Tables H-l and H-2 at back of book. 

+The number of industrial fatalities that 
occurred during the first quarter of 1957 is probably 
greater than the figure now quoted. Information 
on accidents which occur but are not reported 
in time for inclusion in the quarterly articles is 
recorded in supplementary lists and statistics are 
amended accordingly. The figures shown include 
77 fatalities for which no official reports have 
been received. 



The industrial fatalities recorded in 
these quarterly articles, prepared by the 
Economics and Research Branch, are 
those fatal accidents that involved per- 
sons gainfully employed and that occurred 
during the course of, or which arose out 
of, their employment. These include 
deaths that resulted from industrial 
diseases as reported by the Workmen's 
Compensation Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are 
compiled from reports received from the 
various Workmen's Compensation Boards, 
the Board of Transport Commissioners 
and certain other official sources. News- 
paper reports are used to supplement 
these data. For those industries not 
covered by workmen's compensation legis- 
lation, newspaper reports are the Depart- 
ment's only source of information. It 
is possible, therefore, that coverage in 
such industries as agriculture, fishing and 
trapping and certain of the service groups 
is not as complete as in those industries 
which are covered by compensation legis- 
lation. Similarly, a small number of 
traffic accidents which are in fact in- 
dustrial may be ommitted from the 
Department's records because of lack of 
information in press reports. 



truck in which they were crossing the lake 
broke through the ice and trapped them 
in the tarpaulin-covered back of the truck. 
At Welland, Ont., on January 30, five men 
died as the result of burns received when 
an electric furnace exploded at a steel 
foundry. On February 24 four fishermen 
were lost when the fishing vessel Bonnie 
Gale was wrecked during a heavy storm 
off the south coast of Nova Scotia. 

There were two aircraft accidents which 
resulted in the deaths of three persons 
in each case. On January 22 a plane 
carrying the New Brunswick Minister for 
Municipal Affairs, the chief training officer 
for civil defence in the Maritimes and the 
president of a construction company were 
killed when the plane in which they were 
travelling crashed while on a flight between 
Fredericton and Moncton, N.B. The other 
accident occurred on February 15, near 
Ringwood, Ont., and resulted in the deaths 
of three construction contractors. 

Grouped by industries (see chart p. 947), 
the largest number of fatalities, 57, was in 
construction. This includes 23 in buildings 
and structures, 19 in miscellaneous con- 
struction and 15 in highway and bridge 
construction. In the same period last year, 
40 fatalities were recorded in this industry: 
24 in buildings and structures, nine in 
miscellaneous construction and seven in 
highway and bridge construction. During 
the fourth quarter of 1956, 103 construc- 
tion fatalities were listed: 47 in buildings 
and structures, 35 in highway and bridge 
construction and 21 in miscellaneous 
construction. 

During the quarter, accidents in the 
transportation industry were responsible 
for the deaths of 54 persons : 21 in local and 
highway transportation and 15 in each of 
the steam railway and water transportation 
groups. For the same period of 1956, 46 
deaths were reported : 24 in steam railways, 
11 in local and highway transportation and 
eight in air transportation. Work injuries 
in this industry during the fourth quarter 
of 1956 were responsible for 59 deaths: 21 
in steam railways, 19 in local and 
highway transportation and 13 in water 
transportation. 



946 



INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA 
First Quarter of 1957 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 



90 100 



Construction 

Transportation, Storage 
and Communications 



Manufacturing 

Mining and Quarrying 

Logging 

Trade 

Service 

Agriculture 

Fishing and Trapping 

Electricity, Gas, Water 
Production and Supply 

Finance 



BY INDUSTRY 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 



90 100 



Struck by Machinery, 
Moving Vehicles, etc. 

Collisions, Derailments, 
Wrecks, etc. 

Falls and Slips 

Conflagrations, Temperature 
Extremes and Explosions 

Caught In, On or Between 
Machinery, Vehicles, etc. 

Inhalations, Absorptions, 
Asphyziatlon, etc. 

Over-exertion and 
Industrial Diseases 

Electric Current 
Miscellaneous Accidents 



Striking Against or 
Stepping on Objects 



1 1 1 1 ! ' 1 I 1 1 1 




1 1 ! ! ! 1 1 1 1 












I 






1 i 










. 










! 








i 


BY CAUSE 






1 

3 







Source: Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 



947 



In manufacturing, industrial injuries 
accounted for 47 fatalities. Of these, 13 
were in iron and steel, 10 in wood products 
and nine in transportation equipment. Dur- 
ing the same period of 1956, 57 were 
recorded, of which 20 were in wood prod- 
ucts, eight in iron and steel and six in 
each of the food and beverages and trans- 
portation equipment groups. Deaths as 
the result of work injuries during October, 
November and December 1956 cost the 
lives of 51 persons, including 12 in wood 
products and seven in each of the following 
groups: food and beverages, paper products, 
iron and steel and non-metallic mineral 
products. 

Mining accidents caused the deaths of 
39 persons during the quarter, 20 occurring 
in metalliferous mining, 13 in non-metallic 
mining and six in coal mining. In the 
same period last year, 50 fatalities were 
recorded in this industry. These included 
33 in metalliferous mining, nine in non- 
metallic mining and eight in coal mining. 
During the fourth quarter of 1956, 92 deaths 
were reported: 46 in coal mining, 36 in 
metalliferous mining and 10 in non-metallic 
mining. 



Accidents in the logging industry resulted 
in the deaths of 31 persons during the first 
quarter of 1957, a decrease of 22 from the 
53 that occurred during the previous three 
months. In the first quarter of last year, 
40 lives were lost in this industry. 

An analysis of the causes of these 292 
fatalities (see chart p. 947) shows that 
98 (34 per cent) of the victims had been 
"struck by tools, machinery, moving 
vehicles or other objects". Within this 
group the largest number of deaths, 14, 
was caused by "automobiles or trucks", 
12 by "falling trees or limbs", and 11 by 
"landslides or cave-ins". In the classifica- 
tion "collisions, derailments, wrecks, etc.", 
81 fatalities were recorded. These include 
42 as a result of automobile or truck 
accidents, 19 involving watercraft and 10 
tractor or loadmobile accidents. "Falls and 
slips" were responsible for 34 fatalities dur- 
ing the period, all of which were the result 
of falls to different levels. 

By province of occurrence, the largest 
number of fatalities was in Ontario, where 
there were 102. In British Columbia there 
were 50, in Quebec 45 and in Alberta 33. 

During the quarter there were 137 
fatalities in January, 92 in February and 
63 in March. 



2nd Fair Practices and Human Rights 

Conference Held by Winnipeg Unions 



Delegates call for strengthening of Manitoba's fair practices laws 
and for action by federal Government against racial discrimination 
in housing and immigration. More than 100 delegates in attendance 



More than 100 persons attending the 
Second Fair Practices and Human Rights 
Conference in Winnipeg heard labour 
speakers call for the strengthening of fair 
practices laws in Manitoba and action by 
the federal Government to deal with racial 
discrimination in housing and immigration. 
The Conference was arranged by the Mani- 
toba Labour Committee for Human Rights 
and the Canadian Labour Congress Educa- 
tion Department. Delegates represented 
affiliated locals of 16 unions in Winnipeg 
and surrounding areas. 

Opening speaker at the Conference, Sid 
Blum, Director of the Jewish Labour Com- 
mittee of Canada, and a member of the 
CLC Standing Committee on Human 
Rights, charged that racial and religious 
discrimination are still prevalent in Canada, 



and that people in many areas are denied 
equality of treatment and opportunity in 
employment, housing and public accom- 
modation. 

Within only the past few months, 
Mr. Blum stated, local Human Rights 
Committees in Toronto, Vancouver and 
Winnipeg had filed complaints against some 
30 firms or employment agencies for viola- 
tion of provincial or federal fair employ- 
ment practices acts. 

"Even an instrument of the federal 
Government such as the Immigration Act 
contains discriminatory provisions which 
bar prospective newcomers to Canada solely 
on grounds of race, creed, or colour," 
Mr. Blum said. "Canadian citizens of 
Japanese or Chinese ancestry who wish 
to bring over close relatives from Asia 



948 



have to undergo restrictions and prohibi- 
tions imposed by our Government which 
affects no other Canadian citizen," Mr. 
Blum said. 

"The first prerequisite to the effective- 
ness of anti-discrimination laws in Canada 
is proper administration," he declared. "A 
good law badly administered is worse than 
no law or a weak law well administered. 
The labour movement has continually 
urged that Citizens Advisory Committees 
be set up in connection with fair prac- 
tices legislation, and that the government 
department administering the Fair Prac- 
tices Acts initiate a positive program of 
education to inform the public of the 
principles and provisions of its anti- 
discrimination laws. So far, only the 
federal Department of Labour has instituted 
such a program, if only on a small scale." 

Delivering the address at the banquet, 
Russell Lasley, Chicago, Vice-president of 
the United Packinghouse Workers of 
America, urged labour organizations to 
work in the community to let the rest of 
the world know what they were doing to 
break down discrimination. 

Course leaders and resource persons at 
the Conference who helped to conduct the 
three workshop groups were Harry Wais- 
glass of the United Steelworkers, M. Rygus, 
of the Machinists; W. Ladyman, I.B.E.W.; 
Gordon Wilkinson, Prairie Region Educa- 
tion Director of the CLC; B. H. Hardie 
of Ottawa and J. S. Gunn of Winnipeg, 
federal Department of Labour; Prof. 
Clarence Barber, University of Manitoba; 
C. A. Patrict, Director of Public Welfare, 
City of Winnipeg; and Lloyd Lenton, 
Welfare Council of Greater Winnipeg. 

At the closing general session of the 
Conference on Sunday, reporters from the 
•three workshops presented reports of the 
discussions in their respective groups. Reg 
Slocombe, Business Agent, Transit Train- 



men, reporting for the "Union and Human 
Relations" workshop, said his group recog- 
nized that democracy in Canada fails in 
many respects to ensure to the individual 
the rights which democracy theoretically 
confers upon him. The group reached the 
conclusion, reported Mr. Slocombe, that 
it was not sufficient for the union to con- 
cern itself with the fight for equal rights 
within the plant. Matters that affect the 
person in the community outside of the 
plant should also be the concern of the 
union. 

Reporting for the workshop on Immi- 
gration, Les Butterworth, Business Agent, 
Federation of Civil Employees, said that 
the group thought that some essentials 
in an immigrant's becoming a good citizen 
were: a feeling of loyalty to Canada; 
adjusting to the language and social system 
of Canada; and participating in community 
activities and accepting responsibilities as 
a citizen of the community. 

William Brown, of the Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway Employees, reported for 
the third workshop on Fair Employment 
Practices Legislation. He praised the 
Department's representatives, Messrs. Har- 
die and Gunn, for giving the group 
"excellent" examples of actual cases pro- 
cessed by the Government under its anti- 
discrimination laws, and a "good idea" 
of the procedure to be followed in trying 
to remedy unfair and discriminatory em- 
ployment practices. Mr. Brown reported 
that the federal Government had received 
some 25 complaints under the fair prac- 
tices legislation and most of the complaints 
had been satisfactorily settled. The group 
felt that any infractions in fair employment 
practices should be brought to the atten- 
tion of the local union and labour council 
officers and they should take the proper 
steps to correct these infractions. 



Productivity, Earnings, Costs and Prices 



No definite conclusion as to whether wage increases cause price rises 
reached in report by U.S. Department of Labor covering period 1947-56 



No definite conclusion as to whether the 
rise in prices during ten post-war years 
has been, induced by wage increases, or 
vice versa, can be drawn from data con- 
tained in a report, Productivity, Earnings, 
Costs and Prices in the Private Non-Agri- 
cultural Sector of the Economy, 1947-56, 
issued by the Bureau of Labour Statistics, 



U.S. Department of Labor. This was made 
clear by the Bureau in a statement issued 
a few days after release of the report. 

The report, which was first issued on 
May 13, was the subject of an article in the 
New York Times which led to strong con- 
troversy. The writer of the article, Edwin 
L. Dale, Jr., asserted that, although "the 



949 



report refuses to say directly that excessive 
wage increases have 'caused' the price 
increases" during the last decade, it 
"strongly implies" that this has been the 
case. He added that "the Government had 
never put its weight on either side of the 
argument before now". 

A few days later Mr. Dale's interpreta- 
tion was challenged by Ewan Clague, Com- 
missioner of Labor Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Labor, in a letter to the 
Times. Mr. Clague said that "we do not 
believe our report implies" what Mr. Dale 
had said it did. He went on to say: "Mr. 
Dale's conclusion in effect overlooks the 
strong factors of demand which were 
dominant for most of the post-war period, 
which he himself refers to later on in the 
article. This conclusion also fails to give 
proper weight to the importance of the 
increase in non-labour costs during the 
period." 

Just after Mr. Clague's letter was pub- 
lished, the AFL-CIO's Executive Council 
issued a strong protest against Mr. Dale's 
article, and accused him of "manipulating" 
the Labor Department's report. The Coun- 
cil said: "We call upon the Secretary of 
Labor to speak out publicly on this issue. 
We urge him to explain his Department's 
report and to sweep away the distortion 
of that report, which have received wide- 
spread attention within the past several 
days." It added that "the letter sent to the 
New York Times by the Commissioner of 
Labor Statistics is not a sufficient or ade- 
quate explanation." The Secretary of Labor 
did not respond to this request. 

However, a revised issue of the report 
was published on May 29. This issue 
contained a statement to the effect that 
"the revisions are incorporated to avoid 
misinterpretation of the trends discussed 
in the statement. The trends shown in the 
original have not been revised." 

Some extracts from the revised report 
follow : 

— The answer to the question of whether 
the wage increases cause the price increase 
or vice versa cannot be determined from 
the figures alone. There are many factors, 
including specific market conditions, which 
affect the wage and price structure. The 
figures are useful in comparing prices with 
unit labour and non-labour costs. By 



inference this relationship in turn helps 
explain changes in the proportion of labour 
versus non-labour payments. 

— Between 1947 and 1956 average hourly 
earnings of all employees (wages and 
salaries) increased by 59 per cent. If 
one adds to earnings the contributions of 
employers for social security, private health 
and insurance funds and similar supple- 
mental payments, then total compensation 
per hour increased by slightly more than 61 
per cent. 

— During the post-war period the con- 
sumer price index — reflecting the prices of 
goods and services purchased with the 
income received by labour — increased by 
about 22 per cent. If an adjustment is 
made to earnings for the increase in the 
consumer price index, in order to convert 
money earnings to real earnings with con- 
stant purchasing power, then the increase 
in real earnings per hour was about 30 per 
cent, and including employer contributions, 
close to 33 per cent. 

— The table indicates that the increase 
in output per employee man-hour between 
1947 and 1956 was about 26 per cent, less 
than the increase in real earnings during 
the same period, regardless of the inclusion 
or exclusion of the supplements to wages 
and salaries. It is important to note, how- 
ever, that between 1947 and 1952 real 
product per man-hour increased more than 
real hourly earnings (excluding supple- 
ments). By 1953 real earnings had nearly 
caught up with the increase in produc- 
tivity, they remained in line through 1955, 
and it was not until 1956 that real earn- 
ings appeared to have definitely exceeded 
productivity. Real earnings, including 
supplements, overtook productivity some- 
what earlier and have remained ahead since 
1954. 

A table included in the report gives the 
"Indexes of Labor and Non-Labor Pay- 
ments Per Dollar of Real Product, Prices 
Real Product Per Man-Hour, Employees 
Compensation per Hour in Current and 
Constant Dollars, Private Non-Agricul- 
tural Sector of the Economy, 1947-56". 

There are also charts on "Trends in 
Productivity and Hourly Compensation" 
and "Trends in Prices and Costs per 
Unit". 



The Government Employees Compensation Branch received 1,372 accident claims 
in June, 46 fewer than in June 1956. 

In the January-June period of 1957, the Industrial Accident Prevention Associations 
of Ontario recorded 13,424 compensation cases, compared with 13,042 for the same period 
in 1956. 



950 



Civilian Rehabilitation 



State's Pilot Rehabilitation Program 

New York explores possibilities of rehabilitating state's "permanently 
and totally" disabled with encouraging results that justify further 
investigations. Building of new Ontario compensation centre begins 



The possibilities of rehabilitating New 
York State's "permanently and totally" 
disabled have during the past two years 
been explored jointly by the State Depart- 
ments of Health, Social Welfare and 
Education. 

In 1955 about 40,000 persons between 
18 and 65 years of age in New York State 
were receiving public assistance under the 
heading of "Aid to the Disabled" and 
nearly 20,000 new cases were being added 
each year. This increasing burden of 
support provided the stimulus for a pilot 
project to test the value of intensive 
rehabilitation for dependent disabled adults. 

It was estimated in 1955 that about 4 
per cent, or 800 of the newly admitted 
cases had disabilities which were amenable 
in some degree to rehabilitation; and it 
was towards the restoration, as far as 
possible, of this 4 per cent to physical and 
financial independence that attention was 
directed. 

The project was designed to allow an 
estimate to be made of the extent to 
which disabled welfare recipients could 
benefit from rehabilitation, and to provide 
a means of estimating the cost of a con- 
tinuous program of this kind, the staff and 
hospital facilities needed, the social and 
economic benefits to the recipient and 
his family, and the ultimate financial 
saving to the taxpayer from such a 
program. 

The State Department of Health pro- 
vided comprehensive facilities at a state 
rehabilitation hospital at greatly reduced 
charges. The Vocational Rehabilitation 
Division of the Department of Education 
contributed the services of a vocational 
counsellor and a social worker to help in 
the examination and after-care of patients, 
and local welfare departments were en- 
couraged to help in screening and recom- 
mending patients for treatment. 

Patients recommended were re-examined 
by the medical staff of the Rehabilitation 
Hospital to determine their capacity for 
rehabilitation. If accepted they were given 
a thorough examination by another staff 
of specialists to estimate the degree to 
which they could be restored, and to plan 
treatment to suit the individual case. 



The treatment given centred round re- 
training in the activities of daily life, 
and special training for the kind of work 
to which the patient was best suited. 

The project formally began in April 
1955. By the end of 1956, a period of 21 
months, 200 patients had been admitted to 
the Rehabilitation Hospital and 130 of 
these had been discharged. An analysis 
of the first 100 patients discharged from 
the program gives an idea of the results 
that may be expected. 

It was found by the staff of the Rehabili- 
tation Hospital that at the time of their 
discharge 73 per cent of the patients had 
improved during their stay. Of the 100 
patients, 23 had improved markedly; that 
is, they had in a large measure become 
able to take care of themselves, and many 
were accepted by the Bureau of Vocational 
Rehabilitation for occupational training. 

Moderate improvement was found in 36 
of the patients; 14 had improved slightly, 
25 patients showed no improvement as a 
result of treatment; and two had died 
while in the hospital. At the time of 
admission 43 patients had been bedridden 
and 32 had been able to walk with or 
without help. On discharge nine were 
bedridden and 67 were able to walk. 

On admission 60 of the patients were 
considered to be unemployable, and seven 
were considered capable of taking full-time 
independent employment. On discharge the 
number considered unemployable had been 
reduced to 36, and 18 were deemed capable 
of independent, full-time employment. 

Considering that these patients had been 
described as "permanently and completely 
disabled" before admission, the sponsors 
feel that the results obtained with this 
group are encouraging, and that they jus- 
tify further investigations. 
* * * 

Construction has begun on a $5,500,000 
Ontario Workmen's Compensation Board 
hospital and rehabilitation centre in North 
York, which Hon. Charles Daley, Ontario 
Minister of Labour, says will be the most 
modern physical medicine plant on the 
continent. 



951 



With the Women's Bureau 



Women Increase Role in Labour Force 



Women's Bureau publication describes increasingly important role in 
Canada's labour force played by women but, newspaper correspond- 
ent points out, they still lag behind sisters in United Kingdom and U.S. 



"Women in Canada are playing an in- 
creasingly important role in the labour 
force of the country, but they still lag 
behind their sisters in the United Kingdom 
and the United States." 

This statement was made by Tania Long, 
New York Times correspondent, in an 
article based on Women at Work in 
Canada, a fact book prepared by the 
Women's Bureau, whose publication was 
announced this summer (L.G., June, p. 
686). 

One-fourth of Canada's labour force is 
composed of women. At the turn of the 
century the figure was one-tenth, while 
in 1956 the total was 23.3 per cent. This 
compared with 32.7 in Britain and 32.1 per 
cent in the United States. 

Since 1956 there has been another rise 
in the number of Canadian women at work. 
At the end of the year, 24 per cent of 
the labour force of some 5,741,000, or 
1,390,000, were women. 

In 1941, one married woman in 20 was 
working. By 1951, more than one in 10 
had jobs. That trend began in World War 
II and is still continuing. 

Figures for 1956 show that 51 per cent 
of the female labour force was single, 
against a percentage of 80.7 per cent in 
1931, while 38.7 were married, against 10.1 
per cent in 1931, and 10.3 per cent were 
divorced or separated, compared with 9.2 
per cent in 1931. 

In Britain and the United States the 
figures were higher. Where in 1951 Canada 
had 11.2 per cent of the married female 
population at work, Britain had 21.5 per 
cent and the United States 26.7 per cent. 

Drawing its own conclusions from the 
report, the Canadian Bank of Commerce 
comments that the outlook in Canada is 
not hopeful as regards equal pay for 
women, the Times article states. 

(The Bank's Commercial Letter does 
add, however, that the spread of the equal 
pay principle and increased promotion and 
professional opportunities will have their 
influence on the average level of women's 
remuneration.) 



The Women's Bureau's handbook itself 
states that an important factor in the 
existing differential between men's and 
women's wages is that the number of 
available women workers in relation to job 
openings is usually higher than in the case 
of men. 



Social security benefits that can now 
be obtained by employees in private house- 
holds in the United States are described in 
a pamphlet, "Good News For Household 
Workers", recently published by the U.S. 
Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare. 

The 16-page pamphlet, in colour, with 
easy-to-read text and cartoon-type illus- 
trations, was designed to inform cooks, 
maids, laundresses and other domestic 
workers about old-age, survivors, and dis- 
ability insurance benefits. 

Employees who work in or about private 
households are building social security 
insurance for themselves and their families 
if they are paid S50 or more cash wages in 
a calendar quarter of a year. The house- 
hold employer must report these wages and 
send the social security tax to the District 
Director of Internal Revenue at the end 
of each calendar quarter. 



Women lawyers should and can make 
important contributions towards maintain- 
ing the leadership position enjoyed by 
the United States, in the opinion of Mrs. 
Alice K. Leopold, assistant to the U.S. 
Secretary of Labour for Women's Affairs. 

"New and underdeveloped countries," 
says Mrs. Leopold, "have turned to the 
U.S. for leadership" and "...women 
lawyers in the United States by their own 
achievements can show to the world's new 
nations what women can do in a free 
society. . . Through training a lawyer is 
especially fitted for positions of leadership 
in the movements of human progress." 



952 



From the Labour Gazette, August 1907 

50 Years Ago This Month 

Marked increase in cost of living in decade between 1897 and 1907 is 
noted in survey undertaken by Civil Service Association. Cost of living 
of 5-member low-income family rose 34 per cent in the ten years 

An investigation into the cost of living, 
in which costs in 1907 were compared with 
those of 1897, was undertaken in June 1907 
by the Civil Service Association in order 
to obtain material for submission to a royal 
commission that was inquiring into the 
working of the Civil Service Act. The 
findings of this investigation were the 
subject of a special article in the August 
1907 issue of the Labour Gazette. 



"Though the inquiry was limited in the 
main to the City of Ottawa and surround- 
ing district," the article said, "the results, 
in view of the comprehensive nature of 
the methods adopted, are of more than 
local interest." Besides the cost of living 
the inquiry covered wages, hours of work, 
rents and interest rates; and the source 
of information consisted of "local store- 
keepers, real estate agents, large employers 
of labour, etc., every effort being made to 
secure absolute accuracy of quotation". A 
system of weighting, or "weighing" as the 
article called it, was used. 

"In connection with the investigation 
into retail prices a list was compiled of 
the commodities entering most prominently 
into cost of living," the article pointed out. 
"...The list, though not minute, was re- 
garded as thoroughly representative of 
average consumption . . . The table contains 
in all comparative quotations for 364 
commodities. 

"On the whole a marked increase is 
shown to have gone into effect, no less 
than 578 of the quotations showing an 
increase, while 75 denote that no change 
has taken place, and only 10 that a reduc- 
tion has been made," the summary states. 
The most important decline was in gas, 
which was 25 per cent lower, and in electric 
lighting, which was 52 per cent lower in 
1907 than in 1897. Coal oil was 25 per 
cent higher, coal 11 per cent and wood 
about 30 per cent higher at the end than at 
the beginning of the decade. 

The cost of living, based on what was 
considered a typical weekly budget for a 
family of five with an income of $750 a 
year, was reckoned to have risen 34 per 
cent between 1897 and 1907. In the case 
of a family whose living expenses were 
§2,000 or more a year, the advance was 
found to be 28 per cent; and in the case 



of families living on $1,200 a year, 30 per 
cent. 

Rents in Ottawa showed an increase 
ranging from 25 to 36 per cent* according 
to the study. It was also stated, however, 
that "in certain quarters of the city the 
advance has been as high as 50 per cent, 
though in the chief workingman's quarter 
the rate of advance was only 12 per cent." 

Real estate prices and building costs 
were said to have increased about 20 per 
cent and 45 per cent respectively during 
the period, while taxes, as a result of 
increased assessments, had risen 29 per cent. 
"The rate for board and lodging shows a 
corresponding advance," the article adds. 

The table showing comparative wage 
rates and hours of labour, which was pub- 
lished with the article, indicated that wages 
had risen during the decade by from 20 
to 100 per cent, "those in the most impor- 
tant classes ranging from 25 to 50 per 
cent. 

"Domestic servants were stated to receive 
50 per cent more in 1907 than in 1897, 
the rapidly increasing wage paid to female 
workers in mica picking, garment making, 
match and other factories having depleted 
the market of almost all available labour." 

Examples given in the table of wages 
paid at the beginning and at the end of 
the period included: farm hands, $180-190 
a year in 1897 to $240-$300 in 1907 ; in mica 
mining: foremen, $1.60 and $2.50 per day 
respectively; drillers, $1.35-$1.50 to $2.00 
a day; splitters in mica factories (girls), 
25-35 cents to 50 cents-$l a day respec- 
tively; in construction: stonecutters, 33^ 
cents an hour in 1897 and 44 cents in 1907; 
bricklayers, 25 cents and 47 cents an hour 
respectively, carpenters, $1.50-1.75 to $2.25 
a day, labourers, 12^ to 25 cent an hour 
respectively. 

Changes in hours worked had occurred 
chiefly in the construction industry, where 
hours had been 59 a week for nearly all 
trades in 1897, while in 1907 they had 
dropped to 50 a week; and in the printing 
industry, where in 1897 weekly hours had 
ranged from 48 to 60, and in 1907 had 
fallen to 48 to 54. 

In nearly all other industries, hours were 
still 60 a week in 1907, as they had been 
in 1897. 



953 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



ILO Conference Adopts Five New 

International Labour Instruments 

Convention on forced labour, Convention and Recommendation on weekly 
rest in commerce and offices, and Convention and Recommendation on 
protection and integration of indigenous people approved by delegates 



The 40th International Labour Confer- 
ence, which was in session in Geneva, 
Switzerland, from June 5 to June 27, 
inclusive, accomplished the following: 

— Adopted five new international labour 
instruments: a Convention on Forced 
Labour, a Convention and Recommenda- 
tion on the Protection and Integration of 
Indigenous People, and a Convention and 
Recommendation on Weekly Rest in Com- 
merce and Offices; 

— Took preliminary action with a view 
to final discussion next year of four other 
instruments, a Convention and a Recom- 
mendation concerning Conditions of Em- 
ployment of Plantation Workers, and a 
Convention and Recommendation on Dis- 
crimination in the Field of Employment 
and Occupation; 

— Adopted resolutions on the abolition 
of concentration camps and the deportation 
of national minorities, methods of wage 
payment, debt bondage and serfdom, aboli- 
tion of anti-trade union laws, mine safety, 
women's work, workers' education, housing, 
non-metropolitan territories, hours of work, 
disarmament, testing of nuclear weapons, 
and use of nuclear energy for peaceful 
purposes; 

— Heard a panel discussion on the sub- 
ject "The Role of Government in Improv- 
ing Labour-Management Relations: A 
Canadian Viewpoint" (see below) ; 

— Noted more than 40 new ratifications 
of ILO Conventions; 

— Examined a report on the manner in 
which member countries are applying ILO 
conventions ; 

—Adopted a budget of $7,972,901 for 1958. 
(Canada's contribution to this total will 
be 3.56 per cent, compared with 25 per cent 



by the United States, 10.24 per cent by 
the United Kingdom, 10 per cent by the 
USSR, or a total of approximately 
$284,000) ; 

— Elected 30 new members to the ILO 
Governing Body, among them Claude 
Jodoin, President of the Canadian Labour 
Congress, and W. A. Campbell, Vice- 
president and Secretary, Canadian West- 
inghouse Company Limited; 

— Paid solemn tribute to the memory of 
Albert Thomas, first ILO Director, on the 
occasion of the 25th anniversary of his 
death ; 

— Saw what amounted to the expulsion of 
the delegates from Hungary from the 
Conference ; 

— Heard changes in the ILO regulations 
which allowed for the re-appointment in- 
definitely of David A. Morse as Director- 
General of ILO (L.G., July, p. 838). 

More than 900 delegates, advisers and 
observers from 73 member countries and 
10 territories gave the conference a record 
attendance. 

Debate on Director-General's Report 
Dr. G. V. Haythorne 

"My statement will consist largely of 
a few general observations on technological 
change, some comments on recent develop- 
ments in Canada which may be of interest 
to the Conference, and finally a few remarks 
about current and future ILO activities," 
said Dr. G. V. Haythorne, Assistant Deputy 
Minister of Labour, who headed the Cana- 
dian delegation, in the debate on the 
report of ILO Director-General Morse. 

"We are glad to see that the Director- 
General has stressed the point that 'auto- 
mation is only one form of technological 



954 







— /. Kernan, Geneva 
Canadian delegates to 40th International Labour Conference (left to right): W. A. 
Campbell, employer delegate; Dr. G. V. Haythorne, head of delegation and govern- 
ment delegate; Paul Goulet, government delegate; Claude Jodoin, worker delegate. 



change'. Although the developments and 
problems associated with automation tend 
to get the headlines, we should not forget 
that other forms of technological change 
are and may in the future be just as 
important in many industries, many com- 
munities and many parts of the world. 
Between the most advanced types of auto- 
matic equipment and the simplest handi- 
craft operations there are many inter- 
mediate stages. Each of these stages may 
be appropriate to a given set of circum- 
stances; each may stimulate economic pro- 
gress; each may present problems of ad- 
justment of one kind or another. 

"Automatic processes have been and are 
being introduced in Canada in a number 
of areas — in telephone communications, in 
the development of hydro-electric power, 
in the production of petroleum and chemi- 
cal products, in the manufacture of auto- 
mobile components, in newsprint and many 
other products. Railways, life insurance 
companies, large wholesale firms and some 
large corporations in other fields have 
begun to use electronic office equipment on 
a large scale, and in view of the extra- 
ordinary amount of paper work and the 
almost insatiable demand for information 



in modern society there is little doubt 
that this development will gain momentum. 

"These technological changes have been 
occurring in Canada at an increasing tempo 
in recent years. They have had a signifi- 
cant effect on total employment, but there 
has been little evidence of hardship to 
individual workers. Such unemployment 
as we have had in the last decade has been 
due chiefly to temporary interruptions in 
our economic growth, to trade fluctuations, 
or to seasonal variations. Little could be 
traced to the effects of technological change. 

"Moreover, it seems unlikely that the 
spread of the newer automatic processes 
will be so swift and of such magnitude as 
to create major unemployment problems 
in the years immediately ahead. 

"An optimistic view of the effects of 
technological change on employment can 
be more easily supported, as the Director- 
General has suggested, in an environment 
of economic expansion, such as Canada 
and many other countries are experiencing. 
Especially under such conditions, the num- 
ber of workers displaced at any time by 
technological change is likely to be small 
relative to the number of new jobs being 
created. This has been our experience. 



955 



With tne rapid expansion of population, 
production and employment in the postwar 
period, the problems for workers who must 
find new jobs with the advent of new tech- 
nology are reduced, compared with what 
they would be in a more static economy or 
in periods of heavy unemployment. 

"Labour shortages, with their tendency 
to increase labour cost, have been among 
the pressures that have impelled industry 
to adopt labour-saving devices. 

"On the other hand, the most acute 
labour shortages in Canada during the past 
few years — shortages of professional 
workers, highly-skilled technicians, and 
some types of skilled tradesmen — are in 
part a result of technological change itself 
and must therefore be looked upon as a 
factor limiting the rate of industrial 
growth. 

"This is one of the problems with which 
we are concerned in Canada and about 
which I would like to make a few 
comments. 

"No one can predict with certainty the 
precise way in which technological de- 
velopments will affect individual jobs. Some 
developments will reduce, while others will 
increase, for example, skill requirements. 
On one thing, however, most observers 
agree. The increase in industrial research, 
the new and intricate products being 
developed, the greater effort devoted to 
designing, inspection and quality control, 
the increasing complexity of machinery, are 
bound to increase the demand for engineers 
and scientists, for highly skilled workers 
of various types, including technicians and 
tradesmen." 

Dr. Haythorne then told of the Depart- 
ment's research program, undertaken on 
the recommendation of the Vocational 
Training Advisory Council, that is attempt- 
ing to assess the effects of technological 
developments on skill requirements and 
the need for technical and vocational train- 
ing, to analyze the changing requirements 
for skilled technical manpower, and to 
review the facilities for training skilled 
workers and technicians. 

"Some significant findings are beginning 
to emerge from this research program," 



he continued. "They suggest, for example, 
that shortages of skilled technical and 
professional workers are likely to continue 
in Canada for at least another five years; 
that in many fields there is a rapidly 
expanding demand for technicians with 
a better grounding in mathematics and 
science; that more technical training facili- 
ties are needed, particularly on a post- 
secondary school level; and that new tech- 
niques are required for integrating formal 
education and industrial training and ex- 
perience. These and other results obtained 
from the program of research will, it is 
hoped, provide employers, workers and 
government agencies with a more realistic 
picture of the important changes taking 
place in industry. 

"With a better understanding of what 
is happening there is more likelihood of 
constructive and co-ordinated action on 
the part of all interested groups with re- 
spect to the training and retraining of 
workers and to the shifts in manpower that 
will be associated with technological and 
other changes in industries in the future. 

"By and large, Canadian unions have 
accepted technological changes, including 
the various forms of automation, as a 
necessary and on the whole beneficial 
ingredient of an increasing standard of 
living for everyone. Their concern, like 
that of the unions in other countries, has 
been to assist workers to obtain a share 
of the increased output that increasing 
productivity makes possible and to protect 
their members against undue hardships 
resulting from employment dislocations." 

Recognizing this concern of the unions, 
many Canadian employers have taken 
steps, through collective negotiations and 
other ways, to increase employment and 
income security, Dr. Haythorne said. As 
examples he cited the development of 
supplemental unemployment benefit and 
severance pay plans and changes in senior- 
ity arrangements designed to provide 
greater employment opportunities within 
the enterprise for workers whose jobs are 
eliminated. Hours of work have been 
reduced and the number of paid holidays 



Canadian delegation to the 40th International Labour Conference W — > 

Seated (left to right): Miss Edith Lorentsen, government adviser; W. A. Campbell, employer delegate; 
Dr. G. V. Haythorne, head of delegation and government delegate; Claude Jodoin, worker delegate- 
Max Wershof, substitute government delegate; Paul Goulet, government delegate; Miss Mildred Moody, 
stenographer. Standing (same order): H. E. Campbell, worker adviser; Eric Acland, government adviser; 
Kalmen Kaplansky, worker adviser; W. E. Wilson, government adviser; Joseph Parent, worker adviser; 
W. J. McNally, employer adviser; E. P. O'Connor, worker adviser; J. R. Kimptcn, employer adviser; George 
Hutchens, worker adviser; F. W. Purdy, employer adviser; S. D. Chutter, employer adviser; G. R. Carroll, 
government adviser; C. W. George, employer adviser; Harry Jay, government adviser; and H. T. Pammett, 
secretary to the delegation. (Photo, J. Kernan, Geneva) 



956 



m i^fpps 




and length of paid vacations increased, 
partly as a result of technological changes. 

"One aspect of the Director-General's 
Report has struck me rather forcibly," he 
went on. "He has brought out clearly 
the interest of the ILO in such problems 
as automation, the industrial use of atomic 
energy, the need to establish an atmosphere 
of confidence in labour-management rela- 
tions and the need for more consideration 
of manpower in all its aspects. All these 
problems have had and will have a tre- 
mendous impact and influence in the field 
of employment. But before we can really 
appreciate the effects we must concern 
ourselves with the problems. All of them 
have a common denominator, inasmuch 
as they are complicated problems requiring 
extended study, which study can be expe- 
dited by thorough examination and also 
discussion. They should not, it seems to 
me, be approached — at least at this stage 
— from the angle of the formulation of 
detailed international instruments." 

If after study and discussion some form 
of international instrument appeared suit- 
able, Dr. Haythorne hoped it would com- 
mand a large measure of support; but 
if some other type of action were considered 
more effective, he hoped this would be 
approved. 

"But the main thing is that we should 
not be rushing ahead on the assumption 
that we must have Conventions or Recom- 
mendations at any cost. It is true that 
some advance study is given now to back- 
ground considerations in the law and prac- 
tice reports, but these are based on the 
assumption that an instrument of some 
kind will ultimately emerge and this very 
assumption tends to put some of our dis- 
cussions into a strait-jacket. 

"I am not satisfied that our participation 
in this debate provides us with the best 
basis on which to build a program of items 
to be discussed at future ILO Conferences. 
Understandably, while there is some oppor- 
tunity for us to pick up one another's ideas 
in the debate, the opportunity is relatively 
limited. We have little or no opportunity 
to state our points of agreement or dis- 
agreement or to develop them further with 
the object in mind of perhaps achieving 
a synthesis. This might be done in smaller, 
less formal, groups similar to our Confer- 
ence committees but without their prime 
object of reaching a Convention or Recom- 
mendation. The essential task of such less 
formal groups of committees would be 
discussion, in which the end result would 
be a thorough examination of the problem 
at hand rather than the acceptance of a 
majority point of view. 



"Somewhere between the formal type of 
debate in which we are now participating 
and the lively encounters which charac- 
terize the framing of the ILO texts there 
must surely be a place for close, searching 
and objective examination of these broad 
and complex problems with which we are 
all faced." 

Rt. Hon. Iain Macleod 

The Minister of Labour and National 
Service for the United Kingdom, the Rt. 
Hon. Iain Macleod, opened his remarks to 
the Conference by recalling words ex- 
pressed by the late director of the ILO 
office from its foundation in 1919 until 
his death in 1932, Albert Thomas, who 
described the task of ILO as: "To main- 
tain our goodwill, our sense of social 
progress and our faith in the ideals of 
justice and peace, and to keep these ideals 
sure, intense and lively ... so that they 
may be the dominating factors in our 
organization." 

Turning to the theme of the conference, 
Mr. Macleod noted that public interest 
in automation in the United Kingdom was 
suddenly aroused a little more than a year 
ago. 

Two reasons, he felt, accounted for this 
sudden interest. First, it was caused by 
reports of automatic developments in other 
countries, and secondly because new auto- 
matic equipment was being introduced in 
U.K. automobile factories coincident with 
a slight recession in employment, which 
showed itself most clearly in the auto 
industry itself. 

"Overnight, almost," said Mr. Macleod, 
"automation became news. Our newspapers 
— or some of them — printed every scrap 
of news that could remotely be linked 
with automation and a flood of questions 
in the House of Commons urged the 
Government to set up a Ministry of Auto- 
mation and to pass special legislation for 
the 'robot age'. 

"Fortunately, the employers' organiza- 
tions and the trade union movement, the 
two great partners in industry, remained 
— as usual — very calm. The Government 
had already foreseen as early as 1954 the 
need for an objective survey of available 
knowledge and experience, and had ar- 
ranged for the Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research to prepare a report 

"Although it was prepared by a govern- 
ment department, it was not a policy 
statement. The idea of it was simply to 
present the facts to people, and when it 
came out I put it before my National 
Joint Advisory Council, on which repre- 
sentatives of the employers' organizations, 



958 



the trade unions and the great nationalized 
industries sit 

"The setting out of the facts as we know 
them, discussion and further examination 
of the problems, calmed the earlier fears 
of automation. There is only an occasional 
rumble now heard, and it is months since 
I was asked a question in Parliament on 
this subject. So now we can discuss this 
fascinating subject objectively and clearly 
We can, through the actions of govern- 
ments, employers and trade unions, put 
facts and indeed fears in their proper 
perspective, can investigate the problems 
and point the way to their solution " 

Mr. Macleod felt that investigation into 
the realms of automation must continue. 
That pattern is being followed in the 
United Kingdom by the Government. Mr. 
Macleod believed that all governments 
should conduct surveys on automation since 
"it is one of their primary tasks to promote 
research in this field". 

George P. Delaney 

George P. Delaney, United States worker 
delegate, said in part: 

" The increased use of automation and 

the rapid developments taking place in all 
fields of technology are emphasizing old 
problems and causing many new ones. In- 
deed, the social, political and economic 
institutions of the world are feeling the 
impact of the new industrialization. 

"We face a time of great promise in 
which all men can enjoy more of the 
good things of life than ever before. We in 
the ILO bear a great responsibility for 
insuring that the time will come to pass 
when our great opportunities and our high 
hopes are fulfilled. Therefore, it is entirely 
appropriate that we should discuss and 
seek solutions for the specific problems 
attending automation. 

"But this is not enough, for mankind 
needs more than the increased produc- 
tivity of material goods which flows from 
new automatic factories. Of what value 
are more and bigger refrigerators to a man 
who is not free; to a man who lives in 
constant fear for his family's safety; to a 
man who cannot speak his mind; who is 
subject at any time of the day or night to 
deportation to a forced labour camp; who 
cannot organize into a free trade union; 
and who has lost the right to strike? Of 
what value is any material thing to a 
man who has lost his liberty, his dignity, 
his essential human rights, and is indeed 
a slave of tyranny? 

"I speak of these things today for a 
very special reason. A few minutes ago 
in New York City the United Nations 



released what I feel sure will become one 
of the historic documents in the history 
of the world. It is the United Nations 
Special Committee's report on the Prob- 
lems of Hungary... .The Committee was 
established to investigate, in the words of 
the General Assembly, 'the situation 
created by the intervention of the USSR, 
through its use of armed force and other 
means, in the internal affairs of Hungary'. 

"I do not believe there is a person in 
this hall who can fail to have the deepest 
interest in this document, for it sets forth 
in clear, complete and precise terms an 
account of naked and brutal tyranny more 
dreadful than anything the world has ever 
seen." 

Mr. Delaney gave a full report on the 
USSR actions in Hungary as described in 
the United Nations report. 

He then commented on the Soviet 
government delegate's complaint that the 
Forced Labour Committee was being 
"unfair" to him, and on his "unctuous" 
talk of peace and concord among all peoples 
while he must have known before any of 
the delegates the facts disclosed by the 
United Nations. 

"How long have we to listen to such 
prattle? How long do we propose to allow 
member states of the ILO to violate at 
will every principle of this organization and 
yet come here and give us lip service and 
boast about ratification of conventions? 

Mr. Delaney then proposed that the 
ILO take steps to influence member states 
to give meaning to "our vital objective" 
of freedom of association. "If full freedom 
is to be achieved for both workers and 
employers, states must accede to the 
Twentieth Century necessity of permitting 
international organizations to conduct 
special inquiries within their own sovereign 
areas," he said. 

"Just as international inspection is the 
only real safeguard of effective disarma- 
ment, so it would insure freedom of asso- 
ciation for workers. And it would make 
the Freedom of Association Convention of 
1948 and 1949 something more than just 
dead pieces of paper, for they can then 
become true international instruments, 
guaranteeing basic human rights to the 
workers of all lands." 

Alfred John Gibb 

The Australian employer delegate to the 
Conference, Alfred John Gibb, speaking 
on the general theme, automation, said: 
"In Australia, as in most other countries, 
this technological evolutionary process 
appeared to be getting out of perspective, 
and we in industry could readily see that 



959 



CYRIL PHELAN 

Tribute by George V. Haythorne, Government Member, ILO Governing Body 

All who knew Cyril Phelan well are aware of the many outstanding contribu- 
tions he made to the ILO, both during the years he was a member of the staff of 
our Canadian Department of Labour and later when he was Director of the Canada 
Branch of the International Labour Organization. 

His unexpected passing was particularly sad since he had made plans and 
was looking forward eagerly to attend the International Labour Conference again 
this year. 

His enthusiasm for life, his keen mind, his deep concern for human values and 
his many contributions in the fields of both employment and industrial relations 
will long be remembered. 



the only solution was to educate the trade 
unions, the workers and the public as to 
what was really going on." 

With the help of the government, and 
particularly with the assistance and influ- 
ence of the Minister of Labour and 
National Service, Mr. Holt (President of 
the Conference), Mr. Gibb declared, "we 
were able to get together with the Aus- 
tralian Council of Trade Unions and ana- 
lyze in a calm, sane, sober atmosphere this 
'new' thing called 'automation'." 

The Ministry of Labour Advisory Coun- 
cil issued a statement on automation which 
was unanimously agreed to by all parties, 
he said, and which had the effect of sweep- 
ing aside all the fears that had been falsely 
raised in the minds of the workers and 
others. "Accordingly, automation is no 
longer a matter of controversy in Australia 
because all those who should know are 
informed as to the facts." 

W. A. Campbell 

Canadian employer delegate W. A. Camp- 
bell said that it was the general feeling 
of Canadian employers that automation 
was an "evolutionary process rather than 
a revolutionary one. We are of the view 
that if its advantages are not seized it will 
seriously impair the competitive position of 
many Canadian companies. 

"We are of the view that in the main 
the processes and methods of organizing 
production referred to as automation will 
upgrade labour. It will diminish the 
requirement for muscle power and will 
enhance the use of those genuinely human 
qualities of judgment and brain power. 

"From our studies we feel that the 
utilization of automation will be a gradual 
process which will permit adequate arrange- 
ments to be made for any required retrain- 
ing or redevelopment of the work force." 

J. Ernest Wilkins 

U.S. Government delegate J. Ernest Wil- 
kins said the problem was one of ensuring 



that vastly increased production just 
beyond the horizon is equitably shared — 
that working people benefit from the in- 
creased productivity of which they are 
made capable by capital goods which are 
placed in their hands — that consumers are 
equitably and justly treated so that the 
price of the things they buy are kept stable, 
and that Management gets its necessary 
share of the increased productivity so that 
capital investment can continue to be made 
for the benefit of all. 

"If people are to benefit from the indus- 
trial and technological improvements of our 
age, their economic development must be 
accompanied by the development of free, 
democratic and effective social and political 
institutions," he declared. 

Resolutions Adopted 

The Conference adopted eight resolutions 
on subjects not on the agenda. They were 
as follows: 

Freedom of trade union activity — The 
text calls on all ILO members to abolish 
laws restricting the free exercise of trade 
union rights. The resolution was adopted 
by 89 votes in favour, 56 against, and 26 
abstentions. 

Safety in mines — The resolution calls 
on all mining countries to insist on strict 
observance of safety regulations, with 
special reference to the standards drawn 
up by the ILO. It was adopted by 165 votes 
in favour, none opposed and two 
abstentions. 

Tripartite committee on women's work. 
—By a vote of 140 to 17, with 28 absten- 
tions, the Conference requested the 
Governing Body to convene a tripartite 
committee to deal with the specific problems 
of women workers. 

Workers' education — The Conference, 
by a vote of 162 to three, with nine absten- 
tions, hoped that the Governing Body 
would expand the ILO's work in the field 
of workers' education. 



960 



Housing construction — A resolution ask- 
ing the Governing Body to arrange for 
more intensive study, jointly with the 
United Nations, of national short-term and 
long-term housing programs, and to con- 
sider placing the subject on the agenda of 
the Conference was adopted by 135 in 
favour, 38 against, and one abstention. 

Application of conventions in non- 
metropolitan territories — This resolution 
called for an analysis of the influence of 
existing ILO constitutional provisions on 
the application of conventions in non- 
metropolitan territories. It was adopted hy 
152 to zero, with no abstentions. 

Hours of work — This resolution, which 
asked the Governing Body to arrange for 
a general discussion of the question of hours 
of work at the next ordinary session of the 
Conference, was adopted by a vote of 126 
in favour, 13 against, and 17 abstentions. 

Disarmament, the testing of nuclear 
weapons, and the use of nuclear energy 
for peaceful purposes — Under this head- 
ing the Conference hoped that the work 
of the United Nations Disarmament Com- 
mission and its subcommittee might move 
steadily forward to relieve the fears of 
the peoples of the world, to lift the existing 
burden of armaments in the interests of 
economic development, and to permit the 
use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes 
exclusively. The resolution was adopted by 
168 to zero, with 39 abstentions. 

Panel Discussion 

Under the chairmanship of U.S. Secre- 
tary of Labour James P. Mitchell, an in- 
formal discussion was held on labour- 
management relations, a theme being 
developed by ILO Director-General David 
A. Morse, for the purpose of providing 
delegates to the conference with an oppor- 
tunity to exchange views on an important 
topic. 

Subject of the discussion was: "The Role 
of Government in Improving Labour- 
Management Relations: A Canadian View- 
point." Canada's participants in the 
discussion were: Dr. G. V. Haythorne, 
government delegate; W. A. Campbell, 
employer delegate; and Claude Jodoin, 
worker delegate. 

The discussion did not lead to adoption 
of conclusions or resolutions in any form 
whatsoever. (For a summary of statements 
made by the Canadian delegates, see the 
article following.) 

Elections to Governing Body 

Canada, one of 10 countries holding 
permanent seats on the Governing Body of 
ILO, did not participate in the election 



for three year terms of the 30 elective 
members of the 40-member group. Canada's 
representatives on the Governing Body 
are : 

For the employers, W. A. Campbell; for 
the workers, Claude Jodoin. " 

Hungarian Delegates 

In a series of votes on challenges to the 
tripartite delegation from Hungary, the 
Conference voted: 

To turn down objections to the govern- 
ment credentials by 94 in favour of the 
objection, 88 against, and 52 abstentions, 
the objection failing for lack of a two- 
thirds majority; 

To refuse to admit the Hungarian em- 
ployer delegate and adviser by a vote of 
141 in favour of the refusal to seven against, 
with 35 abstentions; 

To refuse to admit the worker delegate 
and adviser by a 141 in favour of the refu- 
sal and five against, with 20 abstentions. 

After the first vote denying admission to 
the Government delegates, the Hungarian 
Government immediately withdrew its 
worker and employer delegates as well. 
Josef Mekis, the Deputy Minister of 
Labour, sent a letter announcing the with- 
drawal because of "slanderous and inad- 
missible attacks" on Hungary's delegates. 

The Hungarian employer and worker 
delegates had been taking part in the Con- 
ference from June 5, until June 26, when 
the decision not to admit them amounted 
in fact to expelling them. 

Canadian Participation 

Canadian delegates were appointed to 
various ILO committees during the con- 
ference as follows: 

Claude Jodoin and W. A. Campbell, 
deputy members of the Governing Body 
of ILO and members of the Selection Com- 
mittee; Dr. G. V. Haythorne, chairman 
and reporter of Finance Committee of 
Government Representatives; W. A. Camp- 
bell, F. W. Purdy, S. D. Chutter, Claude 
Jodoin, Resolutions Committee; W. A. 
Campbell, C. Willis George, F. W. Purdy, 
George Hutchens, Committee on Forced 
Labour; W. Allan Campbell, deputy mem- 
ber, Committee on the Application of 
Conventions and Recommendations; E. P. 
O'Connor, W. A. Campbell, W. J. ' Mc- 
Nally, J. R. Kimpton, Committee on 
Weekly Rest ; Joseph Parent, Committee on 
Indigenous Populations; Kalmen Kaplan- 
sky, W. A. Campbell, J. R. Kimpton, Com- 
mittee on Discrimination. 

961 



92423—4 



Text of Convention Concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour 



The General Conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International Labour 
Office, and having met in its Fortieth Session 
on 5 June 1957, and 

Having considered the question of forced 
labour, which is the fourth item on the 
agenda of the session, and 

Having noted the provisions of the Forced 
Labour Convention, 1930, and 

Having noted that the Slavery Conven- 
tion, 1926, provides that all necessary 
measures shall be taken to prevent com- 
pulsory or forced labour from developing 
into conditions analogous to slavery and 
that the Supplementary Convention on the 
Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade and 
Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, 
1956, provides for the complete abolition of 
debt bondage and serfdom, and 

Having noted that the protection of Wages 
Convention, 1949, provides that wages shall 
be paid regularly and prohibits methods of 
payments which deprive the worker of a 
genuine possibility of terminating his em- 
ployment, and 

Having decided upon the adoption of 
further proposals with regard to the aboli- 
tion of certain forms of force or compulsory 
labour constituting a violation of the rights 
of man referred to in the Charter of the 
United Nations and enunciated by the 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and 



Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of an international 
Convention, 

adopts this twenty-first day of June of 
the year one thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-seven the following Convention, which 
may be cited as the Abolition of Forced 
Labour Convention, 1957: 

Article 1 

Each member of the International Labour 
Organization which ratifies this Convention 
undertakes to suppress and not to make 
use of any form of forced or compulsory 
labour — 

(a) as a means of political coercion or 
education or as punishment for holding or 
expressing political views or views ideologi- 
cally opposed to the established political, 
social or economic system; 

(6) as a method of mobilizing and using 
labour for purposes of economic develop- 
ment; 

(c) as a means of labour discipline; 

(d) as a punishment for having partici- 
pated in strikes; 

(e) as a means of racial, social, national 
or religious discrimination. 

Article 2 
Each member of the International Labour 
Organization which ratifies this Convention 
undertakes to take effective measures to 
secure the immediate and complete abolition 
of forced or compulsory labour as specified 
in Article 1 of this Convention. 



Text of Convention Concerning Weekly Rest in Commerce and Offices 



The General Conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization. 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Fortieth Session on 5 June 1957, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to weekly 
rest in commerce iand offices, which is 
the fifth item on the agenda of the 
session, and 
Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of an international 
Convention, 
adopts this twenty-sixth day of June of the 
year one thousand nine hundred and fifty- 
seven the following Convention, which may 
be cited as the Weekly Rest (Commerce 
and Offices) Convention, 1957: 
Article 1 
The provisions of this Convention shall, in 
so far as they are not otherwise made 
effective by means of statutory wage fixing 
machinery, collective agreements, arbitration 
awards or in such other manner consistent 
with national practice as may be appropriate 
under national conditions, be given effect 
by national laws or regulations. 
Article 2 
This Convention applies to iall persons, 
including apprentices, employed in the fol- 
lowing establishments, institutions or ad- 
ministrative services, whether pubic or 
private: 

(a) trading establishments; 
(&) establishments, institutions and adminis- 
trative services in which the persons 
employed are mainly engaged in office 
work, including offices of persons engaged 
in the liberal professions; 



(c) in so far as the persons concerned are 
not employed in establishments referred 
to in Article 3 and are not subject to 
national regulations or other arrange- 
ments concerning weekly rest in indus- 
try, mines, transport or agriculture — 
(i) the trading branches of any other 

establishments; 
(ii) the branches of any other estab- 
lishments in which the persons 
employed are mainly engaged in 
office work; 
(iii) mixed commercial and industrial 
establishments. 
Article S 

1. This Convention shall also apply to per- 
sons employed in such of the following 
establishments as the Member ratifying the 
Convention may specify in ia declaration 
accompanying its ratification: 

(a) establishments, institutions and ad- 
ministrative services providing personal 
services; 

(&) post and telecommunication services; 

(c) newspaper undertakings; and 

(d) theatres and places of public entertain- 
ment. 

2. Any Member which has ratified this 
Convention may subsequently communicate 
to the Director-General of the International 
Labour Office a declaration accepting the 
obligations of the Convention in respect of 
establishments referred to in the preceding 
paragraph which are not already specified in 
a previous declaration. 

3. Each Member which has ratified this 
Convention shall indicate in its annual re- 
ports under article 22 of the Constitution 



962 



of the International Labour Organization 
to what extent effect has been given or is 
proposed to be given to the provisions of the 
Convention in respect of such establishments 
referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article 
as are not covered in virtue of a declaration 
made in conformity with paragraphs 1 or 2 
of this Article, and any progress which 
may have been made with a view to the 
progressive application of the Convention in 
such establishments. 

Article k 

1. Where necessary, appropriate arrange- 
ments shall be made to define the line which 
separates the establishments to which this 
Convention applies from other establishments. 

2. In any case in which it is doubtful 
whether an establishment, institution or 
administrative service is one to which this 
Convention applies, the question shall be 
settled either by the competent authority 
after consultation with the representative 
organizations of employers and workers con- 
cerned, where such exist, or in any other 
manner which is consistent with national law 
and practice. 

Article 5 
Measures may be taken by the competent 
authority or through the appropriate 
machinery in each country to exclude from 
the provisions of this Convention: 
(a) establishments in which only members 
of the employer's family who are not 
or cannot be considered to be wage 
earners are employed; 
(6) persons holding high managerial posi- 
tions. 

Article 6 

1. All persons to whom this Convention 
applies shall, except as otherwise provided 
by the following Articles, be entitled to an 
uninterrupted weekly rest period comprising 
not less than 24 hours in the course of each 
period of seven days. 

2. The weekly rest period shall, wherever 
possible, be granted simultaneously to all 
the persons concerned in each establishment. 

3. The weekly rest period shall, wherever 
possible, coincide with the day of the week 
established as a day of rest by the traditions 
or customs of the country or districts. 

4. The traditions and customs of religious 
minorities shall, as far as possible, be 
respected. 

Article 7 

1. Where the nature of the work, the 
nature of the service performed by the 
establishment, the size of the population 
to be served, or the number of persons 
employed is such that the provisions of 
Article 6 cannot be applied, measures may 
be taken by the competent authority or 
through the appropriate machinery in each 
country to apply special weekly rest schemes, 
where appropriate, to specified categories 
of persons or specified types of establish- 
ments covered by this Convention, regard 
being paid to all proper social and economic 
considerations. 

2. All persons to whom such special 
schemes apply shall be entitled, in respect 
of each period of seven days, to rest of 
a total duration at least equivalent to the 
period provided for in Article 6. 

3. Persons working in branches of estab- 
lishments subject to special schemes, which 
branches would, if independent, be subject 
to the provisions of Article 6, shall be 
subject to the provisions of that Article. 



4. Any measures regarding the application 
of the provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 
of this Article shall be taken in consultation 
with the representative employers' and 
workers' organizations concerned, where such 
exist. 

Article 8 

1. Temporary exemptions, total or partial 
(including the suspension or reduction of the 
rest period), from the provisions of Articles 
6 and 7 may be granted in each country by 
the competent authority or in any other 
manner approved by the competent authority 
which is consistent with national law and 
practice: 

(a) in case of accident, actual or threatened, 
force majeure or urgent work to 
premises and equipment, but only so 
far as may be necessary to avoid serious 
interference with the ordinary working 
of the establishment; 

(h) in the event of abnormal pressure of 
work due to special circumstances, in 
so far as the employer cannot ordin- 
arily be expected to resort to other 
measures; 

(c) in order to prevent the loss of perish- 
able goods. 

2. In determining the circumstances in 
which temporary exemptions may be granted 
in accordance with the provisions of sub- 
paragraphs (6) and (c) of the preceding 
paragraph, the representative employers' and 
workers' organizations concerned, where such 
exist, shall be consulted. 

3. Where temporary exemptions are made 
in accordance with the provisions of this 
Article, the persons concerned shall be 
granted compensatory rest of a total dura- 
tion at least equivalent to the period pro- 
vided for under Article 6. 

Article 9 
In so far as wages are regulated by 
laws and regulations or subject to the con- 
trol of administrative authorities, there shall 
be no reduction of the income of persons 
covered by this Convention as a result of 
the application of measures taken in accord- 
ance with the Convention. 

Article 10 

1. Appropriate measures shall be taken 
to ensure the proper administration of regu- 
lations or provisions concerning the weekly 
rest, by means of adequate inspection or 
otherwise. 

2. Where it is appropriate to the manner 
in which effect is given to the provisions of 
this Convention, the necessary measures in 
the form of penalties shall be taken to 
ensure the enforcement of its provisions. 

Article 11 
Each Member which ratifies this Conven- 
tion shall include in its annual reports 
under article 22 of the Constitution of the 
International Labour Organization: 
(a) lists of the categories of persons, and 
the types of establishment subject to 
special weekly rest schemes as provided 
for in Article 7; and 
(&) information concerning the circum- 
stances in which temporary exemptions 
may be granted in accordance with the 
provisions of Article 8. 
Article 12 
None of the provisions of this Convention 
shall affect any law, award, custom or agree- 
ment which ensures more favourable condi- 
tions to the workers concerned than those 
provided for in the Convention. 



92423— 4£ 



963 



Article 13 
The provisions of this Convention may be 
suspended in any country by the govern- 
ment in the event of war or other emergency 
constituting a threat to the national safety. 
Article Ik 
The formal ratifications of this Convention 
shall be communicated to the Director- 
General of the International Labour Office 
for registration. 

Article 15 

1. This Convention shall be binding only 
upon those Members of the International 
Labour Organization whose ratifications have 
been registered with the Director-General. 

2. It shall come into force twelve months 
after the date on which the ratifications of 
two Members have been registered with the 
Director-General. 

3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come 
into force for any Member twelve months 
after the date on which its ratification has 
been registered. 

Article 16 

1. A Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention may denounce it after the expiration 
of ten years from the date on which the 
Convention first comes into force, by an 
act communicated to the Director-General 
of the International Labour Office for regis- 
tration. Such denunciation shall not take 
effect until one year after the date on which 
it is registered. 

2. Each Member which has ratified this 
Convention and which does not, within the 
year following the expiration of the period 
of ten years mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph exercise the right of denunciation 
provided for in this Article, will be bound 
for another period of ten years and, there- 
after, may denounce this Convention at the 
expiration of each period of ten years under 
the terms provided for in this Article. 

Article 17 
1. The Director-General of the Inter- 
national Labour Office shall notify all Mem- 
bers of the International Labour Organiza- 
tion of the registration of all ratifications 
and denunciations communicated to him by 
the Members of the Organization. 



2. When notifying the Members of the 
Organization of the registration of the second 
ratification communicated to him, the Direc- 
tor-General shall draw the attention of the 
Members of the Organization to the date 
upon which the Convention will come into 
force. 

Article 18 
The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall communicate to the 
Secretary-General of the United Nations for 
registration in accordance with article 102 
of the Charter of the United Nations full 
particulars of all ratifications and acts of 
denunciation registered by him in accordance 
with the provisions of the preceding Articles. 

Article 19 
At such times as it may consider necessary 
the Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office shall present to the General 
Conference ia report on the working of this 
Convention and shall examine the desir- 
ability of placing on the agenda of the 
Conference the question of its revision in 
whole or in part. 

Article 20 

1. Should the Conference adopt a new 
Convention revising this Convention in whole 
or in part, then, unless the new Convention 
otherwise provides — 

(a) the ratification by a Member of the new 
revising Convention shall ipso jure in- 
volve the immediate denunciation of 
this Convention, notwithstanding the 
provisions of Article 16 above, if and 
when the new revising Convention shall 
have come into force; 

(&) as from the date when the new revising 
Convention comes into force this Con- 
vention shall cease to be open to 
ratification by the Members. 

2, This Convention shall in any case remain 
in force in its actual form and content for 
those Members which have ratified it but 
have not ratified the revising Convention. 

Article 21 
The English and French versions of the 
text of this Convention are equally 
authoritative. 



Text of Recommendation Concerning Weekly Rest in Commerce and Offices 



The General Conference of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Fortieth Session on 5 June 1957, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of 
certain proposals with regard to weekly 
rest in commerce and offices, which is 
the fifth item on the agenda of the 
session, and 
Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of a Recommenda- 
tion supplementing the Weekly Rest 
(Commerce and Offices) Convention, 
1957, 
adopts this twenty-sixth day of June of the 
year one thousand nine hundred jand fifty- 
seven the following Recommendation, which 
may be cited as the Weekly Rest (Commerce 
and Offices) Recommendation, 1957: 

Whereas the Weekly Rest (Commerce and 
Offices) Convention, 1957, provides for 
weekly rest in commercial establishments 
and offices and it is desirable to supplement 
the provisions thereof; 



The Conference recommends that the fol- 
lowing provisions should be applied: 

1. The persons to whom the Weekly Rest 
(Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1957, 
applies should as far as possible be entitled 
to a weekly rest of not less than 36 hours 
which . wherever practicable, should be an 
uninterrupted period. 

2. The weekly rest provided for by Article 
6 of the Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) 
Convention, 1957, should, wherever prac- 
ticable, be so calculated as to include the 
period from midnight to midnight and 
should not include other rest periods 
immediately preceding or following the 
period from midnight to midnight. 

3. Special rest schemes provided for by 
Article 7 of the Weekly Rest (Commerce 
and Offices) Convention, 1957, should 
ensure — 

(a) that persons to whom such special 
schemes apply do not work for more 
than three weeks without receiving 
the rest periods to which they are 
entitled: and 



964 



(6) that, where it is possible to grant rest 
periods of 24 consecutive hours, rest 
periods comprise not less than 12 hours 
of uninterrupted rest. 

4. (1) Young persons under 18 years of 
age should, wherever practicable, be granted 
an uninterrupted weekly rest of two days. 

(2) The provisions of Article 8 of the 
Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Con- 
vention, 1957, should not be applied to young 
persons under 18 years of age. 

5. In any establishment in which the 
Weekly rest period for any of the persons 
employed is other than the period estab- 
lished by national practice, the persons 
concerned should be notified of the days and 
hours of weekly rest by means of notices 
posted up conspicuously in the establishment 
or other convenient place, or in any other 
manner consistent with national law and 
practice. 

6. Appropriate measures should be taken 
to ensure the maintenance of such records 



as may be necessary for the proper ad- 
ministration of Aveekly rest arrangements 
and in particular of records of the arrange- 
ments made with respect to — 
(«) persons to whom a special weekly rest 
scheme applies in accordance with the 
provisions of Article 7 of -the Weekly 
Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention 
1957; 
(b) persons to whom the temporary exemp- 
tions provided for in Article 8 of the 
Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) 
Convention, 1957, apply. 
7. In cases in Avhich Article 9 of the 
Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Con- 
vention, 1957, is inapplicable because wages 
are not regulated by laws and regulations 
or subject to the control of administrative 
authorities, provision should be made by 
collective agreements or otherwise to ensure 
that the application of measures taken in 
accordance with the Convention does not 
result in reduction of the income of persons 
covered by the Convention. 



Panel Discussion on Government's Role 

in Labour-Management Relations 

Canada's government, employer and worker delegates at International 
Labour Conference chosen to lead off discussion; each makes statement 



In his preamble to the panel discussion 
on the role of government in labour- 
management relations, Dr. G. V. Haythorne, 
Government delegate and head of the 
Canadian delegation to the 40th Inter- 
national Labour Conference, noted that 
there was a change he would like to make 
in the title of the discussion. 

It had been announced that the title 
would be, "The Role of Government in 
Improving Labour-Management Relations: 
A Canadian Viewpoint". Dr. Haythorne 
felt the title should read: "The 
Role of Government in the Field 
of Labour-Management Relations: Cana- 
dian Approach." 

"We favour the latter wording," he said, 
"since the former implies that labour- 
management relations need improving, 
whether in fact they do or not. It further 
suggests that the Government might be 
expected to take an active part in bringing 
about such improvement wherever it is 
desired. In Canada we say the respon- 
sibility for improvements in relationships 
between Labour and Management where 
such are needed rest essentially with the 
parties themselves." 

Speaking as one of the panelists. Dr. 
Haythorne said, in part: 

"Our conception in Canada of the 
Government's role in the field we are 



discussing is essentially one of assisting in 
the development of sound relations between 
Labour and Management. Such assistance 
can be provided in man}- wa}-s. On a 
broad but vital plane, it covers the estab- 
lishment of law and order, the protection of 
basic rights, such as freedom of speech and 
freedom of association and the provision 
of measures to aid in developing the 
country's human and physical resources 
including the creation of a general 
atmosphere favourable to economic and 
social advancement. 

"This broad area of government assist- 
ance, in our view, also includes the enact- 
ment of legislation on such matters as 
labour standards, factory inspections and 
social security. 

"On a narrower plane government assist- 
ance to labour-management relations covers 
the enactment of legislation and the draw- 
ing up of regulations with resp< cl to certain 
aspects of collective bargaining, the provi- 
sion of adequate conciliation services to 
assist m the settlement of labour-manage- 
ment disputes where such services are 
required, and the conduct of inquiries, 
research and educational activities in the 
labour field " 

(flint in ued on page 991) 



965 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Early in 1956, the Disher Steel Division 
of Dominion Structural Steel Limited felt 
the need for a reliable employer-employee 
information channel. To provide this vital 
link the company, in co-operation with the 
unions, Locals 721 and 743, International 
Association of Bridge, Structural and Orna- 
mental Iron Workers, CLC, and Local 790 
of the Hoisting and Operating Engineers, 
organized a joint labour-management com- 
mittee. 

A senior management representative has 
said that the committee's purpose is to 
facilitate discussions between labour and 
management on ways and means to improve 
production efficiency. There is common 
agreement that the committee has fulfilled 
the role intended for it. 

Commenting on joint consultation in the 
plant, A. B. Lockley, Assistant General 
Manager, said: 

"There has been developed through this 
committee a feeling of team spirit and that 
employees have been given an opportunity 
to share some of the company's problems 
with management. A number of ideas have 
been received which would not have nor- 
mally been forthcoming through regular 
supervisory levels. 

"We believe that our safety program has 
received considerable impetus from discus- 
sions held in our LMPC meeting. The 
LMPC has also provided a splendid oppor- 
tunity for allocation of responsibility with 
regard to employees' social and recreational 
activities." 

Speaking on behalf of the unions, H. 
Gerrard, Chief Steward of Local 743, Inter- 
national Association of Bridge, Structural 
and Ornamental Iron Workers, said: 

"We personally feel as a whole that much 
has been accomplished at these meetings. 
As a result of this the men have become 
more interested in the progress of the 
company which leads to better understand- 
ing between labour and management." 
* * * 

As a part of a labour-management com- 
mittee drive to promote greater safety 
and better plant housekeeping, a large 
safety bulletin board has been erected at 
the New Toronto metal can plant of the 
Continental Can Company of Canada. 



Describing the board and its purpose Per- 
sonnel Supervisor N. C. Tompkins said: 

"The main message on the board is 
changed daily. We have found this to be 
a most effective medium of communication 
with our employees. Also shown on the 
centre part of our news board is a 
record of accident-free days where the 
employees can learn the accident situation 
both in their own department and for the 
plant as a whole. On the left-hand side of 
the board results of the good housekeeping 
contest are shown. It is an interdepart- 
mental competition and each department is 
attempting to reach the 'Top of the Totem 
Pole' indicating success in their good house- 
keeping effort. 

"Accident prevention activities in the 
plant have hit a new level of development 
since active participation of union officers 
and committee men commenced earlier this 
year. A general plant safety committee and 
a foreman's safety committee are in opera- 
tion and a highly effective program of 
co-ordination has been developed between 
the two committees to eliminate hazards 
and unsafe work practices. 

"The committee's most successful efforts 
to date have been all-out drives to improve 
footwear protection and to provide better 
eye protection on some jobs. Plant em- 
ployees have co-operated in excellent 
fashion to improve their own type of 
footwear because of the dangers of cuts 
from tin strips and scrap. 

"All accidents in the plant are investigated 
thoroughly. A committee from manage- 
ment, supervision, and the plant committee, 
along with the injured employee and his 
foreman, review any injury which might 
require attention by a doctor." 

The President of Local 4025, United Steel- 
workers of America, CLC, said that his 
union is eager to co-operate in the safety 
work and is pleased with the work the 
new committee is doing in the plant. 
* * * 

Through the efforts of the labour-manage- 
ment committee at the St. Maurice Chemi- 
cals Limited, Varennes, Quebec, a series of 
English courses has been started for plant 
employees. Each lecture is two hours in 
length and a total of 20 lectures will be 
given in each course. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Committees is encouraged and assisted 
by the Labour-Management Co-operation 
Service, Industrial Relations Branch, 
Department of Labour. In addition to 
field representatives located in key in- 
dustrial centres, who are available to 
help both managements and trade unions, 
the Service provides various aids in the 
form of booklets, posters and films. 



966 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings Before 

The Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Board met for two days during 
June. The Board issued 13 certificates 
designating bargaining agents, ordered 
three representation votes, and rejected 
two applications for certification. The 
Board also rejected one application for 
provision for final settlement of differences 
concerning the meaning or violation of a 
collective agreement. During the month, 
the Board received eight applications for 
certification, and allowed the withdrawal of 
two applications for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 796, on behalf of a unit 
of stationary engineers and helpers em- 
ployed by Northspan Uranium Mines, 
Elliot Lake, Ont. (L.G., July, 1957, p. 842). 

2. National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians on behalf of 
a unit of employees of Quebec Television 
(Canada) Limited, Quebec, Que. (L.G., 
June, 1957, p. 712). 

3. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of 
a unit of unlicensed employees emploj'-ed 
aboard tugs and barges operated by Branch 
Lines Limited, Sorel, Que. (L.G., June, 
1957, p. 712). 

4. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers em- 
ployed aboard vessels operated by Bays- 
water Shipping Limited, Brockville, Ont. 
(L.G., July, 1957, p. 842). 

5. Building Service Employees' Inter- 
national Union, Local 298, on behalf of a 
unit of cleaners and charwomen employed 
by Northern Cleaning Agencies, Inc., Mont- 
real, in the cleaning of premises occupied 
by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
at three locations in Montreal (L.G., July, 
1957, p. 843). 

6. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
employed aboard the Alexander Leslie, 
operated by Lake Erie Navigation Com- 
pany Limited, Walkerville, Ont. (L.G., 
July, 1957, p. 843). 



7. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Abitibi Power & Paper Company, Limited, 
Port Arthur, Ont. (L.G., July, 1957, p. 843). 

8. International Longshoremen's Asso- 
ciation, Ind., on behalf of a unit of long- 
shoremen employed by Eastern Canada, 
Stevedoring Co. Ltd. at Toronto (L.G., 
July, 1957, p. 843). 

9. International Longshoremen's Asso- 
ciation, Ind., on behalf of a unit of long- 
shoremen employed by Cullen Stevedoring 
Company Limited at Toronto (L.G., July, 
1957, p. 843). 

10. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Caledon 
Terminals Limited at Hamilton (L.G., July, 
1957, p. 844). 

11. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Hamilton 
Shipping Company. Limited, at Hamilton 
(L.G., July, 1957, p. 844). 

12. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Yorkwood 
Shipping and Trading Company Limited 
at Hamilton (L.G, July, 1957, p. 844). 

13. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Eastern 
Canada Stevedoring Co. Ltd. at Hamilton 
(see applications received, below). 

Representation Votes Ordered 

1. General Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers, Local 979, International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehouse- 
men, and Helpers of America, applicant, 
and Norton Motor Lines, Stoney Creek, 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



967 



Ont.. respondent (L.G., July, 1957, p. 843). 
(Returning Officer:, A. B. Whitfield). 

2. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, appli- 
cant, and Northern Transportation Com- 
pany Limited, Edmonton, respondent 
(L.G., July, 1957, p. 844) (Returning Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe). 

3. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, appli- 
cant, and Yellowknife Transportation Com- 
pany Limited, Edmonton, respondent 
(L.G., July, 1957, p. 844) (Returning Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. United Steelworkers of America, 
applicant, and Northspan Uranium Mines 
Limited, Elliot Lake, Ont., respondent. The 
application was rejected for the reason 
that it was not supported by a majority 



of the employees eligible to cast ballots in 
the representation vote conducted by the 
Board (L.G., July, 1957, p. 841). 

2. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, applicant, and Northspan 
Uranium Mines Limited, Elliot Lake, Ont., 
respondent. The application was rejected 
for the reason that it was not supported 
by a majority of the employees eligible 
to cast ballots in the representation vote 
conducted by the Board (L.G., July, 1957, 
p. 841). 

Application under Section 19 of Act 
Rejected 

The Board refused an application of the 
Association of Atomic Energy Technicians 
and Draftsmen, Local 165, American 
Federation of Technical Engineers, for a 
provision for the final settlement, without 
stoppage of work, of differences concerning 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Indus- 
trial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act are provided by the Minister 
of Labour through the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch. The branch also acts as 
the administrative arm of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, in matters under 
the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the War- 
time Labour Relations Regulations. P.C. 
1003, which became effective in March, 
1944, and repealed the Industrial Dis- 
putes Investigation Act, which had been 
in force from 1907 until superseded by 
the Wartime Regulations in 1944. Deci- 
sions, orders and certifications given 
under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime 
Labour Relations Board are continued in 
force and effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial railways, canals. 
telegraphs, interprovincial and. interna- 
tional steamship lines and ferries, aero- 
dromes and air transportation, radio 
broadcasting stations and works declared 
by Parliament to be for the general 
advantage of Canada or two or more of 
its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if 
they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries 
within provincial jurisdiction and make 
mutually satisfactory arrangements with 
the federal Government for the admin- 
istration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is 
directly responsible for the appointment 
of conciliation officers, conciliation boards, 
and Industrial Inquiry Commissions con- 
cerning complaints that the Act has been 
violated or that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively, and for applications 
for consent to prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the cer- 
tification of bargaining agents, the writ- 
ing of provisions — for incorporation into 
collective agreements — fixing a procedure 
for the final settlement of disputes con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of such 
agreements and the investigation of com- 
plaints referred to it by the minister that 
a party has failed to bargain collectively 
and to make every reasonable effort to 
conclude a collective agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regula- 
tions made under the Act. and the Rules 
of Procedure of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board are available upon 
request to the Department of Labour. 
Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations 
Board, and (2l Conciliation and other 
Proceedings before the Minister of 
Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal. Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's. Newfoundland. The territory of 
two officers resident in Vancouver com- 
prises British Columbia. Alberta and the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories; two 
officers stationed in Winnipeg cover the 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba 
and Northwestern Ontario: three officers 
resident in Toronto confine their activi- 
ties to Ontario; three officers in Mont- 
real are assigned to the province of 
Quebec, and a total of three officers 
resident in Fredericton. Halifax and St. 
John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. 
The headquarters of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Branch and the Director of 
Industrial Relations and staff are situated 
in Ottawa. 



968 



the meaning or violation of the agreement 
between the union and Atomic Energy of 
Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ont., (L.G., 
July, 1957, p. 844). The Board stated 
that the arbitration procedure contained 
in the existing agreement appeared ade- 
quate for the final settlement, without 
stoppage of work, of all differences between 
the parties concerning the meaning or viola- 
tion of the agreement, as required by Sec- 
tion 19(1) of the Act. 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup 
Men and Dockmen's Union, Local No. 605, 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of Northern Freightways Limited, Dawson 
Creek, B.C. (Investigating Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe). 

2. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of Algom Uranium Mines 
Limited, Elliot Lake, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

3. International Brotherhood of Long- 
shoremen, Local 1817, on behalf of a unit 
of longshoremen employed by Eastern 
Canada Stevedoring Co. Ltd. at Hamilton 
(Investigating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

4. International Union of Mine, Mill 
and Smelter Workers, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Canadian Dyno Mines 
Limited, Bancroft, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

5. General Truck Drivers' Union, Local 
938, International Brotherhood of Team- 



sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Ottawa Transportation Co. 
(1945) Limited, Ottawa, Ont. (Investigat- 
ing Officer: G. A. Lane). 

6. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of the National Harbours Board 
employed at Port Colborne, Ont. (Investi- 
gating Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

7. Pacific Western Airlines Pilots' As- 
sociation, on behalf of a unit of pilots 
employed by Pacific Western Airlines 
Limited, Vancouver, B.C. (Investigating 
Officer: G. R. Currie). 

8. Transport Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers' Union, Local 106, International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, 
on behalf of a unit of employees of McNeil 
Transport Limited, Montreal (Investigating 
Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, applicant, and National 
Harbours Board, Port Colborne, Ont., re- 
spondent (L.G., July, 1957, p. 843. The 
application was later re-submitted — see 
above). 

2. Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup 
Men and Dockmen's Union, Local No. 605, 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, applicant, and Northern Freight- 
ways Limited, Dawson Creek, B.C., re- 
spondent (the application had been received 
earlier in the month — see above). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

Before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June, the Minister of Labour 
appointed Conciliation Officers to deal with 
the following disputes: 

1. Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting 
Company Limited, Flin Flon, Man., and 
Flin Flon Base Metal Workers' Federal 
L T nion No. 172 and seven other Inter- 
national Unions (Conciliation Officer: J. S. 
Gunn). 

2. Clarke Steamship Company Limited 
(Seven Islands operations) and United 
Steelworkers of America, Local 5197 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: R. Duquette). 



3. Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company 
Limited (Seven Islands operations) and 
United Steelworkers of America, Local 5197 
(Conciliation Officer: R. Duquette). 

4. United Keno Hill Mines, Elsa, Yukon 
Territory, and International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers (Conciliation 
Officer: G. R. Currie). 

5. Shipping Federation of British Colum- 
bia, Northland Navigation Company 
Limited and International Longshoremen's 
and Warehousemen's Union, Locals 505 and 
509 (Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

6. National Harbours Board, Port of 
Montreal, and Seafarers' International 



92423—5 



969 



Union of North America, Canadian District 
(Conciliation Officer: R. Trepanier). 

7. Westward Shipping Company Limited, 
Vancouver, and Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian District 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation 
Officer 

1. Maple Leaf Milling Company Limited, 
Medicine Hat, and United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Local 511 (Concilia- 
tion Officer: J. S. Gunn) (L.G., July, 
p. 845). 

2. Ogilvie Flour Mills Company Limited, 
Medicine Hat, and United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Local 511 (Concilia- 
tion Officer: J. S. Gunn) (L.G., July, 
p. 845). 

3. Hill the Mover (Canada) Limited, 
Ottawa, and Local 419, International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America 
(Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) 
(L.G., Feb., p. 176). 

4. National Harbours Board, Montreal, 
and Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees (Conciliation Officer: 
R. Duquette) (L.G., May, p. 574). 

5. Radio Station CHRS, Quebec City, 
and National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians (Conciliation 
Officer: R. Duquette) (L.G., June, p. 712). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

1. Bicroft Uranium Mines Limited and 
United Steelworkers of America (L.G., July, 
p. 845). 

2. Greyhawk Uranium Mines Limited, 
and International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers (L.G., July, p. 845). 

3. Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited, 
Vancouver, and International Association of 
Machinists, Canadian Airways Lodge No. 
764 (L.G., July, p. 845). 

4. Canadian National Railways (Cana- 
dian National Newfoundland Steamship 
Service), and Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees and Other Transport 
Workers (L.G., July, p. 845). 

5. Commercial Cable Company, and Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., July, 
p. 845). 



Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and In- 
vestigation established in April to deal 
with matters in dispute between Faraday 
Uranium Mines Limited, Bancroft, and 
Local 1006, International Union of Mine, 
Mill and Smelter Workers (L.G., June, 
p. 713) was fully constituted in June with 
the appointment of His Honour Judge J. C. 
Anderson, Belleville, as Chairman. Judge 
Anderson was appointed by the Minister 
in the absence of a joint recommendation 
from the other two members, Alexander 
Harris, and Kenneth Woodsworth, both of 
Toronto, who were previously appointed 
on the nomination of the company and 
union respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in April to deal with 
matters in dispute between Atomic Energy 
of Canada, Chalk River, and Atomic 
Energy Allied Council (L.G., June, p. 713) 
was fully constituted in June with the 
appointment of Mr. Eric G. Taylor as 
Chairman. Mr. Taylor was appointed by 
the Minister in the absence of a joint 
recommendation, from the other two mem- 
bers, E. Macauley Dillon, Q.C., and Donald 
R. Walkinshaw, Q.C., both of Toronto, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union 
respectively. 

Board Reports Received During Month 

1. Canada Steamship Lines Limited 
(Montreal Terminals) and Brotherhood 
of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight 
Handlers, Express and Station Employees 
(L.G., Jan., p. 63). The text of the report 
is reproduced below. 

2. Eastern Air Lines, Inc. (Traffic Divi- 
sion), and International Association of 
Machinists (L.G., June, p. 713). The text 
of the report is reproduced below. 

Settlements Following Board Procedure 

1. Canadian National Railways (Niagara, 
St. Catharines and Toronto Railway, and 
Oshawa Electric Railway) and Brotherhood 
of Railroad Trainmen (L.G., Feb., p. 177). 

2. Canada Steamship Lines Limited 
(Montreal Terminals) and Brotherhood of 
Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight 
Handlers, Express and Station Employees 
(see above). 



970 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Canada Steamship Lines Limited (Montreal Terminals) 

and 

Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, 

Express and Station Employees 



The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation appointed under the provisions of 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act in the matter of a dispute 
between Canada Steamship Lines Limited 
(Montreal Terminal) and the Brotherhood 
of Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight 
Handlers, Express and Station Employees, 
was composed of H. Carl Goldenberg, Esq., 
QC, Chairman; Prof. J. C. Weldon, 
nominee of the bargaining agent; Clifford 
Howard, Esq., QC, nominee of the em- 
ployer. 

Proceedings before the Board opened in 
Montreal on November 30, 1956. Following 
a preliminary presentation of the case, the 
Chairman, with the approval of the other 
members, requested the parties to resume 
collective bargaining with a view to narrow- 
ing the area of disagreement between them. 
The Chairman placed his services at the 
disposal of the parties to this end. The 
parties accepted the Chairman's proposal. 

As a result of the resumption of negotia- 
tions, the parties have narrowed the area 
of disagreement to the following matters, 
on which the Board now reports. In so 
reporting the Board has due regard to the 
fact that this is the first agreement between 
the parties with respect to the classification 
of employee concerned. 

1. Working Hours 

The union requests a 37^-hour week for 
office staff and a 50-hour week, during the 
navigation season, for shed staff. The 
company offers a 40-hour week for office 
staff and a 55-hour week for shed staff. 
The union submits that since present work- 
ing hours for office employees are 37^ and 
41 on alternate weeks, the company's pro- 
posal would actually increase working 
hours. 

The Board recommends as follows: 

A. The work week Monday through Sun- 
day shall consist of 40 hours per week for 
the following departments, except in those 
cases where a shorter work week is presently 
in effect: 

Office Staff— General Office, Billing Office, 
Steamship Forwarding Office, Inward Office, 
Timekeepers Office, and Shed Office. 

B. The work week Monday through Sun- 
day shall consist of 55 hours per week for 
the following departments: 

shed staff, foremen, maintenance men, steve- 
dores, and assistant foremen. 



The present existing hours of work during 
the non-operating navigational season shall 
continue. 

2. Overtime Rates 

The company submits that overtime 
should be paid at pro rata rates while the 
union requests payment on the basis of 
time and one-half. Although cognizant of 
the fact that time and one-half for over- 
time is tending to be the pattern in industry 
generally, the Board also takes cognizance 
of the fact that the employees concerned 
in the present dispute are monthly-rated 
employees who have hitherto not been paid 
overtime and is of the opinion that the 
company should be given an opportunity 
to adjust its operations in order to avoid 
overtime if possible. 

Accordingly, the Board recommends as 
follows : 

For office employees as listed above, over- 
time shall be paid extra at pro rata rate for 
all hours worked in excess of 40 hours per 
week. 

For shed employees as listed above, over- 
time shall be paid extra at pro rata rate 
for all hours worked in excess of 55 hours 
per week. 

The overtime rate shall be obtained by 
dividing the monthly rate by 173 in the case 
of office employees as listed above and by 
239 in the case of shed employees as listed 
above. 

3. Promotion 

The company submits that decisions on 
promotion should rest with the officer in 
charge of the specific operation. The 
union requests a right of appeal from such 
decisions. 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation appointed to 
deal with matters in dispute between the 
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, and the Canada 
Steamship Lines Limited (Montreal 
Terminals) . 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of H. Carl Goldenberg, OBE, QC, who 
was appointed by the Minister on the 
joint recommendation of the other two 
members, Clifford Howard, QC, and Dr. 
John Weldon, nominees of the company 
and union respectively. 

The report was signed by the Chairman 
and Dr. Weldon. Mr. Howard was 
unable to sign because of illness. 

The text of the report is reproduced 
here. 



92423— 5i 



971 



The Board concurs with the union and 
recommends as follows : 

Promotions shall be based on ability, 
merit, and seniority; ability and merit being 
sufficient, seniority shall prevail. The 
officer of the company in charge will be 
the judge subject to appeal to the Per- 
sonnel Manager. 

4. Annual Vacations with Pay 

The company's offer with respect to 
annual vacations with pay is considered 
unsatisfactory by the union because such 
vacations would largely be taken in the 
winter. The Board must, however, take 
cognizance of the nature of the company's 
operations. 

Accordingly, the Board recommends as 
follows : 

Employees shall be granted annual vaca- 
tions with pay on the following basis: 

After completion of six months' service 

— 1 week in winter 

After completion of one year's service 

< — 2 weeks in winter 

After completion of five years' service 

— 1 week in winter 

— 1 week during navigation 
or 

— 3 consecutive weeks in winter 

After completion of ten years' service 

— 2 weeks in winter 

— 1 week during navigation 

After completion of fifteen years' service 
or more 

— 2 weeks during navigation 

— 1 week in winter 

5. Employee Privileges 

The union requests the insertion of 
clauses in the collective agreement under 
which the company will bind itself to 
continue certain privileges presently en- 
joyed by the employees, including pass 
privileges, eligibility to participate in the 
company's pension plan, and participation 
in the annual bonuses when such are 
granted, the whole as has been the practice 
of the company in the past. The company 
objects to the inclusion of such clauses. 

The Board makes no recommendation in 
this regard, it being understood that exist- 
ing privileges of general application will 



be continued and that there will be no dis- 
crimination in connection therewith against 
the employees concerned in the present 
dispute. 

6. Wages 

The union requests an increase of 15 per 
cent in rates of pay effective from the date 
of its demand. The company submits that 
in accordance with its established practice 
all employees have already received vary- 
ing increases for 1956. While denying the 
validity of the wage increase demanded, the 
company further submits that any increase 
should in any event become effective only 
on the date of the signing of the collective 
agreement. 

Considering the delays which have 
already occurred since the commencement 
of negotiations between the parties, for 
which neither party is solely responsible, 
the Board recommends as follows: 

The rates of pay of the employees covered 
by this agreement shall be increased retro- 
active to April 1, 1957, by 11 per cent less 
such increases as the said employees or 
any of them have already received since 
January 2, 1956. 

Since it has been submitted to the 
Board that existing job classifications do 
not necessarily reflect the duties and re- 
sponsibilities of the respective positions, the 
Board recommends that the parties proceed 
jointly with a proper job evaluation in 
order that appropriate classifications may 
be established. 

The Board further recommends for the 
consideration of the parties that future 
negotiations covering the employees con- 
cerned in the present dispute be integrated, 
if possible, with the negotiations covering 
the other employees of the company repre- 
sented by the union. 

The whole respectfully submitted this 5th 
day of June, 1957. 

(Sgd.) H. Carl Goldenberg, 

Chairman. 

(Sgd.) J. C. Weldon, 

Member. 



The right of employers who belong to a 
multi-employer bargaining group to lock 
out their employees as a defence against 
a "whipsawing" strike of the employees' 
union against one employer member of the 
group has been upheld by a recent decision 
of the United States Supreme Court. 

Certain decisions of lower courts had 
previously held that such defensive lock- 
outs were unlawful. 



However, the Supreme Court's decision 
makes it clear that a lockout is lawful 
only in the particular case that it is being 
used as a weapon against a union's whip- 
sawing tactics. The Court points out that 
its decision is not concerned with lockouts 
which have been held illegal because they 
were intended to defeat the efforts of a 
union to organize, or because they aimed 
to destroy or undermine bargaining repre- 
sentation, or to evade the obligation to 
bargain. 



972 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Eastern Air Lines Inc. (Traffic Division) 

and 

International Association of Machinists 



The Board of Conciliation which you 
established to deal with the matters in 
dispute between the above-cited parties and 
which was composed of Mr. Justice Andre 
Montpetit, as Chairman, of Mr. Raymond 
Caron, advocate, as the employer's repre- 
sentative, and of Mr. Roger Provost, as 
the Association's representative, wishes to 
submit hereunder its recommendations. 

Following various meetings, the parties 
hereto having reached agreement on 22 out 
of 25 articles of a proposed draft collective 
agreement, your Board was seized with the 
following three issues: 

(A) scale of wages and effective date; 

(B) union security; 

(C) termination clause. 

— A— 

The Association's request, as to wages, is 
that the employer should be called upon 
to pay wages equal to those it pays in 
the United States to its senior agents, 
agents and porters (hereunder referred to 
as ''clerical employees"). 

The employer's counter-proposal is that 
the said employees are entitled to fair and 
reasonable wages, due consideration being 
given to the rates paid in Canada for com- 
parative jobs, but not equal to those which 
it pays in the United States. 

It is quite evident that there would have 
been no dispute between the parties on 
this first issue, if the Association had not 
sought to obtain (September 6, 1956), and 
had not obtained, a certification as bargain- 
ing agent from the Canada Labour Rela- 
tions Board (October 9, 1956). 

Up to that time and more particularly 
up to the date hereunder referred to, all 
Canadian "clerical employees", under their 
agreement with Colonial Airlines Inc., had 
enjoyed the same conditions of labour as 
their American "clerical co-employees". 
This policy Eastern Airlines manifestly 
intended to follow after the expiration of 
the Colonial agreement (September 30, 
1956) provided the said Canadian em- 
ployees agree to a complete integration 
with their American "clerical co-employees" 
and renounce, more or less, to being certi- 
fied by the Canada Labour Relations Board 
and to having a collective agreement of 
their own. It should be noted here that 
the American "clerical employees" are not 
certified in the United States and that 



there is no collective agreement between 
them and Eastern Airlines. 

The above proposition of fact is fully 
justified from reiterated statements to that 
effect before this Board by the employer's 
representatives, from various exhibits filed 
by the employer, and from the following 
excerpt contained in Eastern Airlines' 
reply to the Association's application for 
certification (employer's exhibit 12, p. 3) : 

..."Eastern believes that the bargaining 
unit proposed by the applicant is not ap- 
propriate for collective bargaining. In the 
past, these classes of employees have been 
subject to exactly the same tvage and salary 
scales, rules and working conditions as the 
employees performing the same functions in 
the United States. Eastern intends to con- 
tinue that practice unless a separate certi- 
fication for the Canadian employees results 
from this proceeding. If there were such 
a separate certification, it would be inevit- 
able that different rates of pay, rules and 
working conditions would evolve for the 
Canadian employees, particularly in view 
of the fact that the applicant does not 
represent the same classification in the 
United States. Eastern submits that it 
would be in the best interests of all con- 
cerned that the same labor conditions pre- 
vail for all employees having common 
interests and performing the same work, 
whether in the United States or Canada. In 
this connection, it should be noted that 
Eastern has approximately 4,400 employees 
in these categories in the United States, as 
compared with the 46 in Canada." (The 
portion italicized hereabove is by the Board). 

Because of this, we definitely have the 
impression (Mr. Raymond Caron dissent- 
ing) that the employer's main concern is 
to deprive their Canadian "clerical em- 
ployees" of wages equal to those it pays 
its American "clerical employees" only 
because the former have deemed it advis- 
able to avail themselves of a clear and 
definite right under Canadian Law. 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation appointed to 
deal with matters in dispute between 
the International Association of Ma- 
chinists and Eastern Air Lines Inc. 
(Traffic Division), Montreal. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of the Hon. Mr. Justice Andre Montpetit, 
Montreal, who was appointed by the 
Minister in the absence of a joint recom- 
mendation from the other two members, 
Raymond Caron and Roger Provost, both 
of Montreal, nominees of the company 
and union respectively. 

The text of the report is reproduced 
here. 



973 



The majority of this Board feels that 
it cannot, in any way, endorse, directly or 
indirectly, a policy or an attitude whereby 
an employer, whoever he may be, agrees to 
a certain rate of wages in exchange of a 
renunciation by a group of workers or 
employeees or by a union to apply for and 
obtain a certification. 

Moreover, in this instance, we fail to see 
how it can seriously be contended — as 
stated in the above-quoted excerpt — that 
"a separate certification" may or can 
jeopardize or seriously affect the labour 
conditions in the United States; especially 
in a case where only 46 employees are 
involved in comparison to 4,400 in the 
United States. 

The employer has contended that be- 
cause of the certification of the Association 
and of the consequent necessity of having 
to negotiate a collective agreement with 
the Association, its Canadian clerical em- 
ployees cannot be "integrated" with its 
American clerical employees, particularly 
in the matter of the application of seniority 
practice, transfer of personnel, etc. 

In reply the Association contends that 
the proposed agreement will not prevent 
integration and that the proposed seniority 
clause gives the employer the necessary 
latitude. Neither party gave the Board 
any precise information on the items agreed 
upon in negotiation. 

We are of opinion, Mr. Raymond Caron 
dissenting, that the employer should agree 
to pay its Canadian clerical employees 
wages equal to those presently being paid 
to its American clerical employees, pro- 
vided that in so doing the Canadian cleri- 
cal employees will not receive in the 
aggregate more benefits involving cost to 
the employer, than the American clerical 
employees presently enjoy. This proviso 
does not refer to any procedure for the 
handing of grievances nor to other clearly 
non-monetary benefits arising from a col- 
lective agreement. Further to the above 
this Board also recommends that the new 
salary scale be payable in U.S.A. dollars as 
is stated by Mr. W. C. Gilbert to be the 
employer's practice in all jurisdictions. 

Mr. Caron dissents from the majority 
recommendation because in his opinion the 
above-quoted statement from the em- 
ployer's Exhibit 12 has been taken from its 
proper context. He considers that the 
company offer is fair and reasonable and 
compares more than favourably with 
salary scales for other airlines operating 
in Canada, including T.C.A., and constitutes 
a fair increase over the salaries previously 
paid by Colonial Airlines to its clerical 
employees both in Canada and in the 



U.S.A. Mr. Caron considers that the 
employer's statement as above quoted 
should be ignored by this Board for the 
same reason that this Board should ignore 
the employer's original statement dated 
August 28, 1956 (Exhibit 4) to the effect 
that Canadian employees would be inte- 
grated with American employees and paid 
the then existing Eastern Air Lines pay 
scale following the expiry on September 
30, of the Association's agreement with 
Colonial Airlines, which agreement the 
employer had undertaken to honour until 
expiry. Thus when issuing the document 
dated August 28 last the employer assumed, 
as it was entitled to assume due to its 
agreement with the Association dated April 
24, 1956 (Exhibit 1), that no collective 
agreement would exist after September 30 
for the Canadian clerical employees taken 
over from Colonial and that all its rules, 
regulations and practices governing its 
4,400 American clerical employees could 
and would thenceforth be applied to its 
46 new Canadian clerical employees. When 
the employer found its assumption was 
in error then its statement as to working 
conditions, including pay scale, which was 
predicated upon such assumption, was 
retracted. This retraction was not because 
the Association sought certification as such 
but because the consequences of certifica- 
tion made impossible the full implementa- 
tion of the employer's intention. Thus in 
the opinion of Mr. Caron, although the 
Association is entitled to bargain for any 
pay scale seen fit, neither the Association 
nor this Board should in equity divide 
the employer's proposal so as to hold that 
the employer had "offered" the American 
pay scale to its new Canadian clerical 
employees, nor should it be assumed that 
the above-quoted statement to the Labour 
Relations Board would have been made 
had the earlier events not taken place, that 
is, had the application for certification been 
made in normal circumstances by a new 
union organizing the employees of a new 
employer for the first time. 

As far as the "effective date" is con- 
cerned, we believe (Mr. R. Caron dissent- 
ing) that it should go back to February 1, 
1957, that is, the first day following the 
Association's request of the federal con- 
ciliation officer's services. Mr. Caron 
believes that being a first contract with a 
new employer any increase in wages should 
be effective from the date of signing the 
collective agreement. 

— B— 

The second issue deals with union shop. 
Since the view has been expressed that 



974 



there should not be any serious dis- 
crepancy in the general conditions of labour 
between the aforesaid two categories of 
"clerical employees" (Canadian and Ameri- 
can) and since the Association at the 
present stage has not been certified under 
American law as bargaining agent for the 
said American employees, we feel (Mr. 
Roger Provost dissenting) that there should 
not be any "union shop" clause, or any 
other type of "union security" clause, in 
the agreement at least for the time being. 



— C— 
As to the "termination clause", we 
unanimously recommend that it be of one 
year duration as of the day of signing of 
the agreement. 
The whole respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) Andre Montpetit, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) Raymond Caron, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Roger Provost, 

Member. 
Montreal, June 6, 1957. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 
Releases Decisions in Four Recent Cases 



The Canadian Railway Board of Adjust- 
ment No. 1 has released its decisions in 
four cases heard June 11. 

The first case concerned a claim for 
extra compensation for firemen who were 
required to take water on diesel engine 
run-through at Ottawa Union Station dur- 
ing their preparatory or final inspection 
time; the second and fourth cases, claims 
by firemen for payment for deadheading; 
and the third case, a fireman's claim for 
mileage lost when he was displaced from 
his regular assignment by a demoted 
engineer. 

In the first case the Board recommended 
that a time allowance in addition to the 
change-off time already provided should 
be arrived at by negotiation between the 
two parties. In the second and fourth cases 
the claim of the employees was sustained, 
but in the latter case with a reservation; 
and in the third case the contention of 
the employees was not sustained. 

The four disputes and decisions are 
summarized here: 

Case No. 682 — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company (East- 
ern Region) and the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen concerning 
compensation for firemen (helpers) re- 
quired to take water on diesel engine run- 
through units at Ottawa Union Station. 

Since diesel power has been used in 
passenger service on run-through trains 
Ottawa firemen on these trains have been 
aotified that either the outgoing or the 
incoming firemen will be required to take 
water at Ottawa Union Station in his 
preparatory or final inspection time. The 
firemen claimed extra pay for the time 
occupied; the company rejected the claim. 



The employees contended that Article 
22 of the current agreement provided in 
part that engines should be supplied with 
fuel, sand and water by engine house staff 
at terminals, and that it was never con- 
templated that firemen would be required 
to serve the engines when coming on or 
going off duty, during their preparatory 
or final terminal time. 

The Company, in its contention, stated 
that before the use of diesel power on 
run-through trains, when steam locomotives 
were used between Montreal and the 
Algoma District, the change-off point for 
engine crews between Montreal and Chalk 
River was at Ottawa West. When this 
service was in effect the firemen had been 
required to take water at Vankleek Hill, 
and almost always at Ottawa West as 
well, without any extra compensation for 
this work. 

With diesel engines in use, the company 
continued, the need for taking on water 
at Vankleek Hill had ceased; and as it was 
not necessary to stop at Ottawa West to 
serve the engine this stop had also been 
discontinued, the engine crews being 
changed at Ottawa Union Station. Under 
the agreement with the union the incoming 
and the outgoing firemen were each allowed 
15 minutes terminal time. Between five 
and ten minutes only, the Company main- 
tained, were required to fill the water 
reservoir on a diesel unit. As this work 
could be done well within the time for 
which both the incoming and the outgoing 
firemen were now being paid, the Company 
felt that there was no justification for the 
firemen's claim for extra pay. The initial 
and final terminal allowances were intended 
to cover such preparatory service, the 
Company contended. 



975 



I 



The Board recommended that the par- 
ties should enter into negotiations as pro- 
vided in Article 31 of the Firemen's 
Schedule in order to settle the time which 
should be allowed to firemen who were 
required to perform this work, such time 
allowance to be in addition to the change- 
off time already provided. 

Case No. 683 — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company (East- 
ern Region) and the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen concerning 
the claim of firemen for dead-heading in 
addition to minimum day's pay. 

A fireman on spare list was ordered, with 
an engineman, to handle an engine on an 
extra west from Farnham to St. Luc and 
return dead-head to Farnham. The fire- 
man claimed payment for the 43 miles 
dead-headed. The Company refused pay- 
ment on the ground that dead-head service 
could be combined with previous road 
service to make up a minimum day. 

The union quoted an article of the 
current agreement covering dead-heading 
that provides for payment of actual 
mileage for dead-heading at the minimum 
passenger rate. 

The Company contended that more than 
one class of service might be performed in 
a day or a trip, citing "recognized pre- 
cedent set by past service" in support of 
its contention and quoting excerpts from 
the agreement which showed, among other 
things, that a fireman making less than 
100 miles in a day would be liable for 
further service. Countering the Brother- 
hood's quotation of one article in the 
agreement, the Company stated that "no 
one rule in the agreement can be read 
alone but must be read in conjunction 
with all the rules and conditions in the 
agreement". 

The Company also argued that it would 
not be sound or reasonable to pay an 
employee who performs service and dead- 
heading in a day's work more than when 
two classes of active service were per- 
formed in a day's work. 

The contention of the employees was 
sustained. 

Case No. 684 — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railivay Company (East- 
ern Region) and the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen concerning 
a fireman's claim for mileage lost when 
displaced from his regular assignment. 

When the engineers' working list at 
Ottawa was cut by three men on November 
28, the three demoted engineers displaced 
firemen from their regular assignments. 
After protests by the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen that 



the firemen were improperly displaced, a 
proper mileage check not having been 
made, one engineer was returned to the 
engineers' list. 

The next day the two displaced engineers 
exercised their seniority and booked for 
assignments that day but were not allowed 
to go out because of protests by the BLFE. 
On December 2 and 3, however, the two 
demoted engineers displaced two firemen, 
one of whom immediately exercised his 
seniority. On December 5, the fireman 
who had not exercised his seniority sub- 
mitted claims for mileage lost on December 
2 and 3. 

The BLFE contended that the fireman 
should not have been displaced until a 
proper mileage check was made; the Com- 
pany contended that the fireman's failure 
to exercise his seniority rested solely on 
himself and that any penalty against the 
Company is without basis. One cause of 
the Brotherhood's protests was that the 
demoted engineers had already made their 
mileage limits. 

Subsequently the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers agreed to base their 
mileage checks on a 15-day period, rather 
than on a 10-day period as had been their 
custom. The BLFE argued that this did 
not resolve the issue, which, it said, was 
its concern over the displacement of its 
members. The Company contended that 
the dispute did arise from jurisdictional 
dispute between the BLFE and the BLE 
over mileage regulations. 

The Board did not sustain the con- 
tention of the employees. 

Case No. 685 — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company (Paci- 
fic Region) and the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen concern- 
ing the claim of a fireman for dead-heading. 

A fireman was required to dead-head to 
Field, B.C., to man a j r ard engine when 
no bids were received for the assignment; 
he was the junior man on the fireman's 
spare board at Revelstoke. The Company 
refused his claim for dead-head pay on 
the ground that the move was one affording 
the employee the right to exercise his 
seniority and thus one for which no pay- 
ment for dead-heading was required under 
the agreement. 

The union agreed that the Company was 
not required to pay for dead-heading made 
necessary by the application of the mileage 
regulations or in exercising seniority rights, 
but it contended that the fireman had 
dead-headed on the company's orders, and 
that neither mileage regulations or the 
exercising of seniority were responsible for 
the move. 

(Continued on page 979) 



976 



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 



Under the Collective Agreement Act, 
Quebec, Orders in Council during April, 
May and June made obligatory a number 
of changes in wage rates, hours, overtime, 
paid holidays and vacations with pay. Most 
of the new construction agreements provide 
for both immediate and deferred wage 
increases. 

In taxicab operations at Montreal, a 
first agreement established remuneration for 
chauffeurs on a weekly commission basis 
of 40 per cent of gross income from the 
fares charged. In addition, employers 
must pay employees 50 cents per day 
unless they and their employees undertake, 
in writing, to accept the obligations set 
out in the social welfare plan proposed 
by the Parity Committee. The agreement 
also provides for vacation with pay to be 
calculated on the basis of 2 per cent of 
annual earnings as of May 1 each year. 

In the construction industry at Montreal, 
new special provisions increase the mini- 
mum rate for plasterers from $2.12 to $2.17 
per hour. Deferred increases of 10 cents 
and 8 cents per hour are to become effec- 
tive October 1, 1957, and April 1, 1958, 
respectively. Double time is allowed for 
all work on Saturdays, Sundays and six 
specified holidays. 

A new section, applicable to the struc- 
tural iron industry at Montreal, increases 
tKe minimum rates for journeymen struc- 
tural iron workers and welders from $2 to 
$2.15 per hour for a 40-hour week. A 
deferred increase of 15 cents per hour 
is to become effective April 1, 1958. In 
addition to Sundays and 11 specified holi- 
days, double time is now paid for work 
on Saturday afternoons. 

Another new section, covering refrigera- 
tion installations at Montreal, increases 
the minimum rates for journeymen 
mechanics (ammonia) from $2 to $2.10 
per hour, (freon, methyl and sulphur) from 
$1.85 to $2 per hour; junior mechanics 
from $1.80 and $1.75 to $1.90 and $1.80, 
respectively. A deferred increase of 10 
cents per hour to all of the above cate- 
gories is to become effective April 1, 1958. 
Overtime at time and one-half is to be 
paid for work between 5 and 10 p.m., and 
on Saturdays till noon; double time there- 



after, and on Sundays and seven (pre- 
viously 11) specified holida}'S. Mechanics on 
service operations will be paid the above 
minimum rates, including work on Satur- 
days and Sundays. However, these mecha- 
nics are not governed by the provisions of 
the agreement relating to regular hours of 
work, overtime, shift work and urgent 
work. They will be paid time and one-half 
for work on any of seven specified holidays. 

Special provisions applicable to plumbers, 
steamfitters, etc., at Montreal increase the 
minimum rate for journeymen from $2.12 
to $2.22 per hour; junior journeymen from 
$1.60 to $1.65. A deferred increase of 10 
cents per hour (5 cents for apprentices) is 
effective from April 1, 1958. Double time 
is now paid for work on seven (previously 
12) specified holidays. Vacation with pay 
credit will be increased from 2 to 4 per 
cent of gross amount of each pay effective 
October 1, 1957. Weekly hours are 
unchanged at 40. 

Other new provisions relating to marble, 
tile and terrazzo workers at Montreal in- 
crease the minimum rates for marble 
setters, tile setters and terrazzo layers from 
$2.10 to $2.22 per hour; marble polishers 
from $1.77 to $1.85 per hour; terrazzo 
polishers (dry) from $1.91 to $2 per hour, 
(wet) from $1.71 to $1.79 per hour. 
Deferred increases ranging from 8 to 12 
cents per hour will become effective April 1, 
1958. Remuneration for three paid holidays 
will be calculated at the rate of H P er 
cent of the wages earned. 

In the construction industry at Quebec, 
minimum rates for workers included in 
the general table of classifications were 
increased by 10 cents per hour. New rates 
now range from $1.30 per hour for labourers 
to $1.90 per hour for bricklayers and stone 
cutters. A deferred increase of 10 cents per 
hour is to become effective May 1, 1958. 
Weekly hours in Zone I are unchanged at 
44; 48 in Zones II and III. However, in 
Zone 1, No time will now be worked on 
Saturdays. Special provisions relating to 
plumbers, steamfitters, refrigeration me- 
chanics, oil burner mechanics, electricians, 
etc.. are unchanged from those previously 
in effect and noted in the Labour Gazette, 
May, 1957. 



977 



A new part of the Quebec district agree- 
ment covering ornamental and utility metal 
workers increases the minimum rates of 
all categories by 10 cents per hour and 
provides for a deferred increase of 10 cents 
per hour effective May 1, 1958. Another 
section applicable to the structural iron 
industry establishes a rate of $2 per hour 
for erectors, welders, burners and riggers, 
plus a deferred increase of 10 cents per 
hour effective May 1, 1958. 

In the construction industry at Sorel, 
minimum wage rates for most classifica- 
tions were increased by 15 cents per hour, 
making the new rates for bricklayers SI. 85 
per hour in Zone I, $1.75 in Zone 
II; journeymen carpenters, electricians, 
plumbers $1.65 in Zone I, $1.55 in Zone II; 
labourers $1.30 per hour in Zone I, $1.20 
in Zone II. Weekly hours are unchanged 
at 48. Double time is now paid for work 
on five (previously 10) specified holidays. 

In the construction industry at Trois 
Rivieres, minimum rates were increased by 
10 cents per hour, making the new rates 
for bricklayers $1.80 in Zone I, $1.65 in Zone 
II; journeymen carpenters and electricians 
$1.60 in Zone I, $1.45 in Zone II; painters 
(brush) $1.50 in Zone I, $1.40 in Zone II; 
labourers $1.25 in Zone I, $1.15 in Zone II. 
Minimum rates for structural steel erector, 
welder, etc. were increased from $2 to $2.15 
per hour in both zones. A deferred increase 
of 10 cents per hour is to become effective 
May 5, 1958. New provisions establish 
rates for elevator construction mechanics 
and helpers of $2.46 and $1.72 per hour, 
respectively. Weekly hours range from 40 
for workers engaged in the construction of 
steam generators, boilers, etc. and elevator 
installation to 48 (as previously) for most 
other classifications. 

In the construction industry at St. Hya- 
cinthe, minimum rates were increased by 
from 10 to 15 cents per hour, making 
the new rates for bricklayers $1.80 per hour 
in Zone 1, $1.60 in Zone II; journeymen 
electricians, pipe mechanics and plumbers 
$1.60 in Zone I, $1.45 in Zone II; unskilled 
labourers $1.20 in Zone I, $1.05 in Zone II. 
Weekly hours are unchanged at 48. 

In the construction industry at Joliette, 
minimum rates were increased by from 5 
to 10 cents per hour, making the new 
rates for bricklayer-mason, carpenter, pipe 
mechanic $1.70 per hour; electrician 
(journeyman) $1.75; labourer $1.25 per 
hour. Deferred increases of 5 and 10 cents 
per hour are to become effective April 1, 
1958. Double time is now paid for urgent 
work done on five (previously nine) speci- 
fied holidays. 



In the construction industry at St. Jean 
and Iberville, minimum rates were in- 
creased by 15 cents per hour in most cases 
and new rates for certain classifications are 
as follows: bricklayer, plasterer $1.90 per 
hour, journeymen electrician, crane opera- 
tor $1.70, unskilled labourer $1.20 per hour. 
A deferred increase of 10 cents per hour 
is to become effective April 1, 1958. Two 
days are deleted from the list of holidays 
on which urgent work is paid for at double 
time. Regular weekly hours are unchanged 
at 44 for qualified workers, 50 for labourers. 

In longshore work at Montreal, mini- 
mum rates for freight handlers (inland 
and coastal navigation) were increased 
from $1.55 to $1.60 per hour for day work, 
from $1.85 to $1.90 for night work. 

In the printing industry at Montreal, 
minimum hourly rates for day work were 
increased by from 2 to 11 cents per hour, 
for night work from 2 to 12 cents per hour. 
New minimum rates for day work in Zone 
I are now $2 per hour for journeymen com- 
positors, proof readers and castermen (from 
63 to 94 cents for caster runners) ; from 
$1.73 to $2.22 for journeymen pressmen, 
$1.67 to $1.73 for assistant pressmen, $1.34 
to $1.73 for press feeders, depending in each 
case on type of press; $2 per hour for 
journeymen bookbinders, $1.01 per hour for 
hand operations considered as women's 
work, $1.01 to $1.35 for other operations. 
Minimum rates for unskilled helpers (male) 
in all departments are 63 cents per hour 
for the first six months, 76 cents per hour 
thereafter. Minimum rates for apprentices 
were also increased. Lower wage rates are 
specified for all classes in Zones II and III. 

In the dress manufacturing industry 
throughout the province, minimum rates 
were increased by from 5 to 7^ cents per 
hour by virtue of increased cost of living 
bonuses, making the new rates including 
the cost of living bonuses for skilled 
cutters (grade 1) $1.32 per hour, semi- 
skilled cutters (grade 2) $1.07, pressers 
(male) $1.18, pressers (female) 82 cents, 
general hand 58i cents, operators and 
sample makers 74^ cents per hour. Rates 
for other classifications range from 58i- 
cents for folders to 78 cents per hour for 
spreaders. Regular weekly hours were 
reduced from 44 to 40 for plants not already 
on a 40-hour week. Paid holidays were 
increased from three to five. Other provi- 
sions affect homeworkers. 

In the sheet metal fabricating industry 
at Montreal, minimum wage rates were 
increased by from 8 to 11 cents per hour, 
making the new rates for sheet metal 
mechanic and journeymen welder $1.88 per 



978 



hour, toolmaker $1.93, blacksmith $1.79, 
machine operator $1.56, production welders 
from $1.45 in first year to $1.56 in second, 



production workers from $1.40 in first year 
to $1.51 after three years. Weekly hours 
were reduced from 4H to 40. 



Industrial Standards Acts, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario 



During April, May and June, 13 new 
schedules were made binding under Indus- 
■ trial Standards Acts, eight in Nova Scotia, 
one in New Brunswick and four in Ontario, 
including two new schedules for the barber- 
ing industry at Brantford and at Ottawa. 

In Nova Scotia, new schedules for brick- 
layers, carpenters, electricians, labourers, 
painters, plasterers and sheet metal workers 
at Halifax and Dartmouth increased the 
minimum rates over the 1955 schedules by 
15 cents per hour; the wage rate for 
plumbers was increased by 16 cents to 
$1.97 per hour and includes 4 cents per 
hour in lieu of vacation with pay instead 
of 3 cents as previously. New rates now 
range from $1.33 per hour for unskilled 
labourers (no vacation provisions) to $2.12 
per hour (including 3 cents per hour in 
lieu of vacation with pay) for bricklayers, 
masons and tile setting trades. Weekly 
hours for labourers were reduced from 44 
to 40 except for pier construction under 
contract as of March 8, 1957. In such cases 
48 hours will prevail to completion of these 
contracts. Hours for tradesmen were 
unchanged at 40. 



In New Brunswick, minimum wage rates 
for electricians in the Saint John-Lancaster 
area were increased from $1.63 to $1.70 per 
hour for work during regular working 
periods. Weekly hours were unchanged 
at 40. 

In Ontario, minimum wage rates for 
workers employed in the millinery indus- 
try throughout the province were increased 
by 9 cents per hour. New rates now range 
from 59 cents per hour for Class "F" 
employees (sewing, examining, cleaning, 
etc.) to $1.54 for Class "A" employees 
(hand blocking, etc.) in the counties of 
Halton, Ontario, Peel, Wentworth and 
York; in other parts of Ontario, from 54 
cents for Class "F" employees to $1.40 
per hour for Class "A" employees. All 
other provisions are unchanged from those 
previously in effect, including a 40-hour 
week in the counties of Halton, Ontario, 
etc.; 45 in all other parts of the province. 

At Kitchener-Waterloo, a first schedule 
for plasterers establishes a minimum rate 
of $2.35 per hour for a regular work week 
of 40 hours. Double time is provided for 
work on Saturdays after 5 p.m., Sundays 
and seven specified holidays; time and 
one-half for all other overtime work. 



Railway Board of Adjustment 

(Continued from page 976) 

The Company contended that if any 
assignment remained unfilled after the 
senior firemen had exercised their prefer- 
ence the junior fireman was required to 
take the work in order to obtain employ- 
ment, and that he was not entitled to 
payment for dead-heading as such moves 
were the result of allowing men the chance 
to exercise their seniority rights. 

The Board found that although there 
might have been a local agreement — as 
provided for in Article 31 — at some time in 
the past regarding the manning of the 
yard assignment at Field from the spare 



board at Revelstoke, it had not been put 
in writing; neither could it be shown that 
it had been approved by the present 
General Superintendent and the present 
General Chairman, as required by Rule 31. 
Consequently the Board sustained the 
claim of the employees in the case of the 
fireman in question. But since no details 
of the amount claimed were presented, 
the decision, the Board stipulated, was 
with respect to the principle involved only, 
and was without prejudice to other move- 
ments between Revelstoke and Field with 
which the Board was not familiar. 



979 



LABOUR LAW 



Labour Legislation in British Columbia, 1957 

New legislation enacted respecting payment of compensation to blind 
workmen. Revised Municipal Act includes sections regulating closing 
hours of shops. Amendments made to Annual Holidays Act, Truck Act 



The British Columbia Legislature, which 
was in session from February 7 to March 
28, enacted a Blind Workmen's Compen- 
sation Act of the type in effect in most 
of the other provinces. The Municipal Act 
was completely revised and now includes 
sections regulating the closing hours of 
shops and the observance of specified 
statutory holidays. 

Minor amendments were made to the 
Annual Holidays Act, the Truck Act and 
the Boiler and Pressure-vessel Act. 

Compensation for Blind Workmen 

A new Blind Workmen's Compensation 
Act provides special protection for the 
employers of blind workmen, encouraging 
them to hire such persons by relieving 
them of fears of increased possibility of 
accident and, as a result, higher assessment 
rates. 

As in other Acts of this type, which are 
in effect in seven provinces, "blind work- 
man" means a workman as defined by the 
Workmen's Compensation Act having visual 
acuity of not more than 6/60 or 20/200 
(Snellen) in the better eye. For such work- 
men in all industries under Part I of the 
Workmen's Compensation Act, the Depart- 
ment of Finance will pay the excess of the 
full cost of compensation over and above 
$50. This payment will be made out of the 
Consolidated Revenue Fund, upon receipt 
of a certificate from the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board setting out the full cost 
of compensation. 

The Board may consider any previous 
award when called upon to make a further 
award to the same workman, thus ensuring 
that a workman is not paid compensation 
for a disability of more than 100 per cent. 
The Board may fix the assessment to> be 
levied on the employer on the wages of a 
blind workman at such an amount as it 
deems fair, having regard to the Work- 
men's Compensation Act. 



The Canadian National Institute for the 
Blind, or any other like organization 
designated by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, has complete jurisdiction as to 
the proper placement of any blind work- 
man, and the nature of the work he is 
permitted to do, and officers of the organi- 
zation have access to the workman's place 
of employment at any reasonable time. 

Annual Holidays 

By an amendment to the Annual Holi- 
days Act, the period within which an 
employee's annual holiday may be taken 
has been lengthened. The Act now stipu- 
lates that the holiday must "commence 
not later than" ten months after the date 
upon which the employee becomes entitled 
to it. Previously, the annual holiday had 
to be taken within the ten-month period. 

A further amendment changing "shall" to 
"may" makes it clear that the decision as 
to whether the employee takes his annual 
holiday in one unbroken period or in two 
periods of one week each rests with the 
employer. Pay in lieu of an annual holi- 
day must be paid in one payment. 

The Act, which came into force on July 
1, 1957, providing for a holiday of two 
weeks after a year of employment, applies 
to every employee who becomes entitled 
to an annual holiday on or after that date, 
and to those employees who have earned 
part of their annual holiday or holiday 
pay before that date. In the latter case 
the pay to be given in lieu of an annual 
holiday is to be 2 per cent of the total 
wages earned for the period of employ- 
ment before July 1, and 4 per cent of 
the wages earned after July 1. 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
iare enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



980 



Deductions from Wages 

By an amendment to the Truck Act, 
which regulates the payment of wages, an 
employer may honour a worker's written 
assignment of wages for payments to 
charitable organizations and for payments 
to superannuation plans, if such payments 
are deductible for income tax purposes. 
Insurance payments may also be deducted 
if the insurance company is licensed under 
the Insurance Act. 

Deductions may also be made for pay- 
ments to any employee benefit plan which 
meets with the approval of the Board of 
Industrial Relations, and the Board is 
empowered to investigate the facts with 
respect to any such plan. In holding an 
inquiry, the Board is to have the powers 
of a commissioner under the Public In- 
quiries Act. At its discretion the Board 
may rescind its approval of a plan or 
authorize amendments to an approved 
plan. 

Boilers 

By an amendment to the Boiler and 
Pressure-vessel Act, a second class engineer 
is allowed to take charge of a steam plant 
of up to 1,000 horse power capacity, 
rather than 900 horse power, as before. 

A section dealing with qualifications 
for the position of boiler inspector was 
repealed, since provision for such appoint- 
ments is made under the Civil Service Act. 

Municipal Act 

The Municipal Act was completely 
revised effective from July 1, replacing nine 
former statutes, including the Shops Regu- 
lation and Weekly Holiday Act. Of interest 
to labour are the sections providing for the 
licensing of plumbers by municipal by-law, 
for the compulsory arbitration of disputes 
involving policemen and firemen and for the 
payment of fair wages on municipal con- 
tracts. These provisions were not changed. 

Legislation governing the regulation of 
closing hours of shops in British Columbia 
dates back to 1900 and that providing for 
a weekly holiday and statutory holidays to 
1916. The two Acts were consolidated in 
1943. The shops regulation sections (Sec- 
tions 865-869) cover "any premises where 
any wholesale or retail trade or business 
is carried on, and includes any building 
or portion of a building, booth, stall, or 
place where goods are exposed or offered 
for sale by retail, or where the business 
of a barber or hairdresser or the business 
of a shoe-shine stand is carried on". They 
do not cover premises where a barber or 
hairdresser is attending a customer in the 



customer's residence, where a pharmacist 
is filling a prescription of a member of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
British Columbia, or where the only trade 
carried on is that of selling tobacco and 
related products, newspapers; magazines, 
fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, cut flowers, 
florists' products, soft drinks, dairy prod- 
ucts, bakery products, or that of an hotel, 
inn, public house, restaurant or refresh- 
ment house. 

The Municipal Act provides for a greater 
degree of provincial control over, the regu- 
lation of closing hours of shops than 
previously. All shops must close not later 
than 6 p.m. on Monday, Tuesday, Thurs- 
day and Saturday, or on any other four days 
specified by a municipal by-law. On Fri- 
days, or on another day specified by 
by-law, shops may remain open until 9 
p.m. Under the previous legislation, the 
municipal council was empowered to make 
by-laws regulating the closing hours of 
shops within certain limits set out in the 
Act. The Act stipulated that where three- 
quarters of the licensed occupiers of a 
class of shops petitioned the municipal 
council to pass a closing by-law the coun- 
cil was required to act upon the petition. 
Otherwise the municipality was under no 
compulsion to fix closing hours. 

As regards the weekly holiday, the Act 
specifies that shops are required to close 
on Wednesday, or on another day fixed by 
by-law, not later than 12 o'clock noon. 
This does not apply, however, during July 
and August if a by-law is passed providing 
that shops be closed not later than 6 p.m. 
on that day. The former legislation also 
required that a weekly half-holiday be 
observed, on which day shops were to be 
closed not later than 1 p.m., and further 
permitted the municipal council to require 
by by-law that a whole day be set aside 
each week as a holiday. 

As before, the Act stipulates that shops 
must be closed on specified public holidays. 
Two additional holidays are now included, 
Easter Monday and the Queen's Birthday. 
The holidays are now as follows: Christ- 
mas Day and the day immediately follow- 
ing, New Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter 
Monday, Dominion Day, Victoria Day, 
Labour Day, Remembrance Day, the day 
fixed by Proclamation of the Governor in 
Council for the celebration of the birthday 
of the reigning sovereign. Thanksgiving Day 
(as proclaimed), and any day appointed by 
Proclamation or Order of the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council as a holiday. 

The municipal council is authorized, with 
the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council, to exempt certain specified 



981 



c 



trades and businesses from the shop-closing 
sections of the Act. The trades and busi- 
nesses specified are automobile service- 
stations, garages, bakeries, drug stores, or 
stands within a shop for the sale of fresh 
fruits, fresh vegetables, soft drinks, dairy 
products, bakery products, cut flowers, 
florists' products and confectionery. 

As before, the council may by by-law 
prohibit hawkers and pedlars from peddling 
or selling any goods or merchandise within 
the municipality during the time that 
shops are required to be closed. 

Parts III and IV of the Shops Regula- 
tion and Weekly Holiday Act, which 
covered hours of employment of young 
persons in shops, seats for female workers, 
sanitary conveniences and construction of 
and sanitation in bake-shops and provided 
penalties for infringements, are not in- 
cluded in the new Act. Employment of 
children under 15 years in shops as well 
as in factories and other workplaces with- 
out permission is. however, forbidden by 
the Control of Employment of Children 
Act, 1944. 

With respect to arbitration of disputes 
involving policemen and firemen, the new 
Act continues in effect a provision added 
in 1949 which provided that where a con- 
ciliation board is appointed under the 
Labour Relations Act to deal with a dispute 
between a municipality or Board of Police 
Commissioners and the firemen and police- 
men in their employ, the recommendations 
of the conciliation board are binding in 
every respect upon the municipality or 
Board of Police Commissioners. 

It is further provided that, when arbi- 
tration proceedings are taken respecting 
salaries, wages or working conditions, in- 
cluding proceedings under the Labour Rela- 
tions Act, and an award is made which 
requires the expenditure of money by the 
municipality, the award of the arbitration 
board must be made and published on or 
before April 15 of the year in which the 
award is to take effect. 

As regards the payment of fair wages 
under municipal contracts, the Act con- 
tinues to require that every contract 
made by a municipality for construction, 
remodelling, repair or demolition of any 
municipal works must be subject to the 
conditions that all workmen in the employ 



of the contractor or sub-contractor must be 
paid the wages and remuneration generally 
accepted by the provincial Government 
pursuant to the Public Works Fair Wages 
and Conditions of Employment Act and 
which are generally current in the trade 
for competent workmen in the munici- 
pality. 

The Act authorizes a municipality to 
pass by-laws providing for the licensing 
and regulating of plumbers. The by-law 
may establish a board of examiners which 
may fix standards of proficiency for 
plumbers and grant certificates of pro- 
ficiency to master and journeymen plumb- 
ers. It may provide that persons not 
possessing such certificates may be pro- 
hibited from practising the trade. A by-law 
may prescribe the areas of the municipality 
to which it may apply. A certificate of 
proficiency granted by a municipality is 
valid in any other municipality. 

Bills Not Passed 

An amendment to the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Act introduced by a private 
member was defeated on second reading 
by a vote of 34-12. The amendment would 
have provided that, where a disputed 
medical claim has been referred to a 
specialist under the procedure provided 
for in the Act, the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board would be required to render a 
decision in conformity with the specialist's 
certificate. The Act now provides that 
the Board must review the claim and 
inform the workman of its decision within 
18 days. 

The bill proposed that the amendment 
should be retroactive to March 15, 1955, 
the date on which the section providing for 
a medical review came into effect. 

Another private member's bill, an Act 
to amend the Metalliferous Mines Regu- 
lation Act, was also defeated on second 
reading. 

The proposed amendment would have 
required managers, foremen, shiftbosses and 
miners to hold certificates of competency, 
and made provision for the setting up of 
a Board of Examiners to grant such cer- 
tificates. The amendment would have made 
it unlawful for any employer to hire a 
person not in possession of a certificate of 
competenc}'. 



982 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Supreme Court of Canada declares Quebec Padlock Act unconstitutional 
Quebec Supreme Court grants interim injunction restraining picketing 



Reversing the decision of the Quebec 
courts, the Supreme Court of Canada 
declared the Quebec Padlock Act invalid. 

In Quebec, the Superior Court granted 
an interim injunction prohibiting a strik- 
ing union from interfering with business 
relationships between the company and 
third parties. 

The United States Supreme Court up- 
held the power of a State court to enjoin 
peaceful picketing for organizing purposes 
which violated a law of the State. 

Supreme Court of Canada ... 

. . . rules by 8-1 majority that Quebec Padlock Act 
to be ultra vires of the provincial Legislature 

On March 8, 1957, the Supreme Court of 
Canada, allowing an appeal from a judg- 
ment of the Quebec Court of Queen's 
Bench (Appeal Side), ruled by a majority 
of 8 to 1 that the Communistic Propaganda 
Act of the Province of Quebec was wholly 
ultra vires of the provincial legislature as 
being legislation in relation to the criminal 
law, a subject exclusively within the powers 
of the Parliament of Canada. 

The circumstances of the case, as related 
in the judgment, were as follows: 

In January 1949, the Attorney-General 
of the Province of Quebec ordered the 
Director of the Provincial Police to close 
for a period of one year the premises 
occupied by the appellant, John Switzman, 
and to seize and confiscate all newspapers, 
reviews, pamphlets, circulars, documents 
or writings published in contravention of 
the Communistic Propaganda Act, com- 
monly referred to as the Padlock Act. 

In February 1949, the owner of the 
premises, the respondent Elbling. brought 
an action against the appellant for can- 
cellation of the lease and for damages in 
the amount of $2,170. 

The appellant admitted that the prem- 
ises had been used to propagate Com- 
munism but pleaded that the Padlock 
Act was wholly ultra vires of the Legisla- 
ture of the Province of Quebec. In accord- 
ance with Article 114 of the Quebec Code 
of Civil Procedure, notice of his intention 
to contest the constitutionality of the 
legislation was given to the Attorney- 
General, who intervened in the action. 



The trial judge ordered cancellation of 
the lease and rejected the claim for 
damages. He ruled that the Act was 
constitutional, holding that, in pith and 
substance, it was not criminal law and 
was not related to any matters exclusively 
reserved to the Dominion Parliament. In 
his opinion, the Act was related to property 
and civil rights in the province and was 
a matter of a merely local or private 
nature. This judgment was affirmed by 
the Court of Queen's Bench (Appeal Side), 
Mr. Justice Barclay dissenting. 

The pertinent sections of the Padlock 
Act, Sections 3 and 12, read as follows: 

3. It shall be illegal for any person, who 
possesses or occupies a house within the 
Province, to use it or allow any person to 
make use of it to propagate communism or 
bolshevism by any means whatsoever. 

12. It shall be unlawful to print, to 
publish in any manner whatsoever or to 
distribute in the Province any newspaper, 
periodical, pamphlet, circular, document or 
writing whatsoever propagating or tending 
to propagate communism or bolshevism. 

The Act provides that the Attorney- 
General, upon satisfactory proof that an 
infringement of Section 3 has been com- 
mitted, may order the closing of the 
house. Section 13 provides for the im- 
prisonment of anyone infringing Section 12. 
The Act gives a broad definition of the 
word "house" referring to any building or 
other construction whatsoever. The terms 
"Communism" and "Bolshevism" are not 
denned. 

Counsel for the appellant contended 
before the Supreme Court that the legis- 
lation, judged by its true nature and 
purpose, was related to public wrongs 
rather than private rights and was, there- 
fore, criminal law within the exclusive 
jurisdiction of the Parliament of Canada. 

The respondent maintained that the 
legislation was in no sense criminal law, 
but was related to property and civil 
rights and to matters of a local or private 
nature in the province. In his intervention 
the Attorney-General asked the Court to 
declare the Act in its entirety constitutional 
and valid and in full force and effect. 

In Chief Justice Kerwin's opinion, the 
Act in question was legislation in relation 
to the criminal law over which, by virtue 
of head 27 of Section 91 of the British 
North America Act, the Parliament of 
Canada has exclusive legislative authority. 



983 



Consequently, he held that the impugned 
Act was unconstitutional. He considered 
that the intervention of the Attorney- 
General should be dismissed and the 
statute be declared as wholly ultra vires 
of the Legislature of the Province of 
Quebec. 

Mr. Justice Rand, in an opinion con- 
curred in by Mr. Justice Kellock, pointed 
out that the Act did not affect anyone's 
civil rights nor did it create any civil 
remedy. Rather it was directed against 
the freedom or civil liberty of the actor. 
Mr. Justice Rand summed up this argu- 
ment by stating: 

The aim of the statute is, by means of 
penalties, to prevent what is considered a 
poisoning of men's minds, to shield the 
individual from exposure to dangerous 
ideas, to protect him, in short, from his own 
thinking propensities. There is nothing of 
civil rights in this; it is to curtail or 
proscribe these freedoms which the majority 
so far consider to be the condition of social 
cohesion and its ultimate stabilizing force. 

Further, Mr. Justice Rand said that, 
as indicated by the opening words of the 
preamble of the Act, reciting the desire of 
the four provinces to be united in a 
federal union with a constitution "similar 
in principle to that of the United King- 
dom", the political theory embodied in 
the B.N.A. Act was that of parliamentary 
government by the free public opinion of 
an open society. Such a public opinion 
demanded a virtually unobstructed access 
to and diffusion of ideas. Freedom of dis- 
cussion as a subject-matter of legislation 
had a unity of interest and significance 
extending equally to every part of the 
Dominion and was thus ipso facto excluded 
from Section 92 (16) of the Act as a 
local matter. Mr. Justice Rand went on 
to say that this constitutional fact was 
the political expression of the primary 
condition of social life, thought and its 
communication by language, and that 
liberty in this was little less vital to man's 
mind and spirit than breathing was to his 
physical existence. It was embodied in an 
individual's status of citizenship. Further, 
he added: 

Prohibition of any part of this activity 
as an evil would be within the scope of 
criminal law, as ss. 60, 61 and 62 of the 
Cr. Code dealing with sedition exemplify. 
Bearing in mind that the endowment of 
parliamentary institutions is one and entire 
for the Dominion, that Legislatures and 
Parliament are permanent features of our 
constitutional structure, and that the body 
of discussion is indivisible, apart from the 
incidence of criminal law and civil rights, 
and incidental effects of legislation in rela- 
tion to other matters, the degree and nature 
of its regulation must await future con- 
sideration; for the purposes here it is 
sufficient to say that it is not a matter 
within the regulation of a Province. 



Mr. Justice Cartwright stated that in his 
opinion the Act was totally invalid as 
being in pith and substance legislation in 
relation to the criminal law and thus a 
matter assigned by the B.N.A. Act to the 
exclusive legislative authority of Parlia- 
ment. 

Mr. Justice Fauteux held that the sole 
object of the Act was to prohibit, with 
penal sanctions, Communistic propaganda, 
or, more precisely, to> make such propa- 
ganda a criminal act. In his opinion 
Parliament alone, legislating in criminal 
matters, was competent to enact, define, 
prohibit and punish these matters of a 
writing or of a speech that, by their 
nature, injuriously affect the social order 
or the safety of the state, such as, for 
example, defamatory, obscene, blasphe- 
mous or seditious libels. He considered 
that a province could legislate on the civil 
consequences of a crime enacted by the 
Dominion or on the suppression of con- 
ditions leading to that crime, but it could 
not create a crime (as had been done in 
the case at bar) for the prevention of 
another which had been validly established, 
such as, for example, the crime of sedition. 

Mr. Justice Abbott, referring to the 
opinion expressed by Chief Justice Duff in 
Re Alberta Legislation (1938), said that 
the right of free expression of opinion 
and of criticism upon matters of public 
policy and public administration, and the 
right to discuss and debate such matters, 
whether social, economic or political, were 
essential to the working of a parliamentary 
democracy, and the prohibition of such 
discussion was not necessary to protect 
personal reputation or private rights. He 
added further: 

This right cannot be abrogated by a 
provincial Legislature, and the power of 
such Legislature to limit it is restricted to 
what may be necessary to protect purely 
private rights, such as for example provin- 
cial laws of defamation. It is obvious that 
the impugned statute does not fall within 
that category. It does not, in substance, 
deal with matters of property and civil 
rights or with a local or private matter 
within the Province and, in my opinion, is 
clearly ultra vires. Although it is not neces- 
sary, of course, to determine this question 
for the purposes of the present appeal, the 
Canadian Constitution being declared to be 
similar in principle to that of the United 
Kingdom, I am also of opinion that as our 
constitutional Act now stands, Parliament 
itself could not abrogate this right of dis- 
cussion and debate. The power of Parlia- 
ment to limit it is, in my view, restricted to 
such powers as may be exercisable under 
its exclusive legislative jurisdiction with 
respect to criminal law and to make laws 
for the peace, order and good government 
of the nation. 



984 



Mr. Justice Nolan, with whom Mr. Jus- 
tice Locke concurred, did not agree with 
the contention of the Attorney-General 
that, there being no provision in the 
Criminal Code or in any law passed by 
the Parliament of Canada which made 
Communism a crime or which forbade 
the propagation of Communism, the field 
was unoccupied and the provincial legisla- 
tion was valid. He referred to Union Col- 
liery Co. of B.C. v. Bryden (1899) A.C. 580 
and to the opinion of Lord Watson who, 
in delivering the judgment of the Judicial 
Committee, made it clear that the abstin- 
ence of the Dominion Parliament from 
legislating to the full limit of its powers 
could not have the effect of transferring 
to any provincial legislature the legislative 
power which had been assigned to the 
Dominion by Section 91 of the B.N .A. Act. 

Mr. Justice Taschereau, dissenting, was 
of the opinion that the impugned Act was 
valid because it merely established civil 
sanctions for the prevention of crime and 
the security of the country. 

The Court reversed the judgment of 
the Quebec Court of Queen's Bench 
(Appeal Side), and declared the Act 
beyond the powers of the provincial 
legislature as being legislation in relation 
to the criminal law. Switzman v. Elbling 
and Attorney-General of Quebec (1957) 
7 D.L.R. (2d) Part 6, 337. 

Quebec Superior Court . . . 

. . . grants interim injunction prohibiting union 
activities that amounted to a secondary boycott 

In a decision given at Montreal on 
November 16, 1956, the Quebec Superior 
Court enjoined union activities aimed at 
causing damage to a company against 
which it had declared a strike, by causing 
other persons to cease doing business with 
the company. 

The facts of the case, as related by Mr. 
Justice Deslauriers in his reasons for judg- 
ment, were as follows: 

After several months of discussions, dur- 
ing which time the union, VUnion Inter- 
nationale des Clicheurs et Electrotypeurs 
de Montreal, Local 33, endeavoured to 
force the company to negotiate a collec- 
tive agreement, the union in April 1956 
called a strike of printers in the plaintiff's 
workshop. As a consequence of this 
strike, picketing of the workshop was 
begun but. after a few weeks stopped 
without producing any tangible results. In 
order to intensify the effects of the strike, 
the union then got in touch with com- 
panies and persons who had business 
relationships with the plaintiff, informing 



them of the strike and asking them either 
to stop delivering material used by the 
company or to cease placing printing 
orders with the company. 

As a result of these activities, the com- 
pany was not able to secure a regular 
flow of working material, the newspapers 
printed by it could not be published 
regularly, the company was losing its clien- 
tele and suffered losses. 

The Court noted that the Quebec La- 
bour Relations Act recognized the right 
to strike, and that it defined "strike" as 
the concerted cessation of work by a 
group of employees. 

Even though the strike in question was 
a legal one, the question remained as to 
whether the union's activities were per- 
missible. The available evidence pointed 
to the fact that there had been more than 
a stoppage of work and that the union's 
activities amounted to a boycott which 
was particularly damaging to the plaintiff. 
The Court was ready to admit that a 
primary boycott to promote the interests 
of a particular group, as, for instance, an 
agreement among members of a union to 
stop transacting business with a person 
against whom concerted action was directed 
could be considered legal. However, the 
activities of the defendants did not enter 
into this category. Rather they could be 
identified with the acts which are qualified 
as "secondary boycott", that is, activities 
performed with the intention to do harm 
to a person by forcing other persons to 
do harm to him as well. 

Realizing that the strike would not 
achieve any result, the union had resorted 
to damaging and harmful practices by 
intervening with third persons in business 
relationships with the plaintiff in order 
to end these relationships. The plaintiff 
had proved, in a manner convincing enough 
to justify the granting of an injunction, 
that he had suffered serious and irreparable 
damage as the result of activities of the 
defendants. 

In granting the injunction, the Court 
stated that it did not intend to force the 
members of the union to return to work. It 
was not concerned with the decision as 
to whether the union had the right to 
strike. The injunction was intended to 
produce the effect of stopping the boycott 
as actually practised. The intervention of 
the defendants with the third persons who 
were in commercial relationships with, the 
plaintiff was an intervention which was 
not authorized by the right to strike. 

The Court therefore ruled that an interim 
injunction should be granted against the 
union and four of its officers awaiting the 
trial of the action settling the rights of 



985 



c, 



the parties concerned. Verdun Printing 
and Publishing Inc. v. I'Union Interna- 
tionale des Clicheurs et Electrotypeurs de 
Montreal, Local 33 et Autres et Rapid 
Grip and Batten Limited et Autres. (1957) 
RJQ 204. 

United States Supreme Court . . . 

. . . bars use of picketing for organizing purposes, 
because it violated policy expressed in state law 

On June 17, 1957, the Supreme Court of 
the United States by a majority decision 
upheld a judgment of the Supreme Court 
of Wisconsin enjoining picketing on the 
ground that the picketing was for the 
purpose of coercing the employer to put 
pressure on his employees to join a union. 

The Supreme Court considered the limits 
imposed on the power of a State to enjoin 
picketing by the Fourteenth Amendment 
to the United States Constitution guaran- 
teeing freedom of speech, and held that 
the Fourteenth Amendment did not bar 
a State from restraining picketing which 
was in violation of a public policy, as 
expressed in a state law. 

The majority judgment was delivered 
by Mr. Justice Frankfurter. Mr. Justice 
Douglas, with whom the Chief Justice and 
Mr. Justice Black concurred, wrote a dis- 
senting opinion. 

The case involved the picketing of the 
respondent, the operator of a gravel pit 
in Oconomowoc, Wis. , employing from 15 
to 20 men, by a union which did not 
represent any of the employees concerned. 
After seeking unsuccessfully to organize 
some of the respondent's employees, the 
union, Local 695 of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, picketed the 
company's premises, carrying signs reading: 
"The men on this job are not 100% 
affiliated with the A.F.L." In consequence, 
drivers of several trucking companies 
refused to deliver and haul goods to and 
from the respondent's plant, causing him 
substantial damages. The respondent there- 
upon sought an injunction to bar the 
picketing, contending that the picketing 
had been engaged in "for the purpose of 
coercing, intimidating and inducing the 
employer to force, compel, or induce its 
employees to become members of defendant 
labor organizations, and for the purpose of 
injuring the plaintiff in its business because 
of its refusal to in any way interfere with 
the rights of its employees to join or not 
to join a labor organization". 

The trial court did not uphold this con- 
tention, but held that, by virtue of a 
Wisconsin statute prohibiting picketing in 
the absence of a "labor dispute", the union 
should be enjoined from maintaining any 



pickets near the company's place of busi- 
ness, from displaying signs indicating that 
there was a labor dispute, and from 
inducing others to decline to transport 
goods to and from the respondent's busi- 
ness establishment. 

This decision was appealed to the Wis- 
consin Supreme Court, which affirmed the 
granting of the injunction but on a dif- 
ferent ground. The Court was of the 
opinion that "one would be credulous, 
indeed, to believe under the circumstances 
that the union had no thought of coercing 
the employer to interfere with its em- 
ployees in their right to join or refuse to 
join the defendant union". Such picketing, 
the Court held, was for "an unlawful 
purpose", since under the Wisconsin law 
it was an unfair labor practice for an 
employee individually or in concert with 
others to "coerce, intimidate or induce any 
employer to interfere with any of his 
employees in the enjoyment of their legal 
rights ... or to engage in any practice with 
regard to his employees which would con- 
stitute an unfair labor practice if under- 
taken by him on his own initiative". 

The Supreme Court, after reviewing a 
series of cases involving picketing, held that 
a State, in enforcing some public policy, 
whether of its criminal or its civil law, 
and whether expressed by its legislature or 
its courts, could constitutionally enjoin 
peaceful picketing aimed at preventing 
effectuation of that policy, and that such 
action could not be considered as contrary 
to the Fourteenth Amendment which 
guarantees freedom of speech. 

The Court held that the series of cases 
demonstrated "that the policy of Wiscon- 
sin enforced by the prohibition of this 
picketing is a valid one". The circumstances 
set forth by the Wisconsin Court justified 
its decision confirming the injunction on 
the ground that picketing was "for the 
purpose of coercing the emplo} r er to 
coerce his employees" to join the union, 
in violation of the declared policy of the 
State. 

The dissenting judges would have 
reversed the judgment of the lower court 
on the ground that picketing can be regu- 
lated or prohibited only to the extent that 
it forms an essential part of a course of 
conduct which the State can regulate or 
prohibit. Otherwise a State ban on picket- 
ing should be prohibited on the ground 
that "the dissemination of information 
concerning the facts of a labor dispute 
must be regarded as within that area of 
free discussion that is guaranteed by the 
Constitution". International Brotherhood 
of Teamsters, Local 695, AFL, et al. v. 
Vogt, Inc. 40 LRRM, 2208. 



986 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 

Reporting of any source of ionizing radiation required under Ontario 
Factory, Shop and Office Building Act; regulations under both the Quebec 
and the British Columbia Acts regarding pressure vessels have been amended 



A revised form prescribed by regulations 
under the Ontario Factory, Shop and Office 
Building Act requires the listing of any 
source of ionizing radiation when applying 
for approval of building plans or plans of 
alteration of any factory or other building 
within the scope of the Act. 

Amendments to the regulations under the 
Quebec Boiler and Pressure Vessel Act set 
out construction requirements for expansion 
tanks. 

Other regulations deal with certification 
of welders under the Alberta Apprentice- 
ship Act and qualification tests . for pipe 
welders under the British Columbia Boiler 
and Pressure-Vessel Act. 

FEDERAL 

Blind Persons Act, Disabled Persons Act and 
Old Age Assistance Act 

The regulations under the Blind Persons 
Act, the Disabled Persons Act and the Old 
Age Assistance Act which lay down the 
conditions under which the federal Govern- 
ment will share with the provinces the costs 
of allowances payable under these Acts 
have been amended to provide more lenient 
means tests for applicants. Among other 
changes, the new regulations provide that 
when assessing the amount of income a 
recipient derives from an interest in per- 
sonal property, the administering authorities 
must now take into consideration the extent 
to which a recipient's property has been 
reduced in value by payment of medical or 
hospital bills, accounts for nursing services, 
the cost of drugs prescribed for him or 
his wife or of funeral expense of the spouse. 

The new regulations were approved by 
Orders in Council 1957-714, 715 and 716 of 
May 27 and were gazetted on June 12. 

PROVINCIAL 
Alberta Apprenticeship Act 

The provision in the welding trade regu- 
lations under the Alberta Apprenticeship 
Act which permitted an apprentice who had 
completed two years' training to apply to 
the Welding Branch of the Department of 
Industries and Labour to be examined for 
a Second Class Journeyman's Certificate has 
been deleted by O.C. 609/57, gazetted on 
May 15. 



The regulations continue to provide, how- 
ever, that an apprentice who has completed 
the three-year term of apprenticeship and 
has taken the required technical training 
may try the final examination for a Com- 
pletion of Apprenticeship Certificate. An 
apprentice who passes the examination in 
either acetylene or electric welding, but 
not both, may apply for a First Class 
Journeyman's Certificate in that part of 
the trade, whereupon his apprenticeship 
will be terminated without a Completion 
of Apprenticeship Certificate and he will 
not be entitled to further benefits under 
the Act. 

Alberta Coal Mines Regulation Act 

An amendment to the regulations under 
the Alberta Coal Mines Regulation Act 
(L.G., 1955, p. 1292) prohibits the use of 
black powder in underground mines unless 
the owner or manager has obtained written 
authorization for its use from the Director 
of Mines. This amendment was approved 
by O.C. 668/57 and gazetted on May 15. 

British Columbia Boiler and Pressure-Vessel Act 

The regulations governing the design, con- 
struction and inspection of boilers and pres- 
sure vessels have been amended with respect 
to qualification tests for welders on gas 
pipe lines. The amendments were authorized 
by O.C. 1278 and gazetted on June 20. 

Since January 1956, (L.G., March 1956, 
p. 299), no person has been permitted to do 
welding on piping used to transmit gas at 
a pressure exceeding 15 p.s.i. unless he is 
the holder of a valid "A" certificate of 
qualification for pipe welding. The regula- 
tions provide that a candidate for such 
a certificate must submit an application 
on the prescribed form to the Chief Inspec- 
tor who will decide whether he has had 
sufficient experience and training to warrant 
a qualification test. 

Tests will be conducted at a time and 
place set by the Chief Inspector. However, 
upon the submission of a written request 
to the Chief Inspector, an employer' may 
arrange to have a group of welders tested 
at a place selected by him, in which case 
the employer must supply all necessary 
tools and equipment and pay the inspector's 
expenses, including a per diem charge of 



987 



125, as well as the appropriate fees. For- 
merly, all welders' qualification tests were 
conducted at the Dominion-Provincial 
Vocational School at Nanaimo. 

Newfoundland St. John's Shops Act 

In keeping with the practice in recent 
years, Saturday closing of shops in St. 
John's, Newfoundland, was declared in effect 
from June 9 to September 15, inclusive, by 
a proclamation gazetted on June 4. 

Ontario Factory, Shop and Otfice Building Act 

The Ontario Factory, Shop and Office 
Building Act requires that all building 
plans or plans of alteration for any factory, 
or for a building over two storeys high or 
a lower building covering a specified area 
which is to be used as a shop, bakeshop, 
restaurant or office building must be sent 
to the Department of Labour for examina- 
tion and approval. The form of the appli- 
cation is prescribed by regulation. 

A revised application form was set out 
in O. Reg. 122/57, gazetted on June 8. 
Among other changes, the new form states 
that any source of ionizing radiation must 
be included in the list of dangerous 
materials used in the process or operation 
carried on. 

The application form must set out, with 
respect to each employer, a description of 
the method of heating the building, the fire 
protection equipment, the ventilating sys- 
tem, the process or operation carried on, 
the type of machinery used, the maximum 
number of employees in the area at any 
time, the maximum live load in pounds 
per square inch for which the floor is 
designed, the dangerous materials in use 
and the maximum quantity of each stored 
at any time, and stored in any period of 
eight hours, (formerly 24 hours). 

The provision requiring the reporting of 
any source of ionizing radiation was inserted 
because of the 1957 amendments to the 
Department of Labour Act and the Factory, 
Shop and Office Building Act. New provi- 
sions in the former Act provided for the 
making of regulations to protect employees 
from the harmful effects of ionizing radia- 
tion and widened the definition of "inspec- 
tor" to include an inspector appointed 
under any other Act or regulations adminis- 
tered by the Department. In conformity 
with these changes, a contravention in a 
factory, shop, bakeshop, restaurant or office 
building of the regulations under the 
Department of Labour Act was made an 
offence under the Factory, Shop and Office 
Building Act and factory inspectors were 



authorized to enforce regulations made 
under the Department of Labour Act. (L.G. 
May, p. 598). 

Another new regulation gazetted on June 
8, O. Reg. 123/57, prescribed the form of 
the notice which an inspector is now required 
to affix to any place, matter or thing in a 
factory, shop, bakeshop, restaurant, office 
or office building which he deems to be 
a source of danger to employees or to the 
public, following a directive to the owner 
or employer ordering him to take remedial 
measures. The notice declares that use of 
the place, matter or thing is discontinued 
until the inspector's order has been com- 
plied with. 

Ontario Unemployment Relief Act 

New administrative regulations under the 
Ontario Unemployment Relief Act author- 
ized by O. Reg. 115/57 were gazetted on 
June 1, raising the provincial Government's 
contribution to the cost of allowances 
under the Act from 50 to 60 per cent. 

Quebec Pressure Vessels Act 

A number of amendments to the regula- 
tions under the Quebec Pressure Vessels 
Act, including a new section on expansion 
tanks, were approved on April 18 by O.C. 
415 and gazetted on June 1. 

One amendment provides that the 
standards governing the design, fabrication, 
installation, testing and inspection of boilers, 
pressure vessels, piping and fittings are to 
be those set out in the 1956 or current 
editions of the applicable ASME Codes, 
together with any amendments or additions 
approved by the Chief Inspector. When the 
regulations were issued in 1955, they made 
provision for use of 1952 editions of the 
Codes, some of which have since been 
revised. 

Another change is that the approval of 
the Chief Inspector is now required before 
separate registrations of fittings meeting 
the requirements of the ASME and ASA 
Codes may be dispensed with. As formerly, 
a manufacturer is permitted to register his 
standard fittings collectively by forwarding 
an affidavit to the Chief Inspector. 

The rules with respect to hot water 
tanks over 24 inches in diameter were 
amended to provide that all non-ferrous 
vessels must be built in compliance with 
the ASME Code. Other provisions lay 
down additional requirements for marine 
type boilers and make certain modifications 
with respect to required safety devices. 

All expansion tanks over 24 inches in 
diameter or to operate at more than 30 
p.s.i. must be designed and constructed in 

(Continued on page 996) 



988 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Number of initial and renewal claims for benefit, claimants on "live" file, 
new beneficiaries, payments made, average weekly benefit rate all 
lower in May than April but higher than May 1956, statistics* show 



The number of initial and renewal claims 
for unemployment insurance benefit in Majr 
was some 35 per cent below the previous 
month's total but about 25 per cent higher 
than that of May 1956. 

The Dominion Bureau of Statistics report 
on the operation of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act shows that 104,326 claims 
were received at local offices of the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission across 
Canada in May, compared with 161,304 in 
April and 84,099 in May 1956. 

An inventory of the "live file" on May 
31 shows 250,283 claimants having an 
unemployment register active, of whom 
184,106 were males and 66,177 were females. 
This represents a decline of about one- 
third from the total shown on April 30 — 
373,609 (300,990 males and 72,619 females) ; 
most of the difference was due to a sub- 
stantial drop in the number of male 
claimants. On May 31, 1956, claimants 
numbered 188,927, comprising 132,145 males 
and 56,782 females. 

Adjudications on initial and renewal 
claims numbered 120,357, of which 70 per 
cent or 84,988 claims were in the category 
"entitled to benefit". Of the 32,194 initial 
claims classed "not entitled to benefit", 
23,768, or almost three-quarters of them, 
were on behalf of claimants failing to 
fulfil the minimum contribution require- 
ments. Disqualifications arising from ini- 
tial, renewal and revised claims totalled 
20,846 (included are a small number of 
disqualifications arising from claims con- 
sidered under the seasonal benefit regula- 
tions), the chief reasons being: "volun- 
tarily left employment without just cause", 
6.827 cases; "not capable of and not 
available for work" 5,021 cases and "re- 
fused offer of work and neglected oppor- 
tunity to work" 2,346 cases. 

*See Tables E-l to E-4 at back of book. 



New beneficiaries during May totalled 
100,871, in comparison with 155,323 for 
April and 78,232 for May 1956. 

Benefit payments for May amounted to 
$26,269,582 in compensation for 1,253,217 
weeks, against $40,392,557 and 1,911,596 
weeks for April and $19,154,627 and 1,005,- 
401 weeks for May 1956. These payments 
include seasonal benefit. 

During May the number of complete 
weeks (1,155,875) constituted 92 per cent 
of weeks compensated; during April, com- 
plete weeks numbered 1,803,039, constitut- 
ing 95 per cent of all weeks. The proportion 
of partial weeks due to excess earnings 
was close to 75 per cent, against 70 per 
cent in April. 

The average weekly benefit rate was 
$20.96 for May, against $21.13 for April and 
$19.05 for May 1956. 

The average weekly number of bene- 
ficiaries was estimated at 313,300 for May, 
477,900 for April and 228,500 for May 1956. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
for May show that insurance books or 
contribution cards were issued to 3,369,703 
employees who had made contributions to 
the Unemployment Insurance Fund since 
April 1, 1957. 

At May 31 employers registered num- 
bered 293,849, an increase of 3,017 since 
March 31. 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal indus- 
tries, increase in area population, influ- 
ence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 



Enforcement Statistics 

During May 1957, there were 5,091 
investigations conducted by district inves- 
tigators across Canada. Of these, 3,703 
were spot checks of postal and counter 
claims to verify the fulfilment of statutory 
conditions, and 124 were miscellaneous 
investigations. The remaining 1,264 were 
investigations in connection with claimants 
suspected of making false statements to 
obtain benefit. 

Prosecutions were commenced in 92 
cases, 14 against employers and 78 against 
claimants* Punitive disqualifications as a 



result of claimants making false statements 
or misrepresentations numbered 685* 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received in May totalled $18,- 
460,786.19 compared with $20,407,877.99 in 
April and $19,544,469.13 in May 1956. 
Benefit payments in May amounted to 
$26,249,196.58 compared with $40,374,683.94 
in April and $19,135,164.15 in May 1956. 
The balance in the fund on May 31 was 
$846,819,435.32; on April 30 there was a 
balance of $854,607,845.71 and on May 31, 
1956, of $841,996,214.85. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUC-37, June 25, 1957 

Summary of the Facts : The 

carries on a business in the province of 
as growers of flowers, plants, veg- 
etables and allied products. The com- 
pany's greenhouses are in the City of 

. . (A) , while its head office, 

including the accounting department, is 
situated in the City of . . (B) . . , 

Mrs was employed by the said 

company, as a bookkeeper in its . . (B) . . 
office, from March 8, 1954, to February 7, 
1955. Subsequently she applied for unem- 
ployment insurance benefit but was unable 
to show the required number of contribu- 
tions as no contributions had been made 
by the company on her account. When 
requested to make the necessary contribu- 
tions to the unemployment insurance fund, 
the company contended that, as it was 
engaged in horticulture which was an 
excepted industry under the Unemployment 
Insurance Act, it was not required to do so. 

The office of the Unemployment 

Insurance Commission then advised the 
company that it was not the industry 
"which was exempt under the Act but 
rather the employment" and that therefore 
contributions were required on behalf of 
Mrs 

On January 26, 1956, the company, pur- 
suant to Section 30 of the Act, made a 
formal application to the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission for a determination 
of the question at issue. 



*These do not necessarily relate to the investi- 
gations conducted during this period. 



The chief coverage officer made applica- 
tion also to the Commission under Section 
9 of the Unemployment Insurance Regula- 
tions for a decision on whether or not 
seven other employees of the company 
employed at its head office in clerical work 
were engaged in insurable employment. 

A hearing was held by the Commission 
in Ottawa on August 30, 1956. The Com- 
mission rendered its decision on October 
22, 1956, to the effect that the employ- 
ment of the seven employees during the 

respective periods by constituted 

insurable employment. 

From this decision the company appealed 
to the Umpire. Its solicitors submitted a 
brief and requested an oral hearing, which 
was held in Ottawa on April 4, 1957. 

Conclusions: I have carefully considered 
the observations and representations made 
by the counsel for the company and I fail 
to see any valid reasons to disagree with 
the decision of the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Commission. 

The Act states unequivocally in Section 
35 that "in determining whether any em- 
ployment is or was insurable, regard shall 
be had to the nature of the work rather 
than to the business of the employer". 

It is not disputed that Mrs 

was employed and worked as a bookkeeper. 
It need hardly be said that bookkeeping 
cannot be held to be work of a horticul- 
tural nature. 

(Company's representative) argued that 
it should be so considered because it is a 
necessary, integral and inevitable part of 



990 



the horticulture business. Bookkeeping is 
an occupation which is carried on in all 
businesses and therefore hardly peculiar to 
horticulture. 

(Company's representative) also argued 
that the Act imposes a liability on em- 
ployers which, but for the said Act, does 
not exist and, qua employers, it must be 
strictly interpreted so that, unless the 
authority seeking to impose the liability 
can bring the person strictly within the 
terms of the Act, there is no liability. 

It should be recalled that under the 
Act, the employees pay as much as the 
employer, (2/5) and that in addition the 
people of Canada pay 1/5 of the con- 
tributions. Moreover, the only section of 
the Act requiring interpretation in this 
case is Section 35. As already indicated, 
its meaning is in no sense ambiguous. On 
the contrary, it contains a directive which 
can and must be interpreted literally. Since 
the determining factor of whether any 
employment is insurable or not depends on 
the nature of the work the case resolves 
itself in a question of fact. 



The company's representative further 
submitted that, as the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission has omitted to make 
a regulation including this particular em- 
ployment pursuant to Section 26 of the 
Act-, such employment should remain 
excepted employment. 

I fail to see the validity of this argu- 
ment as the legislator in Section 30 of 
the Act specifically made the determina- 
tion of questions such as the one at issue 
a quasi judicial process and not a legisla- 
tive one. 

It was finally submitted by (Company's 
representative) that the claimant knew 
that contributions were not being deducted 
for her by the company and stamps were 
not being affixed. This is irrelevant and 
cannot estop her from her rights to having 
contributions made on her behalf. The 
Act and Regulations clearly imposed such 
duty upon the employer. 

For these reasons the appeal is dis- 
missed. 

This decision will apply to all employees 
of the company hereinbefore mentioned. 



ILO Panel Discussion 

(Continued from page 965) 

W. A. Campbell, employer delegate to 
the Conference, said in part: 

"....Speaking for the employers of 
Canada, we can state that, in our opinion, 
good industrial relations or employee-em- 
ployer relations, whatever you wish to call 
it, cannot be created by legislation. In 
our experience so far, legislation, while 
imposing restrictions on both Management 
and Labour, has only done so to a limited 
degree, and this properly so. 

"Legislation should ba kept to a mini- 
mum. Employers and employees should 
be left the maximum freedom to work out 
their common problems without govern- 
ment intervention In general, the impo- 
sition by legislation of more than minimum 
standards of social services or other forms 
of compensation is undesirable and should 
be opposed whenever it goes beyond the 
minimum necessary for the protection of 
marginal groups in the community " 

Speaking for Labour, Claude Jodoin, 
Canadian worker delegate, said in part: 

"In Canada it is generally taken for 
granted that labour-management relations 
are first and foremost the business of 
Labour and Management, and that Labour 
and Management should, within very wide 



limits, be left to settle their relations them- 
selves. There is a general reluctance to 
impose settlements. 

"But this does not mean that govern- 
ment simply stands aside and lets the 
two sides battle it out. The parties are 
expected to settle their problems within a 
certain framework of law and public 
policy. What is the essence of that law 
and policy? I think it is based on two 
principles: (a) that there is a public interest 
in industrial peace; and (b) that workers 
have the right to organize in unions of 
their own choice, and to bargain collec- 
tively, free of interference by government 
or employers 

"Government can plajr a positive role 
in labour-management relations only when 
its decisions are subject to the normal 
checks and balances which characterize a 
free society, namely free elections, free 
speech, freedom of association and en- 
lightened public opinion. 

"In the absence of these basic features 
of a truly democratic society, the role of 
government would tend to become ever 
more arbitrary and final, destroying the 
real basis for good labour-management rela- 
tions, namely the system of free collective 
bargaining." 



991 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during June 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During June the Department of Labour prepared 224 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 164 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to 
trade unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of 
the contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under this heading 
provide that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not 
exempted from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation 
of the work, wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by 
provincial legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week. 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in June for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were 
as follows: 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Defence Production (May report) 151 $737,781.00 

Defence Production (June report) 99 138,492.00 

Post Office 18 162,812.64 

R.C.M.P 6 134,187.36 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those 
established by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour 
legislation of the federal Government has 
the purpose of insuring that all Govern- 
ment contracts for works of construction 
and for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment contain provisions to secure 
the payment of wages generally accepted 
as fair and reasonable in each trade or 
classification employed in the district 
where the work is being performed. 

The practice of Government depart- 
ments and those Crown corporations to 
which the legislation applies, before 
entering into contracts for any work of 
construction, remodelling, repair or demo- 
lition, is to obtain wage schedules from 
the Department of Labour, showing the 
applicable wage rate for each classifica- 
tion of workmen deemed to be required 
in the execution of the work. These 



wage schedules are thereupon included 
with other relevant labour conditions as 
terms of such contracts to be observed 
by the contractors. 

Wage schedules are not included in 
contracts for the manufacture of supplies 
and equipment because it is not possible 
to determine in advance the classifica- 
tions to be employed in the execution 
of a contract. A statement of the labour 
conditions which must be observed in 
every such contract is, however, included 
therein and is of the same nature and 
effect as those which apply in works of 
construction. 

Copies of the federal Government's 
Fair Wages and Hours of Labour legis- 
lation may be had upon request to the 
Industrial Relations Branch of the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 



992 



(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during June 

During June the sum of $9,098.17 was collected from six contractors for wage arrears 
due their employees arising out of the failure of the contractors, or their subcontractors, 
to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by the schedule 
of labour conditions forming part of their contracts. This amount has been or will be 
distributed to the 296 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during June 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Nitro Que: R McSween, *repairs to stoops. Valcartier Que: Bouchard & Robitaille 
Inc, *supply, installation & painting of antisweat insulation on cold water pipes. Barrie- 
field Ont: Vandermeer & Mast, site improvement & planting. Belleville Ont: Terhaar & 
Vanderdrift, exterior painting of units. Cobourg Ont: Terhaar & Vanderdrift *painting 
of units. Ottawa Ont: Ottawa Valley Paving. *excavating & paving at Strathcona Heights; 
O'Leary's (1956) Ltd, installation of addition to wading pool, Strathcona Heights; 
Artistic Painting & Decorating Contractors, ^exterior painting of projects 3 & 4. Sarnia 
Ont: Cardinal Painting & Decorating, exterior painting of units; I C B Price, *replace- 
ment of basement floors in units. Winnipeg Man: Oswald Decorating Co, exterior painting 
of units. Moose Jaw Sask: A F Ware, exterior painting of housing units. Regina Sask: 
Yarnton Decorating Co, exterior painting of housing units. Saskatoon Sask: Rans Con- 
struction, *conerete work. Swift Current Sask: A C Belbin, exterior painting of housing 
units. Yorkton Sask: Melvin Morgotsch, exterior painting of housing units. Cold Lake 
Alta: Terminal Construction Division of Henry J Kaiser Co of Canada Ltd, site 
improvement & planting. Victoria B C : Dominion Paint Co, exterior painting of houses. 

Department ot Citizenship and Immigration 

Bersimis Indian Agency Que: Plante & Freres, reroofing of Bersimis day school. 
Blackfoot Indian Agency Alta: Chas A Pogson, repairs & redecorations to Crowfoot IRS. 
Lesser Slave Lake Indian Agency Alta: J Mason & Sons Ltd, painting & decorating 
Wabasca IRS. Lytton Indian Agency B C: T Woodward Roofing &, Sheet Metal Co, 
repairs to roof, St Georges IRS. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

St John's Nfld: United Neil & Foundry Co Ltd, conversion of furnaces from coal 
to oil in MQs, Kenna's Hill. Halifax N S: Standard Paving Maritime Ltd, grading & 
asphalt paving, HMC Dockyard. Newport Corners N S: Ralph & Arthur Parsons Ltd, 
architectural modifications to standby power bldg, Naval Radio Station. Camp Gagetown 
N B: Newton Construction Co Ltd, construction of respirator fitting & testing chamber. 
Chatham N B: McKay Builders Ltd, construction of water reservoir, RCAF Station. 
Moncton N B: Modern Construction Ltd, construction of barrack block, HMCS Cover- 
dale. Renous N B: M F Schurman Co Ltd, construction of dangerous goods bldg. 
RCNAD. Drummondville Que: Benjamin Robidas Ltee, construction of extension to 
armouries. St Paul VErmite Que: Steel Structures & Services Ltd, supply, fabrication & 
erection of structural steel for phase 111 of bldg 509 A; Iberville Construction Inc, con- 
struction of dwellings. Valcartier Que: Canadian National Railways, *construction of 
additional railway siding. Uplands Ont: George A Crain & Sons Ltd, construction of 
armament bldgs & outside services, RCAF Station. Rivers Man: Leitch Construction 
Ltd, construction of stage III extension to existing stage II supply bldg, RCAF Station. 
Winnipeg Man: Commonwealth Construction Co Ltd, reconstruction of Minto Armouries; 

993 

92423—6 



Durall Ltd, supply & installation of automatic sprinkler system in bldg No 2; Durall 
Ltd, installation of convector heating in leanto areas of hangars, RCAF Station. Cold 
Lake Altai Poole Construction Co Ltd, construction of LF/MF beacon bldg, fencing 
& outside services, RCAF Station; Burns & Dutton Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of unit supply bldg type "A", RCAF Station; Terminal Construction Divi- 
sion of Henry J Kaiser Co of Canada Ltd, construction of sports fields, grading & seeding 
of GCI site, RCAF Station. 

Building and Maintenance 
Woodstock N B: John Flood & Sons Ltd, construction of boilerhouse, installation 
of heating system, rewiring & relighting of armouries. Valcartier Que: Grinnell Co 
of Canada Ltd, installation of automatic sprinkler system, ordnance warehouses 1 & 2. 
Barriefield Out: Cardinal Painting & Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of units, 
RCEME school. Kingston Ont: Kingston Roofing & Flooring Co Ltd, reroofing of 
armouries; Vandervoort Plumbing & Heating Ltd, alterations to boiler room, bldg 20, 
RMC. London Ont: Clairson Construction Co Ltd, installation of main to connect City 
of London 16" main & existing 6" main, 27 COD. Ottawa Ont: Shore & Horwitz 
Construction Co Ltd, renovations to windows & sashes, Wallis House. Camp Petawawa 
Ont: Dibblee Construction Co Ltd, resurfacing of sidewalks. Peterborough Ont: Ontario 
Building Cleaning Co Ltd, cleaning, repointing, repair & waterproofing of armouries. 
Picton Ont: H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, rehabilitation of roads & hardstands. 
Gimli Man: Peter Leitch Construction Ltd, replacement of drill hall floor, RCAF 
Station; Canadian Comstock Co Ltd, conversion of steam heat to forced hot water 
heating in barrack blocks. 

Department ot Detence Production 

(May Report) 
Dartmouth N S: Tasco Sheet Metal & Roofing Co Ltd, re-roofing of hangars 2 & 8, 
HMCS Shearwater; Tasco Sheet Metal & Roofing Co Ltd, reroofing of hangars 1 & 7, 
HMCS Shearwater; Tasco Sheet Metal & Roofing Co Ltd, reroofing of hangars 3 & 108, 
HMCS Shearwater. Debert N S: C F Cox Ltd, replacement of roof, No 4 hangar, 
RCAF Station. Gorsebrook N S: Rose Construction, lawn maintenance of properties, 
Anderson Square & Maritime Air Command HQ. Greenwood N S: C F Cox Ltd, replace- 
ment of roof, No 4 hangar, RCAF Station; G W Sampson, interior painting of PMQs, 
RCAF Station. Halifax N S: R P Carey Ltd, landscaping of Anderson Square & Gorse- 
brook Station; S W Ferguson Ltd, installation & cleaning of windows in PMQs, Windsor 
Park; Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Co Ltd. maintenance of communication equip- 
ment, DND (Navy), HMC Dockyard. Camp McGivney & Fredericton N B: Standish 
Bros Reg'd, spraying of areas for weed & grass control. Lakeburn N B: Boudreau's 
Sheet Metal Works, application of bonded built-up roof, No 5 Supply Depot, RCAF 
Station. Saint John N B: Stephen Construction Co, repairs to roads & parking areas 
in Barrack Green. Lachine Que: Canadian Hoosier Engineering Co Ltd, installation of 
transformers, bldg No 40, RCAF Station. Montreal Que: Chas Duranceau Ltd, repairs 
to road, depot & barracks areas, No 25 COD; Martellani & Brunet Co Ltd, repairs 
to building platforms, No 25 COD; Richard & B A Ryan Ltd, interior painting of 
bldgs, No 25 COD. St Hubert Que: Broadway Paving Co Ltd, repairs to asphalt roads 
& runways, RCAF Station. St Jean Que: King Venetian Blinds, installation of blinds. 
College Militaire Royal; St Johns Painting & Decorating Reg'd, interior painting of 
recreation centre, bldg No 33, RCAF Station. St Sylvestre Que: Motoculture Moderne 
Enr, construction of soccer field, RCAF Station. Camp Ipperwash Ont: Len J McCarthy, 
interior painting of bldgs. Centralia Ont: Elgin Construction Co Ltd, cleaning of sewers, 
PMQs, RCAF Station. Clinton Ont: Ellis-Don Ltd, installation of basement storage & 
dumbwaiter, RCAF Station; Weatherproofing Ltd, installation of glands in manholes, 
RCAF Station. Hamilton Ont: H Barnes Plumbing & Heating Ltd, installation of 
drainage system, HMCS Star. North Bay Ont: Harry Boudreau, removal & replacement 
of catch basin, No 5 hangar, RCAF Station; Harry Boudreau, application of asbestos 
shingling on hangar No 5, RCAF Station. Ottawa Out: Beaver Woodcraft & Display 
Ltd, alterations to AFHQ Sergeants' Mess, Beaver Barracks. Trenton Ont: P H Davis, 
installation of powder room facilities & construction of entrance porch, etc, RCAF Station. 
Winnipeg Man: A M Tallman, repairs to roads, RCAF Station; Carlson Decorating 
Co, interior painting of bldg No 84, RCAF Station. Saskatoon Sask: Eddie Petit 
Landscaping, landscaping RCAF Station. Cold Lake Alta: J Robertshaw Refrigeration, 
inspection & maintenance of refrigeration equipment, GCI Site, RCAF Station. Esquimalt 
B C: Old Country Decorators Ltd, cleaning & painting of crane, HMC Dockyard. 
Ladner B C: Neil Meyer, exterior painting of PMQs, Vancouver Wireless Station. 

994 



Department of Fisheries 

Sorel Que: Marine Industries Ltd, *construction of steel research vessel. 

National Harbours Board 

Montreal Que: Marine Industries Ltd, *dredging; Edouard Monette Ltee, construc- 
tion of approach roadway, north shore end, Nun's Island Bridge. Quebec Que: E G M 
Cape & Co (1956) Ltd, reconditioning & widening of berth No 18. 

National Research Council 

Ottawa Out: Wm Malloff Ltd, architectural modifications & duct bank construction 
for firm power switchgear room, bldg M-5, Montreal Road Laboratories; Sirotek 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of phase II of Ship Model Testing Basin, Montreal 
Road Laboratories. 

Department of Public Works 

Long Pond (Manuels) Nfld: Avalon Dredging Ltd, *dredging. Port aux Basques 
Nfld: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Caribou N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Halifax 
N S: Halifax Shipyards Ltd, *repairs & renewals to Scow PWD No 162. Hunt's Point 
N S: Mosher & Rawding Ltd, *dredging. Neil's Harbour N S: MacDonald, MacDonald. 
MacDonald & MacDonald, breakwater repairs. Petit de Grat N S: J P Porter Co Ltd, 
♦dredging. Campbellton N B: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Dalhousie N B: J P Porter 
Co Ltd, *dredging. Kouchibouguac River N B: Denis LeBlanc, *dredging. Little 
Pokemouche Gully N B: Comeau & Savoie Construction Ltd, construction of roadway 
approach to wharf. Little Shippigan N B: Comeau & Savoie Construction Ltd, construc- 
tion of wharf approach. North Head N B: Diamond Construction (1955) Ltd, break- 
water-wharf replacement. Saint John N B: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging. Cap-de-la- 
Madeleine Que: Rosario Dufresne Inc, alterations & additions to post office bldg. 
Forestville Que: Lucien Tremblay Ltd, construction of federal bldg; Camille Dufour. 
wharf repairs. Harrington Haroour Que: Gaspe Construction Inc. harbour improvements. 
Mistassini Que: Joseph Lemieux, extension to protection wall. Mont Laurier Que: 
Conrad Forget Inc, addition & alterations to federal bldg. Ste-Angele de Laval Que: 
Gregoire Richard, construction of protection wall. St Felicien Que: Ludger Lepage & 
Fils Ltee, repairs to protection works, Pare Sacre-Coeur. Bancroft Ont: Bradford-Hoshal 
Assoc Ltd, construction of standard post office. Bayfield Ont: Dean Construction Co 
Ltd, *dredging. Brampton Ont: Andeen Construction Ltd, construction of federal bldg. 
Near Brantford Ont: Cromar Construction Ltd, construction of Mohawk IRS, Six 
Nations Indian Agency. Don Mills Ont: Eastern Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
federal bldg. Hamilton Ont: Quigley Construction Co Ltd, harbour improvements. Kings- 
ville Ont: Ontario Marine & Dredging Ltd, *dredging. Meaford Ont: The McNamara 
Construction Co Ltd, *dredging. Oakville Ont: W C Brennan Contracting Co, con- 
struction of federal bldg. Ottawa Ont: P E Brule Co Ltd, construction of mirror transit 
bldg at CEF; Doran Construction Co Ltd, construction of offi.ee bldg; Sirotek 
Construction Ltd, construction of addition No 3 to headerhouse at CEF; Canadian 
Comstock Co Ltd, installation of standby steam main & alterations to existing piping in 
tunnel at Tunney's Pasture; Shore & Horwitz Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
Finance bldg, Tunney's Pasture. Owen Sount Ont: The McNamara Construction Co Ltd, 
♦dredging. Port Stanley Ont: J P Porter Co Ltd, *dredging; Russell Construction Co 
Ltd, harbour repairs & improvements. South Baymouth Ont: Ontario Marine & Dredging 
Ltd, *dredging. Toronto Ont: Redfern Construction Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. 
Meanook Alta: New West Construction Co Ltd, construction of fire hall, storage & 
implement bldg, etc, Dominion Observatory Station. Fraser River B C: The British 
Columbia Bridge & Dredging Co Ltd, *dredging at Annieville Channel & channels 
opposite Searle Elevator & Pacific Coast terminals. Gundersons' Slough B C: Fraser 
River Pile Driving Co Ltd, renewal of approach & float. Nanaimo B C: Pacific Pile- 
driving Co Ltd, wharf reconstruction. Port Alberni B C: McLellan Contracting Co Ltd, 
bulkhead repairs. Port Hardy B C: Victoria Pile Driving Co, wharf repairs. Stewart B C: 
Skeena River Pile Driving Co, construction of boat landing. Vancouver B C: B C Marine 
Engineers & Shipbuilders Ltd, *overhauling of Dredge PWD No 322 & Tug Keluck. 
North Vancouver B C: Burrard Drydock Co Ltd, *overhauling of Dredge PWD No 303. 
Wyclees Lagoon B C: L K Creelman Co Ltd, *dredging. Yellowknife N W T: J B 
Lundstrom & Einer Broten, wharf extension. 

995 



The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority 

Lachine Section Que: Metropole Electric Inc, supply & installation of electrical 
system at St Lambert Lock; Metropole Electric Inc, supply & installation of electric 
substations at St Lambert, Cote Ste Catherine & Beauharnois Locks & St Louis & 
Valleyfield bridges. Kingston Ont: Kingston Shipyards, supply of steel flat scows at 
Beauharnois Canal. 

Department of Transport 

Margaree Island N S: Campbell & Mclsaac, construction of dwelling & oil storage 
shed & demolition work. Dorval Que: The Highway Paving Co Ltd, additional develop- 
ment at airport; Canamount Construction Ltd, construction of air terminal bldg at 
airport; J R Robillard Ltee, alterations & additions to Trans-Atlantic Terminal Bldg. 
Quebec Que: Geo T Davie & Sons Ltd, Construction of twin screw diesel sounding 
vessel. Riviere du Loup Que: Lewis Brothers Asphalt Paving Ltd, airport development. 
Saguenay Que: Jean-Joseph Riverin Ltee, additional development at airport. Kenora 
Ont: Kummen-Shipman Electric Ltd, installation of airport lighting facilities; P G 
Wallin, construction of VHF omni range bldg & related work. Lumsden Sask: Donald 
K Forbes, Construction of access roads to VOR & NDB sites. Regina Sask: Stafford 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of radio beacon bldg, omni range bldg & related work. 
Carmanah Point B C : A V Richardson Ltd, construction of dwelling & demolition work. 
Pine Island B C: Stange Construction Co Ltd, construction of dwelling & demolition work. 
Port Hardy B C: Blackham's Construction Ltd, additional development at airport. Coral 
Harbour N W T: Wirtanen Electric Co Ltd, installation of lighting facilities at airport. 



Fewer new dwelling units were started 
or completed in the first five months of 
this year than last, the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics reports. 

Number of units in various stages of 
construction at the end of May was also 
smaller than a year earlier. 

Starts declined to 27,602 units from 
40,798; completions fell to 39,253 from 
44,441; and the number of units under 
construction at May 31 dropped to 57,483 
from 74,033. 



In the United States, non-farm housing 
starts rose more than seasonally to 102,000 
units in May, the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, U.S. Department of Labor, has 
reported. 

The May figure, however, was the lowest 
for that month since 1951. It was down 
10 per cent from a year earlier. 

At the close of the first five months, 
starts totalled 405,800 units, about 15 per 
cent below the comparable 1956 figure. 



Recent Regulations 

(Continued from page 988) 

accordance with the ASME Unfired Pressure 
Vessels Code with separate drawings and 
specifications submitted for each diameter 
and pressure. Those of lesser diameter, if to 
operate at not more than 30 p.s.i., need not 
be of registered design. 

All expansion tanks are to be constructed 
of not less than number 10 U.S. gauge 
material which may be CSA G40 or ASTM 
283C or the equivalent as a minimum 
requirement. Welded tanks are to be fabri- 
cated by welders qualified in accordance 
with the regulations. 



Tanks over 30 inches in diameter must 
be built under shop inspection, and the 
hydrostatic test pressure must be one and 
one-half times the design pressure. Tanks 
30 inches and under in diameter may be 
built without shop inspection, in which case 
the hydrostatic test pressure must be twice 
the design pressure. If constructed in 
accordance with a registered design, expan- 
sion tanks are to be stamped in the 
prescribed manner, with the manufacturer 
submitting an affidavit for every tank. 



996 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, July 1957 

The consumer price index (1949 = 100) 
advanced 0.2 per cent from 121.6 to 121.9 
between June and July 1957, to stand 2.9 
per cent above the July 1956 index of 
118.5*. The rise resulted mainly from a 
higher food index, with increases in both 
shelter and household operation also con- 
tributing. 

Clothing was unchanged, continuing the 
long period during which this group has 
shown almost no movement. Other com- 
modities and services were also unchanged, 
the first month since December 1955 that 
this group has not registered some upward 
movement. 

The increase in the food index from 
117.7 to 118.2 was largely attributable to 
seasonal items, as prices eased for canned 
vegetables, sugar, coffee and jam. Price 
increases for eggs, potatoes, most other 
fresh vegetables and fruits, and pork 
proved more important than the scattered 
price decreases. 

Shelter moved from 134.8 to 135.1 on 
the strength of increases for both rents 
and home-ownership, the latter reflecting 
continued price increases in residential 
building materials and wage rates. 

Higher prices for appliances, together 
with increases for items of furniture, house- 
hold equipment and domestic help, moved 
the household operation index from 119.1 
to 119.6. 

Scattered changes in clothing left the 
total index at 108.4. Price increases were 
reported for women's hosiery but there 
were reductions in some items of children's 
wear. 

Small increases for newspapers, prepaid 
health care and some personal care items 
were balanced by somewhat lower prices 
for new passenger cars and gasoline as the 
other commodities and services index was 
unchanged at 126.5. 

Group indexes one year earlier were: 
food 114.4, - shelter 132.7, clothing 108.6, 
household operation 116.7, and other com- 
modities and services 121.1. 

*See Table F-l at back of book. 



City Consumer Price Indexes, June 1957 

Eight of the ten regional city consumer 
price indexes (1949 = 100) were higher be- 
tween May and June 1957*. Increases 
ranged from 0.1 per cent in Saint John 
to 0.8 per cent in Saskatoon-Regina. The 
Halifax index was unchanged, while that 
for Vancouver declined 0.4 per cent. 

A number of foods were higher in most 
cities, notably beef, pork, veal, lamb, 
fresh fruits and vegetables and corn flakes. 
Prices were generally lower for eggs, pota- 
toes, coffee, tea, fresh tomatoes and some 
canned vegetables. Increases were reported 
in a number of the regional cities for shoe 
repairs, inter-urban bus fares, pharmaceu- 
ticals and some personal care items. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between May and June were as 
follows: Saskatoon-Regina +0.9 to 118.8; 
Montreal +0.8 to 121.5; Ottawa +0.4 to 
123.2; Winnipeg +0.4 to 119.6; Edmonton- 
Calgary +0.3 to 118.4; St. John's +0.2 to 
109.5f; Toronto +0.2 to 125.2; Saint John 
+0.1 to 122.0; Vancouver —0.5 to 121.5. 
Halifax remained unchanged at 119.1. 

Wholesale Prices, June 1957 

Canada's general wholesale price index 
(1935-39 = 100) remained unchanged at 
228.0 between May and June. This is the 
same level as December last year, and 0.7 
per cent higher than in June 1956. 

Of the three component groups that moved 
up from May, only animal products showed 
a significant increase. Mainly responsible 
for the 1.9-per-cent upward movement of 
animal products were higher prices for 
hides and leather; fresh milk in Montreal, 
Vancouver and Victoria; evaporated milk; 
eggs in most centres; and all livestock and 
fresh meats, with the exception of beef 
and poultry. 

Increased prices for steel scrap moved 
the iron products group slightly higher 
from 252.6 to 253.1. Non-metallic minerals 
increased fractionally from 188.8 to 188.9. 

Decreases recorded in four of the five 
remaining groups were less than 1 per 
cent, with the exception of non-ferrous 



*See Table F-2 at back of book. 
tOn base June 1951=100. 



92423—7 



997 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX FROM JANUARY 1951 




metals, which declined 2.3 per cent from 
180.4 to 176.3. In vegetable products, 
prices were lower for potatoes, oranges, 
vegetable oils, sugar, hay and most grains; 
these decreases slightly outweighed higher 
prices for raw rubber, molasses, coffee and 
cocoa products, to move the index down 
0.5 per cent. 

Lower prices for copper sulphate, wood 
alcohol and paint materials contributed to 
the slight decrease of 0.3 per cent in 
chemical products, while in wood products 
the fractional decline of 0.1 per cent 
resulted from decreased prices of mer- 
chantable spruce outweighing increased 
prices for cedar bevel siding. Textile 
products remained unchanged at 237.1. 

The index of farm product prices at 

terminal markets was slightly higher in 
June at 208.4 compared with 206.4 for May, 
as opposing movements were evidenced by 
the two major component groups. Animal 
products advanced 2.7 per cent from 255.3 
to 262.2 while the field products index 
declined 1.8 per cent from 157.5 to 154.6. 
Regional composite indexes both showed 
improvement, with the eastern index rising 



from 223.0 to 224.2 and the western series 
from 189.8 to 192.6. 

The index of residential building ma- 
terial prices at 294.3 in June was almost 
unchanged from 294.5 in May, and the 
index of non-residential building materials 
prices (1949 = 100) moved down slightly 
from 130.2 to 129.5. 

U.S. Consumer Price Index, June 1957 

The United States consumer price index 
(1947-49=100) rose to a new high— the 
tenth in a row — between mid-May and mid- 
June, climbing 0.5 per cent from 119.6 to 
120.2. Since March 1956, the index has 
risen in every month but one for a total 
rise of 4.8 per cent over that period. 

Three-quarters of the latest increase was 
the result of higher food costs. 

U.K Index of Retail Prices, May 1957 

The United Kingdom index of retail 
prices (Jan. 1956 = 100) increased slightly 
from 104.5 to 104.6 between mid-April and 
mid-May. At the beginning of the year 
the index stood at 104.4. 



998 






June 1957 

During June 1957, there were 43 strikes 
in existence, 20 of which began during the 
month. These strikes involved a total of 
almost 18,400 workers and resulted in time 
loss of more than 220,000 man-days. The 
time loss for June was greater than that 
reported in any month this year and close 
to 50 per cent above the figure for May. 
The figure was also greatly in excess of 
the 78.000 days time loss reported for 
June 1956. 

The important contributors to the in- 
creased time loss were strikes at the plant 
of the Aluminum Company of Canada in 
Arvida, at Lever Brothers Limited in 
Toronto, and the general work stoppage of 
fishermen on the coast of British Columbia. 
All these strikes involved large numbers of 
workers. 

During the month, however, settlements 
were reported in 21 strikes involving some 
4,300 workers. None of these strikes con- 
tributed greatly to the total time loss in 
June, but during the total time they were 
in effect, they accounted for some 53,800 
days of time loss. 

The strikes that began during the month 
were relatively small and involved fewer 
than 7,500 workers. These 20 work 
stoppages accounted for fewer than 43.000 
man-days of the time loss during the 
month. The 23 strikes that were in pro- 
gress prior to June and not settled during 
the month accounted for most of the 
time loss during the period. 

In Table G-l at the back of this issue, 
comparisons are made between the num- 
bers of strikes and lockouts in existence 
during the first six months of this year 
and during the same months of last year. 
The approximate number of workers in- 
volved in these stoppages and the time 
loss resulting from them are also com- 
pared on a monthly basis. The number of 
strikes and lockouts beginning during each 
month is also shown. 

Table G-2 deals more specifically with 
the stoppages in existence during June 
1957. Individual stoppages are listed by 



industry and by date, showing the workers 
involved, the time lost, the major issues 
involved, and the main terms of settle- 
ment where applicable. 

United Kingdom, 1956 

Work stoppages in the United Kingdom 
caused by industrial disputes totalled 2,654 
in 1956. Of these, 2,648 began in 1956 while 
six were begun in 1955 and continued into 
1956. 

Workers involved by stoppages in prog- 
ress in 1956 totalled nearly 508,000. Of 
these, about 43,000 were indirectly involved. 
In the previous year nearly 671,000 workers 
were involved in work stoppages. 

Total number of workdays lost in 1956 
due to stoppages in progress was 2,083,000, 
compared with 3,781,000 lost in 1955. 

The number of workers involved in all 
stoppages in progress during the year repre- 
sented less than 2 per cent of the total 
number of employees in civil employment. 
Loss of time for each of the workers 
involved averaged about five working days 
during the year. 

United States, June 1957 

Fewer workers and fewer man-days of 
idleness resulted in the United States from 
labour-management disputes in the first 
six months of 1957 than in any postwar 
period, according to the U.S. Department 
of Labor. 

The number of strikes was below the 
first six months of any year since World 
War II, except 1948 and 1954. The"re were 
an estimated 2,075 strikes in the first half 
of 1957, which idled 744,000 persons for 
7,570,000 man-days. 

There was a decline in the number of 
strikes and strikers in June, but idleness 
remained at the May level, 1.85 million 
man-days. This was below the June 1956 
figure but there were more stoppages. Some 
220,000 workers were idled by 600 strikes, 
400 of which began in June, and idled 
140,000 workers. 



92423— 7 h 



999 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should com- 
municate with the publishers. Publications 
listed may be borrowed by making applica- 
tion to the Librarian, Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. Students must apply through the 
library of their institution. Applications for 
loans should give the number (numeral) of 
the publication desired and the month in 
which it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 108 

Annual Reports 

1. American Labor Education Service. 
Report for the year 1956. New York, 1956. 
Pp. 10. 

2. Australia. Public Service Board. 
Thirty-Second Re-port on the Public Service 
of the Commonwealth, 1955-56. Canberra, 
Government Printer, 1956. Pp. 36. 

3. Australian Stevedoring Industry 
Board. Report by the Australian Stevedor- 
ing Industry Authority on the Operations 
of Australian Stevedoring Industry Board 
during the Year ended 30th June, 1956. 
Sydney, 1957. Pp. 47. 

4. Canada. Department of Labour. Cana- 
dian Vocational Training Branch. Report 
of the Director of Canadian Vocational 
Training for the Fiscal Year ending March 
81, 1956. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1957. 
Pp. 19. 

5. Central Mortgage and Housing Cor- 
poration. Annual Report, 1956. Ottawa, 1957. 
Pp. 48. 

6. Civil Service Clerical Association. 
Fifty-Fourth Annual Report, 1956. London, 
1956. 2 Volumes. 

7. Indian National Trade Union Con- 
gress. A Brief Review of the Eighth Annual 
Session, May 1956. New Delhi, 1956. Pp. 134. 

8. Japan. Ministry of Labor. Division 
of Labor Statistics and Research. Year 
Book of Labor Statistics, 1955. Tokyo, 
1956? Pp. 426. 

9. Manitoba. Department of Labour. 
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year ending 
March 81st, 1956. Winnipeg, 1956. Pp. 65. 

10. Manitoba. Department of Labour. 
Annual Wage and Salary Survey, 1956. Win- 
nipeg, 1956. Pp. 67. 

11. Manitoba Provincial Federation of 
Labor. Report of Proceedings Second Annual 
Convention held in Winnipeg, Novem- 
ber 3rd, 4th, 1956. Winnipeg, 1956. Pp. 46. 



12. New Brunswick. Department of 
Health and Social Services. Social Serv- 
ices Branch. Annual Report for the Fiscal 
Year ended March 31st, 1956. Fredericton, 
1956. Pp. 60. 

13. New York (State). Department of 
Labor. Division of Research and Statis- 
tics. Injury Rates in New York State 
Industries, 1955. New York, 1956. Pp. 55. 

14. New Zealand. Census and Statistics 
Department. Report on the Industrial 
Accidents Statistics of New Zealand for the 
Year 1954. Wellington, Government Printer, 
1956. Pp. 64. 

15. South Africa. Department of Labour. 
Report for the Year ended 31st December, 
1954, with which are included the Reports 
of the Wage Board and the Workmen's 
Compensation Commissioner. Pretoria, Gov- 
ernment Printer, 1955. Pp. 79. 

16. United Nations. Economic Commis- 
sion for Europe. Annual Bulletin of Trans- 
port Statistics for Europe, 1955. Geneva, 
1956. Pp. 102. 

17. U.S. Department of Labor. Forty- 
Third Annual Report, 1955. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1957. Pp. 96. 

18. U.S. Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, Bureau of Transport Economics and 
Statistics. Accident Bulletin No. 123. Sum- 
mary and Analysis of Accidents on Steam 
Railways in the United States Subject to 
the Interstate Commerce Act, Calendar 
Year 1954. Washington, G.P.O., 1955. Pp. 95. 

19. U.S. National Science Foundation. 
Sixth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year 
ended June 30, 1956. Washington, G.P.O., 
1956. Pp. 189. 

20. U.S. Railroad Retirement Board. 
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year ended 
June 30, 1956. Washington, G.P.O., 1957. 
Pp. 181. 

21. Wisconsin. State Board of Voca- 
tional and Adult Education. Vocational 
Rehabilitation Division. Vocational Re- 
habilitation Annual Report, 1956. Madison, 
1956. Pp. 14. 

22. Workers' Educational Association 
(Great Britain). Annual Report, Statement 
of Accounts, and Statistical Tables for the 
Period 1st June, 1955 to 31 July, 1956. 
London, 1957. Pp. 90. 



1000 



Canada at Work Broadcasts 

23. Campbell, Ian. Employment for the 
Handicapped Today, by Ian Campbell, 
Noel Meilleur and A. G. Wilson. Ottawa, 
Dept. of Labour, 1956. Pp. 4. 

24. Campbell, Ian. A Report on the 
Rehabilitation of the Disabled. Ottawa, 
Dept. of Labour, 1956. Pp. 4. 

25. Carver, Belle. Visiting Homemakers. 
Ottawa, Dept. of Labour, 1956. Pp. 3. 

26. Chant, Douglas. Safety is Every- 
body's Business. Ottawa, Dept. of Labour, 
1956. Pp. 4. 

27. Duffett, Walter. Professional Man- 
power in Canada. Walter Duffett inter- 
viewed by G. G. Blackburn. Ottawa, Dept. 
of Labour, 1956. Pp. 5. 

28. Montague, J. T. Labour Organization 
in Canada. Ottawa, Dept. of Labour, 1956. 
Pp. 4. 

29. Morrison, G. M. The Demand for 
University Graduates, by G. M. Morrison 
and G. G. Blackburn. Ottawa, Dept. of 
Labour, 1956. Pp. 4. 

Canada's Economic Prospects 

The following seven studies were prepared 
for the Royal Commission on Canada's 
Economic Prospects. 

30. Barber, Clarence Lyle. The Cana- 
dian Electrical Manufacturing Industry. 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1956. Pp. 87. 

Contents: Growth and Development of the 
Industry. Labour Force, Equipment and 
Technology. The Canadian Market for Elec- 
trical Apparatus. The Export Market for 
Canadian Electrical Apparatus. Prospective 
Developments. Summary and Conclusions. 

31. Canadian Bank of Commerce. Indus- 
trial Concentration; a Study of Industrial 
Patterns in the United States, the United 
Kingdom and Canada. Ottawa, Queen's 
Printer, 1956. Pp. 62. 

The report concludes that: an anti-trust 
policy is necessary to protect the public 
interest; anti-trust policy should be flexible; 
and the Restrictive Trade Practices Com- 
mission should set forth standards for defin- 
ing monopolistic practices. 

32. Morgan, Lucy. The Canadian Pri- 
mary Iron and Steel Industry. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1956. Pp. 104. 

Contents: Definition and Description of the 
Industry. Relative Size and Importance of 
the Industry. Growth of the Industry before 
World War II. Wartime and Postwar 
Growth. The Role of Imports. Costs and 
Productivity. Profits and Prices. Freight 
Costs. The Tariff. Overseas Competition. 
Factors affecting Steel Expansion. The 
Longer-Term Outlook. 



33. Sun Life Assurance Company op 
Canada. The Canadian Automotive Indus- 
try. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1956. Pp. 119. 

Contents: Development of the Canadian 
Automotive Industry. The Demand for Motor 
Vehicles. The Position of the Industry Today. 
Trends in Prices and Costs. The Outlook: 
1960-1980. 

34. Urwick, Currie Limited. The Cana- 
dian Industrial Machinery Industry. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1956. Pp. 31. 

Partial Contents: Size and Location of 
Firms. Products Made. Ownership and Con- 
trol. Employment and Wages. The Domes- 
tic Market. The Export Market. Factors 
affecting the Trading Position. Efficiency of 
Operations. Class of Labour employed. Capi- 
tal Investment. Research and Development. 
Future Prospects for the Industry. 

35. Urwick, Currie Limited. The Nova 
Scotia Coal Industry. Ottawa, Queen's 
Printer, 1957. Pp. 34. 

A study of the part of the Nova Scotia 
coal industry controlled by the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company Limited and 
Dominion Coal Company Limited. These two 
companies account for over 90% of the total 
output of the coal industry in Nova Scotia. 

36. Woods (J. D.) and Gordon, Limited, 
Toronto. The Canadian Agricultural Ma- 
chinery Industry. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 

1956. Pp. 47. 

The report concludes "... We do not 
believe any large future expansion of the 
industry should be anticipated in Canada. 
The advantages to be gained through the use 
of large specialized plants, combined with 
the advantage in the geographical location 
of these plants in the United States to serve 
approximately 75% of the combined Cana- 
dian-United States market appears to more 
than offset any factors favouring extensive 
expansion in Canada." 

Canadian Occupational Monographs 

37. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Careers 
in Construction. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 

1957. Pp. 40. 

38. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economic and Research Branch. Careers 
in Natural Science and Engineering. Rev. 
ed. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1953. Pp. 65. 

39. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Motor 
Vehicle Mechanic. Rev. ed. Ottawa, Queen's 
Printer, 1957. Pp. 28. 

40. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Painter 
(Construction and Maintenance). Rev. ed. 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1957. Pp. 12. 

41. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Plum- 
ber, Pipe Fitter and Steam Fitter. Rev. 
ed. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1957. Pp. 20. 



1001 



42. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Print- 
ing Trades. Rev. ed. Ottawa, Queen's Prin- 
ter, 1957. Pp. 40. 

Civil Service 

43. Abramovitz, Moses. The Growth of 
Public Employment in Great Britain, by 
Moses Abramovitz and Vera F. Eliasberg. 
A Study by the National Bureau of Eco- 
nomic Research, New York. Princeton, 
Princeton University Press, 1957. Pp. 151. 

Surveys major developments in growth of 
the British government from 1890 to 1950 in 
terms of the number of people employed, 
etc. Includes a comparison of some of the 
trends in the size of government in Great 
Britain with those in the United States. 

44. U.S. Civil Service Commission. The 
Government Personnel System; a Guide for 
Federal Executives and Supervisors. Rev. 
ed. Washington, G.P.O., 1956, i.e. 1957. 
Pp. 26. 

Partial Contents: The Personnel System in 
Operation: Setting up the Job; Pay; Filling 
a Civil Service Job; Career-conditioned 
Appointment; Transfer; Reassignment; Pro- 
motion; Reinstatement. The Employee on 
the Job: Orientation and Training; Com- 
munications; Employee Groups; Conduct and 
Discipline; Employee Problems and Griev- 
ances; Performance Evaluation; Incentive 
Awards; Leave; Firing; Reducing Staff; 
Group Life Insurance. Retirement. Organiza- 
tion for Personnel Administration: The 
Agency Personnel Office. The Civil Service 
Commission. 

Conferences 

45. Conference on Problems of the 
White Collar Worker, Washington, D.C., 
1956. Labor looks at the White Collar 
Worker. Proceedings of Conference (held 
on December 13 and 14, 1956) . . . Washing- 
ton, Industrial Union Dept. AFL-CIO, 1957. 
Pp. 79. 

The following gave addresses to the Con- 
ference: George Meany, Walter Reuther, 
James B. Carey, Secretary-Treasurer, Indus- 
trial Union Dept., AFL-CIO, William F. 
Schnitzler, Secretary-Treasurer, AFL-CIO, 
and Nelson Cruikshank, Director, Dept. of 
Social Security, AFL-CIO. The following 
papers were given followed by a discussion 
on each: Today's White Collar Worker, by 
Stanley H. Ruttenberg, Director of Research, 
AFL-CIO; The Wilting White Collar, by 
Louis McKinstry of the Retail Clerks Inter- 
national Association; How will Automation 
affect the White-Collar Worker? by Allen 
V. Astin, Director, National Bureau of 
Standards; and, the Answer for the White- 
Collar Worker, by John W. Livingston, 
Director of Organization, AFL-CIO. 

46. International Labour Conference. 
39th, Geneva, 1956. Record of Proceedings. 
Geneva, International Labour Office, 1956. 
Pp. 818. 



47. National Conference of Labour 
Women. Report of the Thirty-Third. . . 
Conference .. .held at London on April 10, 
11 and 12, 1956. London, The Labour 
Party, 1956. Pp. 56. 

48. New Zealand Federation of Labour. 
Minutes and Report of Proceedings of the 
Nineteenth Annual Conference held in... 
Wellington, May 1, 2, 3, 4, 1956. Wellington, 
1956. Pp. 95. 

Economic Conditions 

49. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Na- 
tional Accounts Income and Expenditure, 
1950-1955. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1956. 
Pp. 56. 

50. Easterbrook, William Thomas. Cana- 
dian Economic History, by W. T. Easter- 
brook and Hugh G. J. Aitken. Toronto, 
Macmillan, 1956. Pp. 606. 

The authors begin with the voyage of 
John Cabot from Bristol to Newfoundland 
in 1497 and continue to the 1950's. Among 
the topics dealt with are the early fur 
trade, railroads, money and banking in the 
Canadian economy, the wheat trade, labor 
and labor organizations and investment and 
trade. 

51. U.S. Congress. Joint Committee 
on the Economic Report. January 1957 
Economic Report of the President. Hear- 
ings before the Joint Economic Committee, 
Congress of the United States, Eighty-fifth 
Congress, First Session pursuant to Sec. 5(a) 
of Public Law 804 (79th Congress) Washing- 
ton, G.P.O., 1957. Pp. 792. 

Hearings held from January 28th to 
February 6th, 1957. 

Insurance 

52. Institute of Life Insurance, New 
York. Summary of Information on: Group 
Accident and Sickness Insurance for Em- 
New York, 1956. Pp. 7. 



53. Institute of Life Insurance, New 
York. Summary of Information on: Group 
Life Insurance for Employees. New York, 

1956. Pp. 7. 

54. Institute of Life Insurance, New 
York. Summary of Information on: The 
Insured Pension Plan for Employees. New 
York, 1956. Pp. 7. 

International Agencies 

55. Canada. Department of External 
Affairs. Information Division. Canada 
and the International Labour Organization. 
Ottawa, 1956. Pp. 4. 

56. Canada. Department of External 
Affairs. Information Division. Canada's 
Contributions to United Nations. Ottawa, 

1957. Pp. 5. 



1002 



57. Organization for European Economic 
Co-operation. Rules of Procedure of the 
Organization. September 1956. Paris, 1956. 
Pp. 65. 

Labouring Classes 

58. California. University. Heller Com- 
mittee for Research in Socul Economics. 
Quantity and Cost Budgets for Two Income 
Levels; Prices for the San Francisco Bay 
Area, September 1956. Family of a Salaried 
Junior Professional and Executive Worker; 
Family of a Wage Earner. Issued by the 
Heller Committee for Research in Social 
Economics, University of California, Emily 
H. Huntington, chairman (and others). 
Berkeley, 1957. Pp. 88. 

59. Curtis, C. H. Labour Arbitration 
Procedures; a Study of the Procedures 
followed in the Arbitration of Union- 
Management Disputes in the Manufacturing 
Industries of Ontario. Kingston, Depart- 
ment of Industrial Relations, Queen's Uni- 
versity, 1957. Pp. 90. 

This study "... is particularly interested 
in finding out how the parties actually carry 
out arbitration, what procedures they follow, 
and what their common practices are." 

Partial Contents: The Nature of Arbitra- 
tion. The Provision for Arbitration in Col- 
lective Agreements. Procedures leading to 
the Appointment of the Arbitrator. The Arbi- 
tration Hearing. The Arbitrator's Award. 

60. Russell, Rex C, Comp. The "Revolt 
of the Field" in Lincolnshire; the Origins 
and Early History of Farm-Workers' Trade 
Unions. Louth? Eng. Lincolnshire County 
Committee, National Union of Agricultural 
Workers, 1956? Pp. 168. 

A history of English farm-workers' trade 
unions in the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century. 

61. Schaefer, Willfried. The Unions and 
Productivity; Practical Experience and 
Training in Western Germany. Paris, 
O.E.E.C., n.d., 1957? Pp. 38. 

Points out that the West German trade 
unions are training their members to take 
an effective part on works councils and thus 
are helping the workers to feel that they are 
participating more actively in production. 

Wages and Hours 

62. Harper, Floyd Arthur. Why Wages 
rise. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y., Founda- 
tion for Economic Education, inc., 1957. 
Pp. 124. 

The author's thesis is that money wages in 
the U.S. have increased because of increased 
production and inflation. 

63. New York (State). Department of 
Labor. Division of Research and Statis- 
tics. Wages and Hours in All-Year Hotels 
in New York State, January 1956. New 
York, 1956. Pp. 47. 



64. Printing Industry Parity Committee 
for Montreal and District. Distribution of 
Employees according to Wage Rates paid 
Period: May, 1956. Montreal, 1956. Pp. 9. 

65. Printing Industry Parity Committee 
for Montreal and District. Hourly Wages 
Rates paid in the Printing Industry in the 
Montreal area as at May 31st, 1956. Mont- 
real, 1956. Pp. 14. 

Women — Employment 

66. Editorial Research Reports. Women's 
Place in the Economy, by Helen B. Shaffer. 
Washington, 1957. Pp. 105-121. 

Deals with wages and labor legislation per- 
taining to women workers and suggests pos- 
sible future for women workers in fields 
where a shortage of labor exists. 

67. U.S. Women's Bureau. Job Horizons 
for the College Woman. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1956, i.e. 1957. Pp. 53. 

Chapter 1 contains some suggestions for 
careers in accounting, administrative work, 
banking, civil service, engineering, health 
services, home economics, insurance, library 
science, mathematics and statistics, music, 
physical sciences, real estate, secretarial 
work, social work, teaching, and writing and 
editing. Chapter 2 outlines job-finding tech- 
niques. Chapter 3 discusses some practical 
considerations. Chapter 4 contains a survey 
of occupations of employed women. 

68. Zapoleon, Marguerite (Wykoff). The 
College Girl looks ahead to Her Career 
Opportunities. 1st ed. New York, Harper, 
1956. Pp. 272. 

Tells briefly about some occupations avail- 
able to women college graduates. Includes 
information on openings for homemakers, 
educators, secretaries and other clerical 
workers, musicians, artists, actresses, social 
and religious workers and counselors, home 
economists, writers, editors, linguists, librar- 
ians, occupations in business, government 
workers, politicians, and lawyers, social 
scientists, natural scientists, engineers, archi- 
tects and occupations in transportation and 
broadcasting. 

Miscellaneous 

69. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Awards 
for Graduate Study and Research, 1957. 
Rev. ed. Ottawa Queen's Printer, 1957. 
Pp. 158. 

70. Canada. Department of External 
Affairs. Information Division. Canada's 
Post-War Financial Assistance Abroad. 
Ottawa, 1956. Pp. 4. 

71. Canadian Political Science Associa- 
tion. The Role of Statistics in the For- 
mulation of Policy by Business. Proceedings 
of a Symposium held at the 26th Annual 
Meeting of the Canadian Political Science 
Association. Ottawa, Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, 1954. Pp. 83. 



1003 



72. Fraser, (Sir) Ian, ed. Conquest of 
Disability; Inspiring Accounts of Courage, 
Fortitude, and Adaptability in conquering 
Grave Physical Handicaps. New York, St. 
Martin's Press, 1956. Pp. 224. 

Personal accounts by people who have 
conquered such physical handicaps as color 
blindness, blindness, polio, deafness, spinal 
injuries, amputations, etc. Contributors in- 
clude General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart, 
St. John Ervine, the author, and Douglas 
Bader, et al. 

73. Niebel, Benjamin W. Motion and 
Time Study; an Introduction to Methods, 
Time Study, and Wage Payment. Home- 
wood, 111., R. D. Irwin, 1955. Pp. 433. 



Discusses "the place of the methods, time 
study, and wage payment function in indus- 
try, describing the techniques used to conduct 
proved methods programs that will result 
in substantial savings in labor and material 
for any type of business. The author presents 
accepted and proved techniques of work 
measurement and outlines the many helpful 
controls made possible after fair time 
standards have been developed. The require- 
ments and methods of installation of sound 
wage payment plans are discussed in detail." 

74. Soloveytchik, George. Benelux. To- 
ronto, Canadian Institute of International 
Affairs, 1956. Pp. 24. 

Brief history of the Benelux economic 
union between Belgium, Holland and Luxem- 
burg. 



Report on Training, Recruitment of Skilled Manpower Now Available 



A report on a survey of the training 
of skilled manpower in Canada, conducted 
by the Department's Economics and 
Research Branch, has just been published. 
Its title is Training and Recruitment of 
Skilled Tradesmen in Selected Industries 
in Canada 1951-1956. 

In the survey it was found that in 1956 
organized trade training programs were 
concentrated mainly in the manufacturing 
group of industries. These industries con- 
tained 89 per cent of the establishments 
which had such programs in four industrial 
groups, the other three groups being mining, 
transportation and communication, and 
public utilities. Of the total number of 
persons being trained under these plans, 
manufacturing accounted for 80 per cent. 

But since manufacturing accounted for 
6,187 out of the 7,360 establishments in the 
survey, the preponderance of establish- 
ments with training programs in the manu- 
facturing industries was due to the size of 
the group rather than to any special 
attention being given to organized training 
in those industries. Moreover the estab- 



lishments in manufacturing which had such 
programs were found to be concentrated 
mainly in three industries; printing, pub- 
lishing, and allied industries; transportation 
equipment; and iron and steel products. 

The industry with the highest proportion 
of establishments running training programs 
was public utilities, the percentage there 
being 34, compared with 29 per cent in 
manufacturing. The percentage of manufac- 
turing establishments carrying on organized 
training programs was higher in the larger 
than in the smaller establishments. 

In 1956, 90 per cent of all establishments 
which had apprenticeship training in the 
four industry groups surveyed and 81 per 
cent of all apprentices in these groups 
were in manufacturing. However, only 25 
per cent of the establishments in manufac- 
turing had apprenticeship training. The 
proportion of establishments with such pro- 
grams was lower in the other three industry 
groups. 

Copies of the report may be obtained 
from the Queen's Printer at a price of 25 
cents each. 



Labour Day Messages 

{Continued from page 931) 

Canada can be proud of its workers, who 
are among the best in the world. And this 
pride should not be expressed solely in 
words. Those who make such an important 
contribution to our prosperity should be 
enabled to share in that prosperity. 

During the labour year beginning today, 
I hope that we may pass through a deci- 
sive stage, in Canada, in the field of social 
security — health insurance in particular — 
economic stabilization and the struggle 
against unemployment. I also hope for 
effective recognition and protection of the 



right of association and the exercise of 
that right, so that the workers may never 
again have to live through such difficult 
hours as they have seen in Murdochville. 
The Canadian and Catholic Confederation 
of Labour, which has been fighting for 
social justice for more than 30 years, will 
do its share in the pursuit of these objec- 
tives. 

To all workers, men and women, and 
to their families, I wish to express, on 
behalf of the CCCL, most friendly greet- 
ings, deepest admiration, and my best 
wishes on the occasion of Labour Day. 



1004 



Page 

Tables A-l and A-2— Labour Force 1005 

Table B-l— Labour Income 1006 

Tables C-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 1007 

Tables D-l to D-5 — Employment Service Statistics 1012 

Tables E-l to E-4 — Unemployment Insurance 1018 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 1020 

Tables G-l and G-2— Strikes and Lockouts 1021 

Tables H-l and H-2— Industrial Accidents 1027 



A — Labour Force 



TABLE A-l.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED MAY 18, 1957 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



— 


Canada 


Nfld. 


P.E.I. 

N.S. 
N.B. 


Que. 


Ont. 


Man. 
Sask. 
Alta. 


B.C. 


The Labour Force 


5,881 

776 

5,105 

4,474 

737 

3,737 

1,407 

39 

1,368 

5,881 

545 

743 

2,709 

1,648 

236 

5,687 
4,302 
1,385 

773 
4,914 

4,459 
3,202 
1,257 

194 

5,087 

977 

4,110 


112 
110 

91 

* 

90 

21 

* 

20 

112 

15 
17 
51 

27 

* 

104 
84 
20 

102 

89 
71 
18 

151 
45 
106 


444 

49 

395 

348 

46 

302 

* 96 
93 

444 
43 
57 
195 
127 
22 

413 

319 

94 

49 
364 

320 

239 

81 

31 

453 

93 

360 


1,640 

181 

1,459 

1,275 

178 

1,097 

365 

* 

362 

1,640 
195 
235 
755 
406 
49 

1,569 

1,211 

358 

180 
1,389 

1,251 
916 
335 

71 

1,472 

257 

1,215 


2,165 

194 

1,971 

1,583 

183 

1,400 

582 

11 

571 

2,165 
175 
252 

1,005 

636 

97 

2,112 
1,538 

574 

192 
1,920 

1,765 

1,239 

526 

53 

1,633 

294 

1,339 


1,030 
332 
698 

810 
312 
498- 

220 

20 

200 

1,030 

84 
128 
472 
299 

47 

1,015 
797 
218 

332 
683 

625 
440 
185 

15 

905 
180 

725 


490 




18 




472 


Males 


367 




17 




350 




123 








122 


.All Ages 


490 




33 


20-24 years 


54 


25-44 years 


231 




153 




19 


Persons with Jobs 


474 


Males 


353 


Females 


121 




18 




456 


Paid Worker 


409 




297 




112 


Persons Without Jobs and Seeking Work 
Both Sexes 


16 


Persons not in the Labour Force 
Both Sexes 


473 




108 


Females 


365 






* Less than 10,000. 
92423—8 














1005 



TABLE A-2.— PERSONS LOOKING FOR WORK IN CANADA 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 





Week Ended 
May 18, 1957 


Week Ended 
April 20, 1957 


Week Ended 
May 19, 1956 




Total 


Seeking 

Full-Time 

Work (i) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 

Work (■) 


Total 


Seeking 
Full-Time 
Work (i) 




208 

194 
55 
68 
51 
15 

14 
10 


195 

183 

12 

* 

* 


321 

306 
76 
108 
102 

12 

* 
* 

15 
11 


305 
292 

13 


181 

165 
43 
59 
42 
14 

16 

* 

11 


170 




156 











4 — 6 months 


— 


13—18 months 












14 




* 




10 







( l ) To obtain number seeking part-time work, subtract figures in this column from those in the "Total" column. 
* Less than 10,000. 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



— 


Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Construc- 
tion 


Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 


Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 


Total 




49 
55 

72 
76 
73 
73 

77 
87 

78 
89 
95 
98 
99 
104 
98 
96 

87 
85 
77 
73 
86 


214 
231 
272 
303 
329 
323 
342 
379 

377 
381 
382 
382 
392 
394 
397 
397 

384 
389 
393 
395 
398 


47 
47 
52 
63 
70 
69 
78 
93 

92 
105 
105 
108 
110 
114 
101 

90 

76 
74 
73 

82 
95 


169 
180 
208 
233 
252 
261 
278 
307 

301 
311 
317 
319 
324 
324 
325 
327 

310 
316 
317 
324 
330 


147 
156 
178 
199 
217 
239 
256 
283 

281 

288 
281 
286 
299 
294 
300 
295 

298 
299 
302 
300 
311 


21 
24 
28 
32 
35 
35 
37 
41 

40 
41 
43 
43 
44 
43 
44 
43 

42 
42 
43 
43 
43 


647 




693 




810 


1952 Average 


906 




976 




1,000 




1,068 




1,190 


1956— May 


1,169 




1,215 


July 


1,223 




1,236 




1,268 




1,273 




1,265 


December 


1,248 




1,197 




1,205 




1,205 




1,217 




1,263 











1006 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At April 1, employers in 
the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,664,685. 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100). (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite 1 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages and 

Salaries 



1949— Average 
1950— Average 
1951 — Average 
1952— Average 
1953— Average 
1954— Average 
1955— Average 
1956— Average 

1956— Apr. 1.. 
May 1 . . 
June 1 . . 
July 1.. 
Aug. . 1 . . 
Sept. 1 . . 
Oct. .1.. 
Nov. 1.. 
Dec. 1.. 

1957— Jan. 1.. 
Feb..l.. 

Mar. 1., 
Apr. 1.. 



100.0 
101.5 
108.8 
111.6 
113.4 
109.9 
112.5 
120.1 

113.5 
115.2 
119.7 
124.2 
125.4 
125.7 
125.9 
126.2 
125.7 

121.4 

118.6 
118.1 
117.8 



100.0 
106.0 
125.6 
140.3 
151.5 
151.3 
160.1 
180.5 

168.4 
172.3 
179.0 
187.6 
189.9 
191.0 
194.5 
195.4 
194.3 

180.3 
184.7 
185.8 
185.8 



100.0 
104.4 
115.5 
126.0 
133.4 
137.1 
141.7 
149.4 

147.6 
148.8 
148.8 
150.3 
150.8 
151.3 
153.8 
154.2 
153.9 

148.0 
155.2 
156.8 
157.1 



42.96 
44.84 
49.61 
54.13 
57.30 
58.88 
60.87 
64.18 

63.43 
63.93 
63.93 
64.56 
64.77 
65.01 
66.07 
66.24 
66.11 

63.58 
66.66 
67.36 
67.50 



100.0 
100.9 
108.0 
109.3 
113.3 
107.7 
109.3 
115.4 



113.4 
114.1 
115.4 
118.0 
117.9 
118.0 
118.6 
118.6 
118.0 

114.8 
115.1 
115.0 
115.3 



100.0 
106.2 
126.1 
139.7 
152.4 
150.0 
158.4 
175.5 

171.2 
174.2 
175.6 
180.6 
179.2 
180.1 
184.4 
185.9 
185.6 

171.7 
182.0 
182.3 
184.2 



100.0 
105.1 
116.6 
127.6 
134.2 
138.6 
144.1 
151.2 

150.1 
151.7 
151.1 
152.1 
151.1 
151.7 
154.6 
155.9 
156.4 

148.8 
157.3 
157.6 
158.9 



43.97 
46.21 
51.25 
56.11 
59.01 
60.94 
63.34 
66.47 

66.02 
66.70 
66.46 
66.89 
66.44 
66.71 
67.97 
68.53 
68.78 

65.44 
69.17 
69.29 



1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and 
recreational service). 



92423— 8J 



1007 



TABLE C-2.— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Area 


Employment Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages and 
Salaries, in Dollars 


Apr. 1 
1957 


Mar. 1 
1957 


Apr. 1 
1956 


Apr. 1 
1957 


Mar. 1 
1957 


Apr. 1 
1956 


(a) Provinces 


107.1 
97.6 
94.8 
100.4 
116.2 
121.3 
106.0 
112.2 
143.9 
118.8 

117.8 

113.1 
90.5 
118.3 
109.9 
106.1 
109.7 
112.8 
76.0 
122.0 
116.5 
107.3 
173.6 
117.4 
124.4 
130.1 
113.8 
88.4 
114.5 
113.4 
139.1 
119.1 
137.1 
101.9 
132.9 
103.6 
103.4 
111.6 
117.1 
169.3 
153.8 
118.0 
116.9 


115.1 
95.5 
97.8 
103.3 
117.6 
120.9 
106.1 
112.6 
144.2 
115.9 

118.1 

114.6 
92.4 
120.4 
112.2 
105.6 
109.4 
112.0 
77.2 
120.8 
115.5 
109.1 
173.2 
118.9 
124.7 
129.3 
113.7 
86.2 
113.7 
113.2 
138.7 
118.7 
130.0 
103.1 
129.8 
104 
103.0 
112.6 
114.5 
167.2 
153.1 
116.4 
117.9 


117.7 
105.7 
95.2 
102.0 
111.4 
116.7 
102.9 
108.3 
134.4 
113.2 

113.5 

115.1 

89.7 
117.6 
109.1 
104.0 
106.2 
108.8 

77.0 
115.3 
114.5 

98.5 
170.4 
116.4 
123.3 
125.1 
110.0 

92.8 
107.2 
107.3 
132.1 
115.3 
128.4 
109.2 
119.8 
103.0 
102.3 
110.2 
107.7 
156.7 
143.2 
111.8 
116.0 


61.22 
52.02 
56.48 
58.99 
64.82 
69.96 
62.47 
64.10 
69.38 
73.23 

67.50 

49.64 
66.87 
54.77 
55.68 
55.63 
56.81 
62.78 
55.74 
65.41 
60.19 
72.56 
76.36 
77.41 
77.82 
70.45 
73.71 
64.38 
60.43 
63.34 
82.60 
63.66 
84.66 
74.24 
83.86 
67.92 
60.04 
60.96 
58.04 
64.79 
64.80 
71.36 
65.67 


60.76 
51.65 
56.35 
59.03 
64.96 
69.64 
62.78 
64.68 
69.79 
72.84 

67.36 

49.45 
66.79 
54.83 
52.80 
55.41 
57.64 
63.00 
56.80 
65.21 
60.34 
74.18 
68.59 
76.73 
77.37 
70.18 
73.92 
63.60 
60.68 
63.58 
82.86 
63.11 
79.83 
72.57 
84.50 
67.57 
59.70 
61.18 
59.15 
64.99 
64.34 
70.59 
64.55 


55 96 




46 43 




52.19 




54 97 




60 58 




66.14 




59.67 




60.01 




65 33 




68 65 


Canada 


63.43 


(b) Metropolitan Areas 


47.06 




63.02 




51.76 




51.93 




51.60 




52.31 




58.06 




54.18 




61.82 


Ottawa— Hull 


57.32 




67.49 




80.69 




71.87 




75.14 




66.92 




68.85 




64.03 


Gait 


57.49 




60.60 




77.72 




60.81 




77.22 




72.68 


Sault Ste. Marie 


77.34 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur. . . 


63.74 




56.96 




57.57 




56.56 




60.84 




61.37 




66.16 




61.22 







1008 



TABLE C-3.— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 

WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 



Industry 



Employment Index Numbers 



Apr. 1 
1957 



Mar. 1 
1957 



Apr. 1 
1956 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Apr. 1 
1957 



Mar 1 
1957 



Apr. 1 
1956 



Mining..... 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas . 
Non-metal 



Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables . 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Biscuits and crackers ; 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods . 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery mfg 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 



Construction 

Building and general engineering . 

Building 

Engineering work 

Highways, bridges and streets. . 



Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants . 
Other service 



Industrial composite. 



123 3 

130.1 
76.4 
180.1 
110.5 
61.8 
289.7 
131.7 

115 3 

99.5 
116.7 

72.2 
100.9 
106.2 



95.4 
113.0 
90.9 
95.5 
86.9 
86.8 
72.7 
86.7 
97.2 
103.7 
99.0 
83.4 
103.0 
101.3 
111.7 
94.1 
121.5 
122.8 
118.4 
118.3 
116.2 
70.4 
173.3 
100.2 
101.5 
106.4 
128.7 
126.1 
110.0 
147.4 
386.7 
136.5 
117.4 
94.7 
161.6 
128.6 
135.4 
106.6 
152.6 
152.2 
123.8 
96.2 
123.5 
136.1 
130.2 
116.5 
142.9 
113.4 

114 3 

129.1 
135.8 
101.6 
90.8 

126.5 

119.7 
111.5 
167.7 

117.8 



124 7 

131.8 
76.2 
183.8 
113.1 
64.3 
292.7 
127.7 

115 

99.6 
117.0 
72.8 
103.0 
105.9 
87.5 
98.3 
112.3 
113.3 
90.9 
95.2 
87.8 
88.4 
73.6 
87.5 
96.8 
103.1 
98.6 
83.5 
102.6 
100.6 
112.6 
92.8 
121.6 
123.4 
117.0 
118.1 
115.5 
68.1 
168.5 
100.8 
101.4 
106.3 
128.7 
126.5 
108.0 
144.2 
380.7 
128.2 
118.4 
93.6 
159.2 
130.9 
136.5 
109.2 
155.0 
153.1 
122.8 
91.0 
127.6 
135.1 
129.3 
116.1 
139.5 
111.3 

112.7 

126.1 
133.2 
96.9 
91.2 

125.1 

117.7 
110.4 
167.6 

118.1 



117 3 

120.8 
76.7 
161.8 
109.3 
69.1 
240.9 
126.3 

113 4 

99.4 
118.9 
71.8 
101.7 
106.9 
91.3 
102.7 
84.9 
110.8 
91.5 
94.9 
88.0 
90.3 
73.3 
88.3 
96.6 
100.9 
98.0 
84.3 
106.2 
107.4 
109.7 
94.5 
118.4 
120.0 
114.6 
113.6 
110.8 
71.1 
143.8 
109.2 
105.2 
108.4 
116.6 
118.6 
110.2 
144.9 
353.8 
147.3 
127.9 
88.5 
150.4 
127.4 
134.3 
114.0 
146.3 
148.3 
127.9 
104.5 
134.1 
127.4 
125.1 
114.8 
128.4 
106.5 

101 4 

112.7 
117.7 
91.4 
83.2 

117.8 

111.5 
105.9 
155.3 

113.5 



82.55 
85.69 
72.02 
91.11 
80.38 
60.07 
96.33 
73.95 

69.86 

62.40 
71.18 
58.34 
65.05 
59.03 
51.14 
78.18 
63.13 
71.66 
48.77 
46.94 
55.32 
51.05 
52.74 
62.26 
45.88 
44.88 
47.66 
44.83 
60.01 
61.84 
58.15 
54.90 
82.38 
88.80 
66.12 
74.88 
78.29 
77.04 
80.53 
71.97 
66.38 
75.89 
75.61 
88.61 
74.71 
76.93 
81.15 
81.74 
76.05 
71.03 
72.40 
78.64 
75.70 
73.49 
84.60 
75.00 
72.72 
69.22 
68.84 
98.49 
77.89 
70.33 
86.89 
59.87 

75.12 

80.81 
80.35 
83.36 
62.16 

45 26 

37.10 
41.57 
66.82 

67.50 



83 23 

85.65 
72.40 
90.79 
82.28 
62.67 
98.11 
74.34 

69 29 

61.96 
70.66 
57.95 
64.02 
58.26 
50.42 
77.50 
59.12 
71.63 
48.92 
46.63 
55.84 
52.94 
53.13 
61.51 
45.75 
44.80 
47.25 
45.24 
59.64 
61.53 
57.81 
54.26 
81.32 
87.48 
65.43 
73.70 
78.03 
76.48 
80.73 
71.16 
67.02 
75.94 
75.59 
88.08 
74.03 
75.55 
82.51 
75.93 
73.94 
71.40 
70.87 
78.22 
74.66 
72.67 
84.54 
75.11 
71.76 
68.90 
68.02 
95.15 
77.59 
70.13 
87.61 



74.31 

80.14 
79.74 
82.40 
61.42 

45.24 

37.63 
40.75 
65.93 

67.36 



76 16 

78.60 
69.75 
82.50 
74.73 
59.11 
89.39 
69.39 

66 02 

59.37 
69.97 
53.16 
62.31 
56.05 
46.28 
73.86 
59.76 
67.16 
44.72 
42.81 
51.96 
49.10 
50.11 
57.48 
42.52 
42.56 
43.07 
42.30 
56.61 
58.74 
54.05 
50.98 
77.60 
83.49 
62.51 
71.13 
73.56 
75.53 
77.08 
69.22 
62.10 
72.99 
71.36 
80.99 
69.68 
74.56 
77.25 
82.38 
76.00 
67.67 
66.21 
75.21 
69.45 
73.02 
81.59 
70.95 
69.27 
65.41 
67.65 
94.82 
72.95 
67.49 
81.73 
56.32 

66.78 

71.21 
70.43 
75.53 
57.12 

42 60 

35.87 
39.34 
61.52 

63.43 



1009 



Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4.— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 





Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




May 1, 

1957 


April 1, 
1957 


May 1, 
1956 


May 1, 
1957 


April 1, 
1957 


Mayl, 
1956 




47.2 
40.8 
40.5 
41.4 
40.4 
40.1 
40.0 
39.9 
38.7 


43.1 
41.8 
41.7 
42.3 
40.7 
40.7 
40.2 
40.3 
38.8 


39.9 
41.2 
42.0 
42.6 
41.3 
41.1 
40.5 
40.3 
38.3 


162.9 
141.8 
142.0 
142.9 
169.0 
148.8 
165.2 
166.7 
189.5 


156.0 
142.4 
140.4 
141.7 
168.0 
147.9 
164.1 
164.4 
189.2 


139.7 




132.3 




135.4 




134.6 




159.8 




141.8 




157.9 


Alberta 0) 


155.0 




180.1 







i Includes Northwest Territories. 
2 Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: Information on hours and earnings by cities is obtainable from Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics). 



TABLE C-6.— EARNINGS HOURS AND REAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS IN 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 

Source: Man Hours and Hourly Earnings: Prices and Price Indexes, DBS. 





Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 


Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 


Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 


Index Numbers (Av. 1949 = 100) 


Period 


Average 
Weekly 
Earnings 


Consumer 
Price 
Index 


Average 

RealWeekly 

Earnings 




42.3 
42.3 
41.8 
41.5 
41.3 
40.6 
41.0 
41.1 

41.1 
41.4 
40.9 
41.2 
40.8 
41.1 
41.5 
41.6 
41-5 

41.2* 
40.9 
40.9 
41.1 


cts. 

98.6 
103.6 
116.8 
129.2 
135.8 
140.8 
144.5 
151.5 

150.5 
151.1 
151.9 
152.7 
152.4 
152.1 
153.3 
154.7 
155.5 

158.0 

157.5 
157.6 
158.7 


$ 

41.71 
43.82 
48.82 
53.62 
56.09 
57.16 
59.25 
62.27 

61.86 
62.56 
62.13 
62.91 
62.18 
62.51 
63.62 
64.36 
64.53 

65.10* 
64.42 
64.46 
65.23 


100.0 
105.1 
117.0 
128.6 
134.5 
137.0 
142.1 
149.8 

148.3 
150.0 
149.0 
150.8 
149.1 
149.9 
152.5 
154.3 
154.7 

156.1 
154.4 
154.5 
156.4 


100.0 
102.9 
113.7 
116.5 
115.5 
116.2 
116.4 
118.1 

116.6 
116.6 
117.8 
118.5 
119.1 
119.0 
119.8 
120.3 
120.4 

120.3 
120.5 
120.5 
120.9 


100.0 




102.1 




102.9 




110.4 




116.5 




117.9 




122.0 




126.8 


Week Preceding: 

April 1, 1956 


127.2 


May 1, 1956 


128.6 


June 1, 1956 


126.5 


July 1, 1956 

August 1, 1956 


127.3 
125.2 




126.0 


October 1, 1956 


127.3 


November 1, 1956 


128.3 




128.5 




129.8 


February 1 , 1957 


128.1 


March 1, 1957 


128.2 


April 1, 19570) 


129.4 







Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the Consumer Price Index into the average 
weekly earnings index. (Average 1949 = 100) by the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 
* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures for January 1, 1957 are 37.9 and $59.88. 
(J) Latest figures subject to revision. 



1010 



TABLE C-5.— HOURS ]AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 


Average Hours 


Average Hourly 
Earnings 


, Average Weekly 
Wages 


May 1 
1957 


Apr. 1 
1957 


Mav 1 
1956 


May 1 
1957 


Apr. 1 
1957 


May 1 
1956 


May 1 
1957 


Apr. 1 
1957 


May 1 
1956 




no. 

41.7 
42.4 
42.8 
42.3 
39.2 
38.6 
40.6 
42.6 
40.6 
40.4 
39.8 
38.3 
41.2 
42.5 
39.6 
40.3 
41.6 
39.8 
39.2 
41.4 
39.3 
42.3 
43.8 
37.6 
36.8 
37.0 
39.2 
40.8 
39.9 
42.1 
42.0 
41.9 
42.2 
41.1 
39.8 
41.3 
39.2 
41.6 
41.3 
39.8 
41.6 
42.1 
41.9 
40.0 
40.5 
40.8 
40.1 
40.0 
39.5 
42.2 
40.8 
40.0 
41.0 
40.9 
39.9 
40.1 
39.4 
39.4 
39.9 
39.9 
40.5 
42.5 
42.6 
41.9 
42.5 
41.1 
40.7 
42.2 
40.9 
40.9 
40.4 
40.1 
40.4 
39.2 
44.2 
40.3 
40.3 
41.0 


no. 

42.3 
43.1 
42.6 
43.3 
40.4 
37.9 
44.8 
42.2 
41.1 
40.8 
40.1 
39.6 
41.2 
42.6 
40.1 
39.8 
41.0 
41.4 
41.4 
41.8 
38.9 
42.9 
44.9 
39.5 
38.8 
38.6 
40.8 
41.6 
40.6 
43.0 
43.2 
42.2 
42.5 
41.3 
40.1 
41.6 
41.2 
41.8 
41.7 
40.7 
41.6 
42.7 
41.1 
41.0 
40.5 
41.3 
39.7 
40.0 
39.7 
41.9 
40.9 
41.3 
41.1 
40.7 
40.8 
41.1 
39.9 
40.4 
40.7 
40.7 
41.5 
43.0 
42.6 
42.5 
41.6 
41.1 
40.7 
41.6 
41.6 
41.2 
41.0 
42.1 
42.4 
41 
44.8 
40.1 
40.3 
40.4 


no. 

42.7 
43.6 
45.1 
43.0 
40.0 
40.6 
38.5 
43.1 
41.4 
40.9 
40.8 
39.8 
41.7 
43.8 
40.7 
42.5 
41.8 
39.9 
39.3 
42.5 
41.5 
43.0 
44.1 
39.1 
39.0 
37.6 
40.6 
41.5 
40.2 
43.2 
44.1 
42.4 
42.6 
42.0 
40.3 
42.1 
40.8 
41.7 
42.8 
42.2 
43.2 
43.5 
41.1 
41.3 
41.6 
41.0 
42.3 
41.7 
41.1 
41.8 
41.1 
40.6 
42.5 
40.8 
41.1 
41.8 
38.4 
40.1 
41.6 
41.6 
42.1 
43.4 
43.6 
43.2 
41.5 
41.3 
41.3 
41.7 
41.5 
41.7 
41.1 
40.5 
40.6 
40.2 
44.5 
40.6 
40.6 
41.4 


cts. 

186.2 
194.0 
159.5 
208.7 
175.8 
162.5 
205.6 
167.9 
159.9 
140.2 
164.9 
126.3 
147.7 
127.2 
180.8 
155.2 
167.6 
110.3 
106.9 
120.1 
120.2 
112.0 
126.8 
104.3 
104.9 
110.7 
100.4 
139.1 
148.9 
127.7 
119.1 
183.8 
197.1 
143.7 
190.5 
182.5 
178.7 
178.3 
162.4 
153.9 
176.7 
169.5 
213.6 
174.5 
180.7 
181.3 
197.1 
181.7 
173.3 
172.6 
180.3 
156.2 
167.0 
195.9 
165.6 
182.5 
145.8 
161.9 
169.5 
153.8 
179.0 
158.9 
150.5 
152.3 
220.4 
168.8 
131.4 
193.1 
129.0 
172.0 
146.4 
177.7 
188.9 
146.8 
158.6 
94.5 
94.0 
90.7 


cts. 

184.3 
192.0 
159.2 
205.7 
173.1 
151.1 
205.8 
168.0 
158.7 
138.7 
164.9 
126.8 
146.1 
125.0 
180.0 
145.7 
165.3 
109.2 
105.6 
120.0 
120.4 
111.9 
126.5 
104.6 
105.6 
110.9 
100.1 
138.2 
148.2 
126.7 
118.9 
184.6 
198.4 
143.6 
189.0 
181.2 
180.8 
179.3 
161.9 
153.3 
177.2 
169.4 
209.1 
173.0 
180.1 
182.2 
193.1 
180.5 
175.2 
171.1 
178.8 
157.0 
166.5 
194.1 
165.5 
183.1 
145.8 
163.5 
168.0 
152.7 
179.8 
160.0 
151.5 
153.5 
215.5 
167.4 
131.4 
190.4 
128.4 
171.2 
144.9 
178.4 
189.0 
147.1 
156.8 
93.5 
93.2 
88.9 


cts. 

169.0 
175.7 
146.2 
189.7 
157.5 
147.5 
185.0 
158.8 
151.1 
131.4 
155.5 
117.3 
142.1 
116.1 
169.5 
149.9 
157.0 
103.7 
99.8 
113.7 
113.6 
106.6 
121.1 
99.6 
99.7 
103.5 
98.2 
132.5 
142.3 
121.3 
111.6 
171.9 
183.8 
136.2 
180.1 
171.0 
175.3 
173.9 
158.8 
144.5 
166.8 
163.4 
190.3 
163.2 
172.6 
175.7 
185.1 
175.9 
. 164.1 
162.8 
170.4 
145.6 
158.9 
186.1 
159.4 
172.4 
142.9 
155.1 
163.2 
150.7 
175.9 
152.2 
140.9 
152.1 
206.8 
157.5 
130.1 
179.3 
122.5 
162.9 
137.5 
164.1 
175.4 
134.7 
149.3 
88.9 
88.9 
84.9 


$ 

77.65 
82.26 
68.27 
88.28 
68.91 
62.73 
83.47 
71.53 
64.92 
56.64 
65.63 
48.37 
60.85 
54.06 
71.60 
62.55 
69.72 
43.90 
41.90 
49.72 
47.24 
47.38 
55.54 
39.22 
38.60 
40.96 
39.36 
56.75 
59.41 
53.76 
50.02 
77.01 
83.18 
59.06 
75.82 
75.37 
70.05 
74.17 
67.07 
61.25 
73.51 
71.36 
89.50 
69.80 
73.18 
73.97 
79.04 
72.68 
68.45 
72.84 
73.56 
62.48 
68.47 
80.12 
66.07 
73.18 
57.45 
63.79 
67.63 
61.37 
72.50 
67.53 
64.11 
63.81 
93.67 
69.38 
53.48 
81.49 
52.76 
70.35 
59.15 
71.26 
76.32 
57.55 
70.10 
38.08 
37.88 
37.19 


S 

77.96 
82.75 
67.82 
89.07 
69.93 
57.27 
92.20 
70.90 
65.23 
56.59 
66.12 
50.21 
60.19 
53.25 
72.18 
57.99 
67.77 
45.21 
43.72 
50.16 
46.84 
48.01 
56.80 
41.32 
40.97 
42.81 
40.84 
57.49 
60.17 
54.48 
51.36 
77.90 
84.32 
59.31 
75.79 
75.38 
74.49 
74.95 
67.51 
62.39 
73.72 
72.33 
85.94 
70.93 
72.94 
75.25 
76.66 
72.20 
69.55 
71.69 
73.13 
64.84 
68.43 
79.00 
67.52 
75.25 
58.17 
66.05 
68.38 
62.15 
74.62 
68.80 
64.54 
65.24 
89.65 
68.80 
53.48 
79.21 
53.41 
70.53 
59.41 
75 . 11 
80.14 
60.31 
70.25 
37.49 
37.56 
35.92 


$ 
72 16 




76 61 


Gold 


65 94 




81 57 


Fuels 


63 00 


Coal 


59 89 




71 23 




68 44 




62 56 




53 74 




63 44 


Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 


46 69 




59 26 




50 85 




68 99 




63 71 




65 63 




41 38 




39 22 




48 22 




47 14 




45 84 




53.41 




38.94 




38.88 




38.92 




39.87 




54.99 




57.20 




52.40 




49.92 




72.89 




78.30 




57.20 




72.58 




71.99 




71.52 




72.52 




67.97 




60.98 




72.06 




71.08 




78.21 




67.40 




71.80 




72.04 




78.30 




73.35 




67.45 




68.05 




70.03 




59.11 




67.53 




75.93 




65.51 




72.06 




54.87 




62.20 


Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and appliances 


67.89 
62.69 




74.05 




66.05 




61.43 




65.71 




85.82 




65.05 




53.73 




74.77 




50.84 




67.93 




56.51 




66.46 




71.21 




54.15 




66.44 




36.09 




36.09 




35.15 







Durable manufactured goods industries. 



1011 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on regular statistical reports from local offices of the 
National Employment Service. These statistics are compiled from two different reporting 
forms, UIC 751: statistical report on employment operations by industry, and UIC 757: 
inventory of registrations and vacancies by occupation. The data on applicants and 
vacancies in these two reporting forms are not identical. 

TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Period 



Unfilled Vacancies* 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Date Nearest: 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



1951... 
1952... 
1953... 
1954... 
1955... 

1956... 
1956... 
1956... 
1956... 
1956... 
1956... 

1957... 
1957... 
1957... 
1957... 
1957... 
1957 (») 
1957 (i) 



45,183 
22,772 
21,229 
13,251 
18,741 

40,016 
38,195 
39,324 
40,726 
31,997 
27,634 

19,784 
18,117 
14,218 
19,523 
28,999 
28,041 
21,843 



16,775 
17,679 
20,088 
14,417 
17,392 

22,292 
19,636 
22,039 
21,827 
17,154 
16,442 

13,440 
12,376 
12,694 
14,760 
18,200 
19,163 
17,643 



61,958 
40,451 
41,317 
27,668 
36,133 

62,308 
57,831 
61,363 
62,553 
49,151 
44,076 

33,224 
30,493 
26,912 
34,283 
47,199 
47,204 



86,997 
134,394 
124,396 
201,931 
152,711 

116,849 
105,417 
101,718 
97,699 
108,703 
171,326 

343,956 
447,210 
474,661 
479,539 
378,062 
226,022 
179,521 



52,773 
61,866 
55,918 
81,112 
77,865 

72,618 
69,272 
60,377 
59,502 
65,017 
74,709 

92,207 
112,994 
113,489 
111,129 
96,250 
80,973 
85,981 



139,770 
196,260 
180,314 
283,043 
230,576 

189,467 
174,689 
162,095 
157,201 
173,720 
246,035 

436,163 
560,204 
588.150 
590,668 
474,312 
306,995 
265,502 



*Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
C 1 ) Latest figures subject to revision. 



1012 



TABLE D-2.— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 31, 

1957 (1) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 



Industry 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products : 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non- Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community of Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

Grand Total 



Male 



1,618 

4,785 

1,935 

851 
790 
156 
12 
126 

6,459 

600 

1 

27 

105 

183 

183 

666 

360 

235 

1,023 

1,086 

481 

557 

143 

148 

550 

111 

5,061 

4,399 
662 

2,432 

1,779 

89 

564 

438 

3,101 

1,085 
2,016 



6,640 

745 
3,235 

177 
1,018 
1,465 

33,328 



Female 



314 
15 



2,923 

316 
23 
10 

190 

275 

1,202 

85 

73 

123 

134 
92 
45 

108 
29 
26 

123 
69 

117 



494 

269 

24 

201 

71 

2,686 

638 
2,048 

956 

11,970 

2,031 
670 
183 
454 

8,632 

19,603 



Total 



1,932 
4,800 

1,992 

871 
818 
156 
12 
135 

9,382 

916 

24 

37 

295 

458 

1,385 

751 

433 

358 

1,157 

1,178 

526 

665 

172 

174 

673 



5,178 

4,468 
710 

2,926 

2,048 
113 
765 

509 

5,787 
1,723 
4,064 

1,815 

18,610 

2,776 

3,905 

360 

1,472 
10,097 

'52,931 



Change from 



April 30 
1957 



- 736 
+ 581 

- 4 

- 20 

- 101 
+ 89 
+ 2 
+ 26 



+ 414 

+ 194 


- 4 
+ 32 
+ 101 

- 25 

- 323 
+ 113 
-f 29 
+ 187 

- 25 

- 93 
+ 135 

- 21 
+ 17 
+ 146 



+ 436 

+ 520 

- 84 

+ 725 

+ 308 

- 13 
-f- 430 



+ 119 

+ 144 
- 25 

+ 154 

+2,043 

+ 103 
+ 359 
+ 75 
+ 267 
+1,239 

+3,739 



May 31 
1956 



-1,721 
- 4,381 



549 

128 

427 

10 

11 

5 



- 2,887 

- 226 
+ 3 

66 

23 

+ 47 

- 210 

- 346 

- 104 

61 

- 752 



- 102 



19 
140 

527 

43 
570 

816 

972 
24 
180 

34 

1,853 

651 
1,202 



- 607 

- 3,560 

+ 144 

- 2,116 

- 44 

- 154 

- 1,390 

-15,769 



(!) Preliminary— subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 
• 2571 vacancies, male and female, shown as current in Form U.I.C. 751 were actually deferred at May 61, lvoi. 



1013 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 30, 1957 (1) 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 757) 



Occupational Group 



Professional and managerial workers 

Clerical Workers 

Sales workers 

Personal and domestic service workers . . 

Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 

Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (incl 

tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and lumber products 

Pulp, paper (incl. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metalworking 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications and public utility. . 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

Grand Total 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



Male 



5,315 

1,736 

1,267 

1,771 

13 

1,521 

11,469 

73 
114 

4,393 

90 

49 

13 

1,097 

178 

40 

270 

1,401 

1,240 

66 

275 

1,808 

217 

145 

4,949 

132 

446 

361 

2,566 

1,444 

28,041 



Female 



1,453 
4,305 
1,337 



113 

1,897 

19 

1,340 

7 

21 

79 

1 

11 

30 



1 
20 

2 

326 

39 

1 



889 

154 

16 

34 



685 
19,163 



Total 



6,768 
6,041 
2,604 

10,940 

13 

1,634 

13,366 

92 

1,454 

4,400 

111 

128 

14 

1,108 

208 

40 

270 

1,402 

1,260 

68 

601 

1,847 

218 

145 



838 
286 
462 
395 
566 
129 



47,204 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



5,962 
10,265 

4,247 
20,972 

1,090 

1,792 
110,187 

952 

3,227 

19,613 

761 

990 

325 

10,030 

1,708 

808 

1,288 

27,706 

20,364 

493 

2,672 

13,564 

2,470 

3,216 

71,507 
2,298 

11,213 
3,534 

33,849 

20,613 

226,022 



Female 



1,644 

22,352 

9,580 

13,731 

2 

212 

17,265 

597 

10,719 

150 

329 

1,020 

65 



U 



58 



2 

1,175 

780 

235 



16,187 

3,913 

275 

496 



11,503 
80,973 



Total 



7,606 

32,617 

13,827 

34,703 

1,092 

2,004 

127,452 

1,549 
13,946 
19,763 

1,090 

2,010 

390 

11,029 

2,746 
866 

1,288 

27,708 

20,452 

495 

3,847 
14,344 

2,705 

3,224 

87,694 
6,211 

11,488 
4,030 

33,849 

32,116 

306,995 



0) Preliminary— subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



1014 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 30, 1957 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Live Applications 


Office 


(?) 

May 30, 
1957 


Previous 

Month 

May 2, 

1957 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1956 


<-> | 

May 30, 

1957 


Previous 

Month 

May 2, 

1957 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1956 




219 

12 
21 
186 

193 

121 

72 

1,488 
44 
71 

1,055 
3 
51 
17 
95 
1 
75 
36 
40 

1,349 

9 
83 

167 

146 
99 

473 
10 

220 
41 
73 
28 

11,589 

43 
31 
23 
91 
2 
1,218 
55 
74 
35 

538 
2 

80 
85 

153 

36 

22 

7 

827 

214 

62 

3 

57 

6 

27 

15 

22 

4,359 

7 

52 

791 

112 
78 

172 

169 
36 

107 
78 

386 
44 

114 
51 

157 
41 

175 


245 

10 

16 

219 

205 

117 

88 

1,534 

24 

21 

1,238 


482 
58 


12,907 

3,069 
1,814 
8,024 

1,653 

1,015 
638 

12,853 

683 

501 
3,117 

445 
1,701 

272 
1,391 

610 
2,348 

781 
1,004 

16,267 

1,664 

1,933 

1,276 

1,145 

426 

3,100 

1,684 

2,934 

963 

320 

822 

99,740 

413 

585 

736 

2,127 

721 

1,179 

1,126 

1,130 

604 

984 

880 

930 

1,825 

1,701 

1,648 

351 

940 

390 

2,457 

630 

475 

846 

2,068 

724 

863 

1,500 

30,359 

963 

574 

8,259 

2,589 

2,761 

912 

2,916 

419 

386 

782 

1,949 

1,291 

858 

842 

1,031 

2,775 

2,860 


23,402 

5,606 

2,886 
14,910 

3,773 

2,274 
1,499 

22,024 

1,139 
1,204 
4,459 
1,076 
2,559 
552 
2,610 
1,045 
3,625 
1,671 
2,084 

30,152 

4,897 
3,206 
2,923 
1,794 

771 
5,759 
3,625 
3,025 
1,711 

589 
1,852 

164,612 

729 

841 
1,467 
4,039 
2,232 
2,104 
2,460 
1,549 

904 
2,260 
2,105 
1,915 
3,479 
3,496 
2,070 

701 
2,062 

967 
4,513 
1,548 

729 
1,817 
4,053 
1,530 
1,784 
2,767 
38,300 
2,204 
1,218 
13,816 
5,026 
4,626 
1,938 
4,031 
1,210 

665 
1,464 
4,179 
1,823 
1|238 
1,406 
1,842 
4,712 
4,190 


10,828 




3,263 


Grand Falls 


1,387 




424 

256 

182 
74 

1,726 

30 

35 

1,023 


6,178 


Prince Edward Island 


1,168 




671 




497 




10,588 




428 




454 


Halifax 


2,533 




650 




52 

11 

110 


328 
39 

118 
7 

37 
75 
34 

1,796 

11 

49 

71 

338 

120 

610 

10 

311 

46 

117 

113 

18,390 

73 

76 

14 

304 

4 

603 

132- 

44 

57 

1,558 

14 

56 

174 

145 

130 

58 

110 

593 

195 

65 

51 

20 

418 

88 

29 

55 

6,972 

43 

41 

927 

204 

62 

34 

375 

136 

124 

97 

1,528 

389 

89 

72 

106 

106 

265 


1,166 




164 




1,029 




297 




20 
37 
21 

1,197 

14 
37 
21 

182 
88 

612 
7 

185 
11 
5 
35 

13,232 

19 

31 

12 

347 

1 

1,324 

358 

75 

35 

436 

3 

70 

371 

142 

302 

26 


2,465 


Truro 


738 




664 




12,759 




1,338 




1,393 




881 




673 




303 




2,638 




1,185 




2,846 


St Stephen 


656 




275 




571 




84,611 




304 




400 




550 




1,613 




793 




843 




974 




988 




650 




984 




790 




817 


Hull 


1,372 




1,538 




1,169 




270 




829 




665 
205 

64 
5 

72 
8 
9 

12 

33 

4,965 

5 

18 
830 
576 
261 

13 
105 

24 
103 

96 

70 

42 
101 

48 
332 

54 
192 


320 




1,800 




477 




478 




265 




1,352 




513 




659 




783 




28,071 




849 


Port Alfred 


398 




7,090 




1,810 




2,200 




703 




2,509 




344 




496 


Ste. Therese 


531 




2,239 




979 




872 




671 




1,110 




1,970 




2,164 



1015 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 30, 1957 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 





Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 


Live Applications 


Office 


0) 

May 30, 

1957 


Previous 
Month 
May 2, 

1957 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1956 


0) 

May 30, 
1957 


Previous 

Month 

May 2, 

1957 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1956 


Quebec— Con. 

Sorel 


91 

95 

299 

192 

77 
54 
124 

14,972 

37 

104 

21 

735 

54 

78 

14 

7 

166 

8 

42 

191 

58 

36 

598 

204 

10 

73 

124 

806 

25 

63 

61 

632 

155 

135 

154 

51 

38 

26 

577 

76 

6 

62 

139 

86 

26 

113 

22 

93 

1,913 

46 

13 

262 

49 

175 

62 

748 

22 

41 

20 

157 

120 

172 

648 

83 

22 

10 

25 

3 

503 

93 

3,285 

57 

45 

6 

76 

183 

209 

18 


111 
78 

301 
24 
58 
56 

144 

13,934 

49 

109 

37 

228 

33 

93 

19 

3 

105 

8 


115 
76 
594 
642 
123 
145 
59 

23,443 

85 

176 

37 

572 

118 

178 

55 

3 

293 

11 

44 

211 

95 

14 

513 

153 

18 

38 

191 

1,234 

32 

85 

310 

174 

178 

305 

173 

80 

78 

57 

998 

34 

17 


817 
984 
2,277 
1,891 
1,014 
1,098 
1,300 

97,079 

169 
592 
854 
547 
439 

1,926 
186 
112 

1,331 
447 
238 

1,872 
206 
265 
679 
729 
123 
288 
956 

7,368 
412 
376 
587 
312 

1,069 
545 

1,581 
877 
338 
174 

3,396 
228 
282 
511 

1,828 
905 

1,029 
336 
369 

2,408 

3,412 
752 
197 
979 
202 

1,733 
209 

1,471 
350 
402 
248 

2,396 
699 

1,546 

1,242 
614 
107 
192 
478 
514 

1,981 

1,125 
27,371 
435 
256 
282 
846 

1,596 

7,830 
724 


1,453 
2,074 
3,898 
2,727 
1,581 
2,243 
2,627 

129,116 

251 

953 

1,394 

995 

575 

2,145 

275 

174 

2,248 

629 

438 

2,672 

272 

434 

1,384 

767 

158 

394 

1,154 

9,113 

948 

624 

1,372 

501 

1,387 

1,0-10 

1,983 

994 

458 

301 

4,050 

542 

510 

826 

2,095 

1,347 

1,372 

389 

573 

2,871 

4,134 

1,245 

249 

1,718 

441 

2,622 

268 

3,311 

498 

522 

442 

2,644 

950 

1,985 

1,383 

967 

253 

263 

689 

1,018 

3,197 

2,093 

34,430 

642 

370 

677 

1,169 

1,734 

7,649 

945 


1,012 




1,149 




1,861 


Vald'Or 


1,426 


Valleyfield.. 


851 




757 


Ville d'Alma... 


1,018 


Ontario 


60,642 




103 




628 


Belleville .. 


628 




288 




289 




1,393 




137 




89 




1,184 




336 




253 




336 

51 

35 

561 

227 

9 

40 

136 

1,040 

26 

63 

63 

151 

160 

133 

99 

66 

39 

35 

635 

38 

11 

44 

159 

116 

38 

106 

38 

134 

1,804 

59 

2 

237 

48 

89 

17 

400 

23 

41 

17 

123 

110 

91 

649 

40 

19 

17 

46 

8 

509 

119 

3,598 

67 

40 

5 

90 

182 

185 

26 


1,212 


Fort Erie 


320 




179 


Fort William 


730 


Gait 


227 




98 




171 




674 




4,199 




185 




180 




715 




174 




792 




645 




840 




393 




262 




95 




1,789 




178 




144 








403 

154 

66 

339 

80 

220 

4,231 

77 

21 

380 

40 

241 

14 

654 

29 

41 

30 

267 

183 

133 

669 

79 

42 

13 

90 

3 

777 

689 

5,654 

87 

44 

16 

102 

564 

384 

67 


1,217 




614 




453 




230 


Orillia 


275 




1,434 




2,422 




540 




79 




742 


Perth 


188 




1,354 




156 


Port Arthur 


1,168 


Port Colborne 


226 


Prescott 


412 




188 




1,286 


St. Thomas 


410 




698 


Sault Ste. Marie 


694 




387 




121 


Smiths Falls 


184 




253 




347 




1,394 




874 




16,104 




365 




216 




217 


Welland 


552 




921 




4,160 


Woodstock 


231 



1016 



TABLE D-4.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS AT MAY 30, 1957 

(Source: U.I.C. 757) 



Office 



Manitoba 

Brandon 

Dauphin 

Flin Flon 

Portage la Prairie 

The Pass 

Winnipeg 

Saskatchewan 

Estevan 

Moose Jaw 

North Battleford. 

Prince Albert 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Swift Current 

Wey burn 

Yorkton 

Alberta 

Blairmore 

Calgary 

Drumheller 

Edmonton 

Edson 

Lethbridge 

Medicine Hat 

Red Deer 

British Columbia. . . . 

Chilliwack 

Courtenay 

Cranbrook 

Dawson Creek 

Duncan 

Kamloops 

Kelowna 

Kitimat 

Mission City 

Nanaimo 

Nelson 

New Westminster. 

Penticton 

Port Alberni 

Prince George 

Prince Rupert 

Princeton 

Trail 

Vancouver 

Vernon 

Victoria 

Whitehorse 

Canada 

Males 

Females 



Unfilled Vacancies ( 2 ) 



0) 

May 30, 

1957 



3,900 

642 
68 
95 

118 

19 

2,958 

2,659 

142 
306 

55 

143 

1,222 

366 

126 

85 
214 

5,976 

13 

2,405 

18 

2,518 

92 

621 

195 

114 

4,859 

160 
51 
14 
59 
40 
31 
13 

225 
37 
46 
37 

325 
25 
35 

195 

104 

21 

2 

2,704 

63 

608 
64 

47,204 

28,041 
19,163 



Previous 

Month 

Mav 2, 

1957 



3,788 

670 

61 

119 

205 

59 

2,674 

3,808 

199 

446 

90 

164 

1,856 

508 

214 

93 

238 

5,983 

5 

2,821 

9 

1,606 

61 

1,069 

283 

129 

3,273 

140 
33 
25 
46 
44 
46 
20 

255 
31 
26 
24 

339 
35 
38 

131 
87 



23 
339 

111 

47,199 

28,999 
18,200 



Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1956 



3,867 

316 
57 

102 
74 

3,311 

3,760 

172 
433 
135 

278 
1,261 
980 
169 
56 
276 

6,368 

21 

2,040 

23 

2,424 

82 

1,339 

289 

150 

6,681 

64 

171 

57 

54 

139 

213 

25 

452 

46 

85 

53 

312 

45 

74 

417 

90 

24 

17 

3,498 

87 

641 

117 

66,769 

44,157 
22,612 



Live Applications 



May 30, 
1957 



11,953 

767 
512 
163 
470 
107 
9,934 

6,656 

127 

425 

473 

882 

1,366 

2,238 

185 

70 



13,873 

414 
3,654 
339 
7,065 
334 
893 
484 



34,014 

621 
426 
525 
523 
242 
974 
547 
506 
404 
554 
401 

3,660 
371 
532 

2,356 
991 
188 
521 
16,117 
926 

2,269 
360 

306,995 

226,022 
80,973 



Previous 

Month 

May 2, 

1957 



18,990 

1,726 
997 
157 
887 
H6 
15,107 

12,078 

506 

878 

844 

2,078 

2,625 

2,340 

501 

243 

2,063 

23,127 

492 
6,588 

483 
10,558 

561 
2,070 

933 
1,442 

47,038 

1,134 
567 
950 
804 
310 

1,578 

1,150 
700 
761 
934 
944 

5,200 
895 
562 

3,490 

976 

305 

836 

20,434 

1,555 

2,579 
374 

474,312 

378,062 
96,250 



Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1956 



11,361 

708 
398 

84 
354 

70 
9,747 

6,214 

93 

502 

510 

1,005 

1,396 

1,521 

199 

100 



9,360 

268 
2,603 
275 
4,517 
180 
695 
303 
519 

21,808 

454 
270 

463 
445 
257 
512 
527 
204 
430 
421 
373 

2,329 
360 
241 

1,403 

382 

79 

392 

9,688 
595 

1,706 
277 

229,339 

160,642 
68,697 



0) Preliminary subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-5.— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Source: Form U.I.C. 751) 
1952—1957 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1952 


980,507 
993,406 
861,588 
953,576 
1,046,979 
380,338 
335,940 


677,777 
661,167 
645,462 

642,726 
748,464 
271,173 
227,714 


302,730 
332,239 
316,136 
310,850 
298,515 
109,165 
108,226 


81.640 
7», 913 
67,893 
67,619 
68,522 
27,159 
22,130 


251,714 
259,874 
209,394 
222,370 
252,783 
89,329 
84,200 


320,684 
342,678 
277,417 
3 43,450 
379,085 
139,995 
123,586 


207,569 
201,670 
175,199 
178,015 
210,189 
77,100 
71,703 


115,870 


1953 


112,271 


1954 


131,685 


1955 


142,116 


1956...... 


136,400 


1956 (5 months) 


46,755 


1957 (5 months) 


34,321 







1017 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E-l. 



BENEFICIARIES AND REGULAR AND SEASONAL* BENEFIT 
PAYMENTS BY PROVINCE, MAY 1937 



Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Estimated 
Average 

Number of 
Beneficiaries 

Per Weekt 
(in thousands) 


Number 

Commencing 

Benefit on 

Initial and 

Renewal 

Claims 


Weeks PaidJ(Disability 
Days in Brackets) 


Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 


Newfoundland 


17.7 
2.4 
17.5 
21.0 
108.4 
86.7 
11.6 
7.0 
13.9 
27.1 


4,777 

552 

5,580 

6,373 

32,085 

31,244 

3,176 

1,752 

5,036 

10,296 


70,859 (644) 

9,766 (508) 

69,873 (4,528) 

84,155 (2,759) 

433,482 (37,175) 

346,625 (34,216) 

46,465 (4,667) 

27,814 (2,677) 

55,630 (3,562) 

108,548 (12,318) 


1,632,761 
181,384 




1,339,090 




1,736,879 




9,195,889 




7,128,101 




926,035 




578,894 




1,220,764 




2,329,785 






Total, Canada, May/57 


313.3 
477.9 
228.5 


100,871 
155,323 
78,232 


1,253,217 (103,054) 
1,911,596 (135,886) 
1,005,401 (93,458) 


26,269,582 


Total, Canada, April/57 


40,392,557 


Total, Canada, May/56 


19,154,627 







* Though the seasonal benefit period ended on April 30 (in 1956, April 21), a residual of payments was made during 
May in respect of this type of benefit. 

t Based on the number of payment documents for the month. 

X Under the old Act, payment was made on the basis of "days", whereas now the basis is "weekly". 



TABLE E-2.— CLAIMANTS HAVING AN UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER IN THE "LIVE 
FILE" ON THE LAST WORKING DAY OF THE MONTH, BY DURATION, SEX AND 

PROVINCE, MAY, 1957 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Duration on the Register (weeks) 


May 


Province and Sex 


Total 


• 


2 


3-4 


5-8 


9-12 


13-16 


17-20 


over 
20 


31, 1956 
Total 




250,283 
184,106 
66,177 


41,442 
30,230 
11,212 


16,896 
11,529 
5,367 


25,307 
18,119 

7,188 


41,424 

31,654 

9,770 


35,712 

28,072 

7,640 


27,999 

21,292 

6,707 


23,862 
17,206 
6,656 


37,641 
26,004 
11,637 


188,927 




132,145 




56,782 








10,291 

9,741 

550 

1,104 

868 
236 

12,748 
10,815 
1,933 

14,435 
12,367 
2,068 

85,218 
64,146 
21,072 

79,702 
52,487 
27,215 

9,228 
5,692 
3,536 

4,179 
2,843 
1,336 

10,802 
8,863 
1,939 

22,576 
16,284 
6,292 


686 
614 

72 

98 
65 
33 

1,851 
1,590 

261 

1,788 

1,439 

349 

12,807 
9,092 
3,715 

17,140 
12,216 
4,924 

1,240 
733 
507 

311 
180 
131 

1,519 
1,230 

289 

4,002 

3,071 

931 


363 

339 

24 

62 
40 
22 

807 
674 
133 

818 
705 
113 

5,649 
3,704 
1,945 

6,253 
3,964 
2,289 

569 
340 
229 

270 
168 
102 

770 
631 
139 

1,335 
964 
371 


698 

669 

29 

87 
67 
20 

1,512 

1,336 

176 

1,648 

1,464 

184 

8,252 
5,625 
2,627 

8,340 
5,401 
2,939 

919 
538 
381 

373 
266 
107 

1,150 

939 
211 

2,328 

1,814 

514 


1,737 

1,672 

65 

156 
131 
25 

2,084 

1,823 

261 

2,748 

2,489 

259 

14,614 
11,179 
3,435 

12,057 
8,098 
3,959 

1,425 
922 
503 

749 
584 
165 

2,321 

2,039 

282 

3,533 

2,717 

816 


1,764 

1,698 

66 

137 
112 
25 

1,597 

1,360 

237 

2,238 

1,997 

241 

15,053 
12,736 
2,317 

9,232 
6,027 
3,205 

1,095 
722 
373 

466 
342 
124 

1,403 

1,164 

239 

2,727 

1,914 

813 


1,460 

1,398 

62 

137 
110 

27 

1,272 

1,004 

268 

1,829 

1,596 

233 

10,897 
9,011 
1,886 

7,547 
4,779 
2,768 

1,036 
624 
412 

489 
325 
164 

1,131 
930 
201 

2,201 

1,515 

686 


1,665 

1,583 

82 

150 
121 
29 

1,404 

1,193 

211 

1,400 

1,191 

209 

7,020 
5,395 
1,625 

7,376 
4,549 
2,827 

1,032 
593 
439 

538 
331 
207 

936 
736 
200 

2,341 

1,514 

827 


1,918 

1,768 

150 

277 
222 
55 

2,221 

1,835 

386 

1,966 

1,486 

480 

10,926 
7,404 
3,522 

11,757 
7,453 
4,304 

1,912 

1,220 

692 

983 
647 
336 

1,572 

1,194 

378 

4,109 
2,775 
1,334 


8,593 


Male 


8,137 


Female 


446 


Prince Edward Island 

Male 


819 
603 




216 




9,502 




7,887 




1,615 




11,469 




9,648 


Female 


1,821 




70, 197 




51,064 




19,133 




53,339 




32,850 




20,489 




8,225 


Male 


4,715 


Female 


3,510 




4,242 




2,728 




1,514 




7,626 


Male 


5,517 




2,109 


British Columbia 


14,925 
8,996 




5,929 







1018 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, MAY 1957 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims and Claims Pending 
at End of Month 


Province 


Total* 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 
Disposed 

oft 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 




2,424 

317 

4,563 

4,394 

31,972 

41,643 

3,192 

1,209 

4,095 

10,517 


2,053 

247 

2,906 

2,989 

20,450 

24,406 

2,103 

912 

2,748 

6,436 


371 

70 

1,657 

1,405 

11,522 

17,237 

1,089 

297 

1,347 

4,081 


4,084 

516 

5,112 

6,030 

38,133 

43,204 

3,655 

1,765 

6,076 

11,782 


1,515 

263 
3,540 
4,133 
26,569 
32,665 
2,692 
1,078 
4,364 
8,169 


2,569 

253 

1,572 

1,897 

11,564 

10,539 

963 

687 

1,712 

3,613 


685 




73 




1,320 
1 073 






9,119 




10,040 




418 




199 




892 




2,428 






Total, Canada, May/57 


104,326 
161,304 
84,099 


65,250 
117,044 
55,856 


39,076 
44,260 
28,243 


120,357 
178,850 
100,493 


84,988 
113,720 
66,712 


35,369 
65,130 
33,781 


26,247 


Total, Canada, April/57 


42,278 


Total, Canada, May/56 


17,260 







* In addition, revised claims received numbered 27,536. 

t In addition, 28,555 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 3,067 were special requests not granted and 1,229 
were appeals by claimants. There were 3,520 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4.— ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT (REVISED) 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Beginning of Month of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants* 


1956— April... 


3,675,000 
3,600,000 
3,726,330 
3,744,000 
3,785,000 
3,788,000 
3,785,000 
3,808,000 
3,875,000 

3,929,000 
3,982,000 
3,987,000 
3,963,000 


3,163,900 
3,307,900 
3,458,260 
3,608,000 
3,646,500 
3,655,700 
3,656,600 
3,668,600 
3,659,600 

3,530,800 
3,436,000 
3,414,600 
3,404,200 


511, 100t 




292, 100 




268,070 


July. ... 


136,000 




138,500 




132,300 




128,400 




139,400 




215,400t 




398,200t 




546,000t 




572,400t 


April 


558,800t 







* Claimants having an unemployment register in the live file last working day of preceding month. 
t Includes seasonal benefit claimants. 



1019 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l.— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

(1949 = 100) 
Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



— 


Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


Household 
operation 


Other 
Commodi- 
ties and 
Service 


1951— Year 


113.7 
116.5 
115.5 

116.2 

116.4 

118.1 

118.5 
119.1 
119.0 
119.8 
120.3 
120.4 

120.3 
120.5 
120.5 
120.9 
121.1 
121.6 
121.9 


117.0 

116.8 

112.6 

112.2 

112.1 

113.4 

114.4 
115.9 
115.5 
117.4 
117.9 
117.5 

117.1 
117.2 
116.4 
116.7 
116.7 
117.7 
118.2 


114.4 

102.2 

123.6 

126.5 

129.4 

132.5 

132.7 
133.0 
133.1 
133.3 
133.4 
133.5 

133.6 
133.8 
134.0 
134.0 
134.2 
134.8 
135.1 


109.8 

111.8 

110.1 

109.4 

108.0 

108.6 

108.6 
108.4 
108.4 
108.5 
108.4 
108.6 

107.6 
107.4 
108.2 
108.5 
108.5 
108.4 
108.4 


113.1 

116.2 

117.0 

117.4 

116.4 

117.1 

116.7 
116.8 
117.1 
117.7 
118.1 
118.6 

119.0 
119.1 
119.5 
119.4 
119.2 
119.1 
119.6 


111.5 


1952— Year 


116.0 


1953— Year 

1954— Year 


115.8 
117.4 


1955— Year 


118.1 


1956— Year 


120.9 


1956— July 


121.1 




121.3 




121.4 




121.6 




122.8 




122.9 




123.1 




123.8 




124.2 




125.1 




126.3 




126.5 


July 


126.5 







TABLE F-2.— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA 
AT THE BEGINNING OF JUNE 1957 

(1949 = 100) 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


House- 
hold 
Operation 


Other 
Commo- 
dities 
and 
Services 





June 1956 


May 1957 


June 1957 


(i) St. John's Nfld 


107.6 
115.6 
118.2 
118.1 
118.8 
120.4 
116.6 
115.2 
114.9 
118.4 


109.3 
119.1 
121.9 
120.7 
122.8 
125.0 
119.2 
117.9 
118.1 
122.0 


109.5 
119.1 
122.0 
121.5 
123.2 
125.2 
119.6 
118.8 
118.4 
121.5 


107.7 
110.5 
114.6 
120.3 
117.0 
117.5 
115.1 
115.2 
113.9 
116.5 


110.5 
128.8 
132.3 
140.0 
141.6 
150.2 
128.9 
118.9 
121.2 
131.1 


101.8 
114.0 
117.8 
104.7 
112.0 
111.9 
112.6 
118.5 
115.9 
113.5 


108.8 
125.5 
121.2 
115.9 
118.6 
119.4 
116.7 
121.3 
119.7 
126.7 


116.0 




124.4 




130.5 




125.7 




129.9 




130.1 




125.4 




121.1 




123.8 




124.8 







N.B.— Indexes above measure precentage changes in prices over time 
pare actual levels of prices as between cities. 

0) St. John's Index on the base — June 1951 = 100. 



. each city and should not be used to com- 



1020 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 



TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, JANUARY- JUNE 1956, 1957 ft 



Date 



Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



In 

Existence 



Approximate Num- 
ber of Workers 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



In 

Existence 



Time Loss 



In 

Man- 
Days 



Per Cent 
of Esti- 
mated 
Working 
Time 



1957* 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Cumulative Totals 

1956 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

Cumulative Totals 



24t 

17 

32 

15 

30 

20 



138 



14t 

12 

12 

15 

30 

25 



7,477f 
5,797 
6,585 
6,158 
14,051 
7,376 



47,444 



17,341f 
3,884 
2,308 
2,535 

16,470 
9,621 



7,477 
8,080 
9,912 
8,022 
15,393 
18,377 



17,341 
20, 150 
3,172 
2,877 
17,911 
16,866 



52,680 
49,130 
71,430 
51,820 
144,700 
220,720 



0.06 
0.05 
0.08 
0.06 
0.16 
0.24 



590,480 



338,355 

234,945 

16,955 

10,350 

136,520 

78,160 



0.11 



0.36 
0.25 
0.02 
0.01 
0.14 
0.08 



108 



52,159 



815,285 



0.14 



*Preliminary figures. 

t Strikes unconcluded at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

t The record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more employees and lasting at least one working 
day. Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not 
included in the published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused but a separate record of 
such strikes is maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The 
records include all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the 
methods taken to obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance. 
Information as to a strike involving a small number of employees for a short period of time is frequently 
not received until some time after its commencement. 



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1026 



H — Industrial Accidents 



TABLE H-l.— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA DURING THE FIRST QUARTER 
OF 1957 BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 

Note:— The method of preparing these figures is described elsewhere in this issue in an article entitled "Fatal Industrial 

Accidents in Canada". 

















u 


T3 

a 


















be 

.5 
'3, 


bC 

a 






T3 U 


I 

O OS 












Cause 






» 


S 






03 c 


m .2 
















bfi 

a 
'5b 
bo 
o 


a 

03 
be 


IS 

m 


& 

§ 
bfi 

a 

'3 


bfi 
| 

1 

ta 

*3 

c 

e3 


c 
.2 

o 

3 
1 


O 3 


O 03 

11 

£ 

K G 

5 ° 

go 


•8 

03 







1 

a 


Is 




<3 


Hi 


hi 


§ 


S 


o 


H 


H 


H 


E 


0Q 


P 


H 


Striking Against or Stepping 




























on Objects 






























6 


20 




18 


13 


22 




11 


5 




3 




98 


(a) Tools, machinery, 


































5 
3 


3 

4 


4 
5 






3 
1 








15 


(b) Moving vehicles 


3 


2 






7 




2 




27 




3 


18 




10 


6 


13 




4 


1 




1 




56 


Caught In, On or Between 




























Machinery, Vehicles, etc 


1 


1 




2 


5 


4 




2 






2 




17 


Collision, Derailments, 










5 


8 
1 


8 
1 


1 

4 


6 
4 


12 
14 




25 
6 


11 
3 




5 

1 




81 




34 


































1 


1 


4 


4 


14 




6 


3 




1 




34 


Conflagrations, Temperature 




























Extremes and Explosions 


1 






4 


12 


2 




2 


1 


1 






23 


Inhalation, Absorptions, 
















1 




7 


4 

1 


1 
1 


"4' 


4 










17 














6 


Over-exertion and Industrial 
























1 




1 


3 


1 
1 


1 




3 
1 






3 

1 




13 








3 






















Total, First Quarter— 1957. . 


14 


31 


10 


39 


47 


57 


4 


54 


20 


1 


15 




292* 


Total, First Quarter— 1956. . 


11 


40 


3 


50 


57 


40 


2 


46 


7 




16 




272 



TABLE H-2.— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS OF 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1957 



Industry 


-6 








i 


c 




i 

a 


| 


03 
5 


d 




3 


Agriculture 










1 


12 
9 






1 

3 






14 




1 




1 
6 
6 
1 

1 


1 






9 
4 
5 
5 

13 

1 

8 
2 




31 








10 








...... 


9 
12 
9 


9 

18 
23 

3 

12 

13 

1 

2 


1 
2 
2 


4 
2 
2 


5 

6 

7 


39 








47 








57 


Electricity, Gas, Water Production 






4 


Transportation, Storage and Corn- 


1 




2 


11 
2 


4 
2 


2 

1 


4 


10 


54 


Trade 


20 














1 


Service 


1 




1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


1 


3 




15 
































Total 


3 




18 


18 


45 


102 


10 


13 


33 


50 




292* 







• Of this total 215 fatalities were reported by the various provincial Workmen's Compensation Boards, and the 
Board of Transport Commissioners; details of the remaining 77 were obtained from other non-official sources. 



1027 



OnttiQ-duci+Uf . . . 



A NEW LOOSE-LEAF SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE FOR 

WAGE RATES AND HOURS OF LABOUR 
IN CANADA 



A new speedier service is now available whereby labour union secretaries and indus- 
trial relations officers may obtain information on wage rates by occupation, by industry, 
and by region as soon as the information is compiled and analyzed by the Economics and 
Research Branch of the Department of Labour. 

The information, formerly included in the annual report Wage Rates and Hours of 
Labour, will, by means of the new service, be issued earlier than in the past. More than 
ninety tables covering most industries in Canada will now be released individually on 
loose-leaf pages, pre-punched to fit a convenient indexed binder. 

The tables, compiled from information obtained from a survey at October 1, 1956 of 
some 14,000 establishments located in all ten provinces, show, in the majority of cases, 
the average and predominant range of wage rates for the more essential occupations in 
the industry on a regional basis. Standard hours of work, by province, are also listed. 

The first tables will be ready early in March and others will follow from time to time 
until approximately July. 

In addition, subscribers will receive a copy of the paper bound volume when published 
next Fall. 

Price: First Year Service including attractive binder with index tabs and paper bound 

volume $7.50 per year. 

Service without indexed binder $5.00 per year. 

(Copies of individual tables may be obtained at the rate of 10 cents per copy; 
quantity orders for the same table 5 cents per copy.) 



ORDER FORM 



The Queen's Printer 

% Superintendent of Publications 

Ottawa, Ont. 



Prepayment is required. Cheques or Postal 
Money Orders should be made payable to the 
Receiver General of Canada. 



Enclosed $ Charge to Deposit Account No 

Please send me Wage Rates First Year Serviced) at $7.50 per year 

and/or Wage Rates Service (s) without indexed binder at $5.00 per year. 



NAME 



ADDRESS 
1028 



CITY PROV. 



CUJKMUilJ^I M. SEPTEMBER 15, 1957 

manpower and labour relations 

REVIEW 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Canada 

Current Manpower Situation 

EMPLOYMENT increased further during August, though the gain was 
smaller than is usual at this time of year. Poor harvesting conditions, an 
early shutdown for retooling in the automobile industry and a decline in 
forestry were the more important causes of reduction in the rate of hiring. 
The labour force continued to expand seasonally, keeping unemployment higher 
than a year ago. 

The increase in the labour force in the past few months has moderated 
considerably after the extremely rapid rise in the first part of the year. 
In fact, after allowance for seasonal variations, little or no change has occurred 
in the total between the mid-points of the second and third quarter. In August, 
however, the year-to-year increase was still more than 200,000, and the 
average rate of growth so far this year is considerably greater than in most 
postwar years. The record expansion of manpower resources is largely the 
result of increased immigration, which is partly responsible for the high 
proportion of the adult population participating in the labour force. In August, 
this ratio was 55.4 per cent, the highest in the past ten years. 

Employment rose during August to 5,957,000, slightly more than 2 per 
cent above the year-earlier figure. In this series, too, there has been a distinct 
levelling-off in the past three months, in contrast to a moderate increase in 
the second quarter. Continued strength was evident in construction, but in 
most of the other main industry groups employment either fell or rose less 
rapidly than usual. 

One of the important influences contributing to the reduction in expansion 
of employment was the unfavourable effect of weather on harvesting opera- 
tions. Crops in eastern Canada were reduced by drought earlier in the 
summer and suffered considerable damage from excessive rain during August 
and early September. In western Canada, yields were reduced and harvesting 
operations delayed by heavy rainfall throughout the month. As a result, the 
seasonal movements of farm workers have been much smaller than usual. The 
government- assisted excursion of harvest workers to western Canada amounted 
to only about 20 per cent of last year's figure, and arrangements that had 
been made to bring in workers for the tobacco harvest in Ontario were 
cancelled. 



A Monthly Labour Gazette Feature 



1029 

93871—1 




LABOUR FORCE TRENDS 

1956 ^— — 1957 




Employment in forestry declined 
in August, a month when it usually 
expands. Part of the weakness stems 
from the reduced demand for lumber, 
the effect of which has been most notice- 
able in the lumbering districts of British 
Columbia, Ontario and New Brunswick. 
In British Columbia the latest figures 
show a year-to-year decrease of 20 per 
cent in logging. In eastern Canada a 
number of pulpwood producers have 
announced that high inventories com- 
bined with some decrease in mill produc- 
tion made necessary a smaller pulpwood 
cut this winter. It is generally expected 
that the reduced cut will affect the 
duration of woods employment this win- 
ter, although undoubtedly the number 
of workers employed will also be smaller. 
Early reports show that the seasonal rise 
in woods employment has been delayed 
in many pulp cutting areas. 

A third development contributing to 
a slowdown in employment is the reduced 
output in many metal-producing and metal-using industries. Mining employ- 
ment has declined despite continued strong gains in uranium and oil develop- 
ment. The prolonged strike in the aluminum industry, now settled, noticeably 
reduced employment in and output of non-ferrous metals. Manufacturers of 
mining and pulp and paper machinery, of pipe and other steel products, and 
of railway rolling stock and agricultural equipment have reported a falling-off 
in orders. The automobile industry shut down at the beginning of the month, 
about two weeks earlier than last year; production in the first eight months of 
the year was about 7 per cent lower than in the same period in 1956. The 
shutdown was accompanied by temporary layoffs in supplying plants. All 
of these factors contributed to reducing the employment gain in manufacturing 
to less than 1 per cent in August, compared with an average increase of 2 
per cent in the same period of the past three years. 

The changing pace of activity in these industries has been reflected in 
the number of hours worked. In manufacturing, the length of the work week 
dropped fairly steadily through the first half of 1957. At the beginning of 
July average weekly hours were 40.6, down from 41.2 a year earlier. The 
decline occurred in almost all manufacturing groups, with decreases of an hour 
or more in the manufacture of tobacco, rubber and leather products, machinery 
and iron castings. Exceptions to the general trend included fabricated iron and 
steel products, aircraft, petroleum products and chemicals, all of which showed 
an increase in hours over the year. Among non-manufacturing industries, 
hours in metal mining and construction were higher than last year. 



1030 



DISTRIBUTION OF PAID WORKERS IN THE 
FOUR LABOUR MARKET CATEGORIES 



Sept. 1, 
1957 



In the construction industry, hours 
of work and employment have shown a 
continued strong rise this summer. At 
the beginning of July the average work 
week was 1.6 hours longer than a year 
earlier in roadbuilding and 0.4 hours 
longer in building and engineering con- 
struction. Recently, residential construc- 
tion, which has been the major weakness 
of the industry this year, recorded a 
moderate recovery. In August, the num- 
ber of units started in centres of over 
5,000 population rose to an annual rate 
of 84,000, seasonally adjusted, which is 
just under the 1956 annual total. The 
volume of residential construction in 
progress was still lower than in the same 
period last year owing to the drop in 
housing starts earlier this year. 

In addition to the upturn in housing, 
the demand for construction labour has 
been strongly supported by the high 
level of activity in industrial and insti- 
tutional building, highway construction 
and the many engineering projects in 
progress. In July, construction employ- 
ment was over the half-million mark for the first time; in August it rose 
to an estimated 520,000, and the margin over last year increased to 8 per cent. 



Sept. 1, 
1956 




Substantial 
Surplus 

Balance 



Moderate 
Surplus 



Shortage 



601-SCH£tt3- 



The change from a general rise in the employment trend during the 
first half of the year to stability in the past three months followed a similar 
trend in output. The second-quarter National Accounts reveal that in the 
first half of 1957 the rate of output, seasonally adjusted, was virtually 
unchanged from the last quarter of 1956; during this period, employment 
continued to rise. This divergence between output and employment was 
caused in large part by a drop in agricultural output. 

The Gross National Product in the second quarter was estimated to be 
$30.7 billion (seasonally adjusted annual rate), unchanged from the first 
quarter. This stability in the aggregate covers some notable offsetting move- 
ments in the components. Expenditures on consumer non-durables declined 
by 8 per cent; lower sales of automobiles was one of the more important 
causes. Total consumer expenditures were maintained by a continued rise 
in outlays on non-durable goods and services, though the rate of increase 
in these was smaller than in previous quarters. Imports declined for the 
first time in almost three years, but exports decreased even more, mainly 
because of lower shipments of grain; the contribution of international trade 
to total output was therefore negative. 

Government expenditures showed a gain of 5 per cent, mainly at the 
municipal and provincial level. One of the largest increases in expenditure 



1031 



93871— U 



during the quarter was on non-residential construction, which recovered from 
the slow downturn earlier in the year. Investment outlays on new machinery 
and equipment were down sharply. Although new housing starts recovered 
from the sharp drop of the first quarter, total expenditures on residential 
construction showed a further decline. 



The rapid growth in the labour force earlier this year, and the more 
moderate rise in employment resulted in a considerable rise in unemployment. 
For example, the August labour force survey estimates show 174,000 without 
jobs and seeking work and, in addition, some 17,000 laid off for a full week 
and 32,000 on short time. All of these estimates are substantially higher than 
last year, when supplies of labour were very scarce in many parts of the 
country. The seeking-work figure was 2.8 per cent of the labour force 
compared with 1.7 per cent a year earlier. 

The increase in unemployment has been very general across the country, 
with perhaps a more rapid rise in Ontario and British Columbia than in other 
regions. In mid-August the proportion of the labour force unemployed was 
higher than the national average in British Columbia, Quebec and the Atlantic 
region. In the Prairie region it continued to be well below the other regions. 

The general rise in unemployment is reflected in the labour market 
classifications of local areas and it is at this level that the contrast between 
this year and last is most striking. At September 1, 1956, there was a shortage 
of labour in one-quarter of the labour market areas in the country, including 
four of the eleven largest centres. This September there were no labour 
shortage areas and one-quarter of the total had a labour surplus, including 
four of the largest centres. Two areas, Windsor and Oshawa, were in the 
substantial labour surplus as a result of the temporary shutdown of motor 
vehicle production. 



130 



120 



110 



100 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 
1949 = 100 





1956 



;;| Averages 



t , , , .t — t — I 



Hours per week 



AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 
Manufacturing 




1956 ^Nv 



1957 



V^ 



3 3JFMAMJJAS0NDJ 

•- — 601 ■ 



in m 



J FMAMJJ ASONDJ 



42 



40 



1032 



Current Labour Statistics 



(Latest available statistics as of September 10, 1957) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 
Total civilian labour force (a) . . 

Total persons with jobs 

At work 35 hours or more . . 
At work less than 35 hours. 
With jobs but not at work. 



With jobs but on short time 

With jobs but laid off full week. 



Persons without jobs and seeking work. 



Persons with jobs in agriculture 

Persons with jobs in non-agriculture. 



Total paid workers . 



Registered for work, NES (b) 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 



Claimants for Unemployment Insurance 

benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 



Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 



Immigration. 



Strikes and Lockouts 

No. of days lost 

No. of workers involved 
No. of strikes 



Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (av. 1949 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. av. 1949 = 100) . . 
Total labour income $000, 000 



Industrial Production 
Total (average 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-Durables 



August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 

August 24 



August 22 

August 22 

August 22 

August 22 

August 22 

August 22 



August 1 
July 

July 1 
July 1 

1st 3 mos. 



August 
August 
August 



July 1 
July 1 
July 1 
July 1 
August 1 
July 1 
June 



June 
June 
June 
June 



6,131,000 

5,957,000 

5,186,000 

357,000 

414,000 

32,000 
17,000 

174,000 

900,000 
5,057,000 

4,647,000 



25,700 
70,300 
98,800 
24,500 
29,500 
248,800 



205,779 
$13,799,832 

126.5 
118.3 



62,460 



187,450 

14,532 

42 



$68.31 

$1.61 

40.6 

$65.37 
122.6 
128.5 
1,325 



297.0 
296.0 
348.0 
262.8 



+ 0.3 
+ 0.1 
+ 2.0 
- 2.5 
-16.9 

-23.8 

+21.4 



+ 2.3 
- 0.2 

+ 0.4 



-11.1 

- 9.8 
+ 9.4 
-14.6 

- 6.1 

- 3.3 



0.6 



+ 2.3 
+ 1.4 



+ 0.7 

+ 0.2 

+ 0.2 

+ 0.4 

+ 0.6 

+ 0.2 

+ 4.3 



+ 2.4 

+ 2.7 

+ 0.8 

+ 4.3 



-1- 3.5 
+ 2.3 
+ 1.8 
+12.6 
+ 0.2 

+77.8 
+41.7 

+68.9 

- 4.9 
+ 3.7 

+ 3.2 



+46.9 
+40.9 
+47.0 
+39.2 
+64.8 
+46.3 



+48.6 
+74.1 

+ 1.9 
+ 0.3 



+229. 4(c) 



+ 5.9(c) 
-18.8(c) 
+ 3.7(c) 



5.8 
5.4 
1.5 
3.9 
2.9 
0.9 



+ 9.1 



- 0.6 

- 2.4 

- 6.2 
+ 1.0 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour Force, a monthly 
publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also inside back cover, February Labour Gazette. 

(b) See inside back cover, February Labour Gazette. 

(c) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with total for same period 
previous year. 



1033 



Labour-Management Relations 



TABLE 1.— MAJOR TERMS OF CON- 
TRACTS SETTLED BETWEEN JANUARY 
1 AND JULY 15, 1957* 



Current 
Agree- 
ments 



Previous 
Agree- 
ments 



The Bargaining Scene 

THIRTY-FOUR major collective agreements, covering bargaining units 
of 1,000 or more employees, were under negotiation or scheduled to expire 
during the period August 1 to October 31; the bargaining status of these 
contracts at mid-September is indicated in the chart on the opposite page. 
More than three-quarters of the contracts subject to negotiation during the 
current period have been open for two months or longer. 

Between August 15 and September 15, a total of 12 agreements was 
signed; half of these had been under re-negotiation for more than five months. 
The month's settlements were marked by the conclusion of a four-month 
strike at the Arvida, Que., plant of the Aluminum Co. of Canada, Limited. 
Major settlement terms in the Arvida agreement include wage increases 
totalling 45 cents per hour, spread 
over a three-year period, a reduction 
of the work week from 42 to 40 hours, 
and the introduction of a supple- 
mental unemployment benefit plan. 
In addition, the company has under- 
taken to pay within two years iden- 
tical wage rates in the four smelters 
it operates in Quebec ; individual con- 
tracts covering workers at each of 
these plants will expire within a nine- 
week interval. Also included in the 
Arvida contract is a provision for 
the introduction of a job evaluation 
scheme, with participation in its 
planning by both the company and 
the union. 

A new contract was signed during 
the month affecting 11,000 employees 
of the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission, represented by an affil- 
iate of the National Union of Public 
Service Employees; no details of the 
settlement were available at the time 
of publication. 

At September 15, 22 agreements 
remained open for negotiation. Of 
these, nine were undergoing con- 
ciliation, including contracts covering 
construction workers in Hamilton, 
Toronto and various B.C. centres, 
West Coast pulp mill employees, and 
workers in aircraft manufacturing 
plants in the Toronto area. A con- 
ciliation board has been appointed to 
hear contract negotiations between the United Steelworkers of America and 
the Aluminum Co. of Canada, Limited, at Kitimat, B.C. 



Term of agreement 

1 year or less 

More than 1 year 

Union security 

Union shop 

Other form 

Weekly hours 

40 or less 

More than 40 

Paid statutory holidays 

Seven or less 

Eight or more 

Third week vacation 
After less than 15 years' service. . 

After 15 years' service 

After more than 15 years' service 

Fourth week vacation 

Saturday rate 

Time and one-half 

More than time and one-half — 

Sunday rate 

Time and one-half 

More than time and one-half — 

Supplemental unemployment bene- 
fit plan 

Severance pay 

Pension plan 

Group hospital-medical plan 

Cost-of-living escalator 



23 



* Bargaining units of 1 ,000 or more employees. 



1034 



THE BARGAINING SCENE SEPTEMBER 15, 1957 

Bargaining Units of 1,000 or More Employees, 
August 1 to October 31, 1957 



In Negotiations and Terminating in Period: 34 agreements, 80,500 workers 



Bargaining carried over from July: 
Terminating in period August 1— Oct. 30: 



27 agreements, 69,500 workers 
7 agreements, 11,000 workers 



Settlements Achieved, Aug. 15 — Sept. 15: 12 agreements, 36,400 workers 
Major Terms of Settlements (preliminary information) 

• Wages and Duration — 

3 agreements, covering 8,100 workers, are effective for one year 
or less; 2 of these provide wage increases ranging from 5 to 15 
cents an hour. 

6 agreements, covering 9,100 workers, are effective for periods 
ranging from 20 months to 2 years, with most wage increases 
spread over the length of the contract. 

1 raises monthly salaries by an average 6.7 per cent; 

3 provide wage increases ranging from 5 to 15 cents an hour; 

2 provide increases totalling more than 25 cents an hour. 

2 agreements, covering 8,200 workers, are effective for 3 years; 
these provide wage increases ranging from 30 to 45 cents an hour, 
spread over the length of the contract. 

(Details not available for 1 agreement covering 11,000 workers.) 

• Hours of Work — 

Reduced from 45 to 42 \ under 1 agreement covering 1,000 workers; 
reduced from 42 to 40 under 1 agreement covering 6,800 workers. 

• Vacation — 

2 agreements, covering 7,000 workers, improve vacation clauses. 

• Statutory Holidays— 

1,400 workers under 1 agreement to receive 1 additional day. 

• Welfare Benefits — 

1 agreement, covering 1,700 workers, introduces a group health 
and welfare plan; 2 agreements, covering 12,800 workers, provide 
for increased company contributions to group health and welfare 
funds. 

• Supplemental Unemployment Benefits — 

1 agreement, covering 6,800 workers, introduces a SUB plan. 

• Union Security — 

2 agreements, covering 2,600 workers, introduce a modified union 
shop; 1 agreement, covering 1,200 workers, provides a compulsory 
check-off. 

1 agreement, covering 6,800 workers, was reached after strike action. 



Negotiations Continuing at September 15: 

Bargaining in progress: 
Conciliation in progress: 
Post-conciliation : 
Arbitration in progress: 
Work stoppages: 



22 agreements, 44,100 workers 

7 agreements, 12,300 workers 

9 agreements, 22,400 workers 

2 agreements, 2,400 workers 

2 agreements, 3,500 workers 

'1 involving 3,500 workers 



Other Agreements Terminating in Period: 



Nil. 



1035 



A contract dispute between the Toronto Builders' Exchange and the 
United Association of Plumbers resulted in a strike which began late in August 
and remained in effect at the middle of September. 

Contract Provisions 

In the period January 1 to July 15, 1957, 62 major contract settlements 
each affecting a thousand or more workers were reported. The agreements 
reached in 49 of these settlements are now available for analysis. 

The wage increases reported in the agreements show less concentration 
than those analysed in May (L.G., May, p. 518). However, in agreements 
of one year's duration the settlements fell largely within the range of 5 to 15 
cents an hour. In longer term agreements, which provide for deferred increases 
over the term of the agreement, 16 of the settlements covering much more than 
half of the workers affected by such agreements were for amounts totalling 
more than 15 cents. 

With respect to vacations, the number of years of service required to 
qualify for the third week of vacation appears to have dropped. In fact, 
•almost one-third of the 49 agreements now provide for a third week of 
vacation after less than 15 years' service. The fourth week of vacation has 
received greater attention in the current agreements and 15 contracts now 
provide the longer vacation period, usually after 25 years' service. 

The trend of settlements continues to favour agreements of longer dura- 
tion than one year, although the proportion of such agreements is less in 
the present analysis than in that of last May. The 40-hour week has been 
introduced in a number of these agreements. Supplemental unemployment 
benefit plans and cost-of-living escalator clauses appear to have played a 
relatively unimportant role in the settlements so far this year. 

TABLE 2.— WAGE INCREASES IN SETTLEMENTS— JANUARY 1— JULY 15, 1957* 

(Revised figures for 49 agreements covering 165,800 workers) 



Total Wage Increase per Hour 


One- Year 
Agreements 


Longer-Term 
Agreements 


Agree- 
ments 


Workers 
Covered 


Agree- 
ments 


Workers 
Covered 




1 
9 
8 
1 
1 


1,200 

47,800 

50,000 

1,800 

2,500 


1 
6 
6 
3 
3 
10 


1,700 


5 — 9 . 9 cents 


13,800 


10— 14. 9 cents 


9,000 


15—19.9 cents 


4,000 


20— 24 .9 cents 


15,900 




18,100 








20 


103,300 


29 


62,500 



* Bargaining units of 1 ,000 or more employees. 



1036 



Manpower Situation in Local Areas 

ATLANTIC 



TOTAL employment changed very little 
in the Atlantic region during August as 
a seasonal peak in labour demand was 
reached early in the month. Persons with 
jobs at August 24 were estimated at 
553,000, some 2,000 fewer than a month 
earlier but 10,000 more than a year 
before. Resumption of work at the 
Acadia Coal Company's MacBean Mine 
in New Glasgow resulted in the rehiring 
of 250 workers during the month. Staff 
reductions in other industries more than 
offset this gain, however. Permanent 
layoffs occurred at Milltown, N.B., fol- 
lowing the closure of the textile co-oper- 
ative plant; approximately 450 workers 
were affected by the shutdown. At the 
same time, Eastern Car Company Lim- 



[ ,' ":.... ~ "— ■ " — —.•.■,■■.■.■■■■■■■:■■■;■■,..■■" 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -ATLANTIC 
1956 1957 


1 ss 

I 525,000 
I 500,000 

I 450,000 
1 425,000 
1 400,000 

1 50,000 
25,000 

i 








~^Z^' 


With Jobs: 


500,000 - ^^ Non-Agrieultur* 


// "™"*N 


— // 




With Jobs: 


,j,000 y'-^-v Agri culture 






J FMAMJJASOND 

wwmm — i 



ited at New Glasgow announced additional temporary layoffs, though the 
workers were expected to be recalled in September when production of a new 
order gets under way. Confectionery plants and canneries showed the usual 
employment expansion during the month. 

Unemployment in the region remained substantially higher than last 
year, largely because of reduced activity in construction and forestry. The 
most recent information available shows that construction employment was 
about 25 per cent lower this year than last in both New Brunswick and 
Newfoundland. The main reasons for this decline are the completion of 
projects such as the hydro-electric power development at Beachwood, N.B., 
and the housing development for the Air Force at Chatham, N.B., and a 
reduction in labour requirements at the Gagetown Army site and at the 
northern defense sites in Newfoundland. In the region as a whole residential 
construction has been lagging far behind last year and there was some 
evidence of a further decline in August. 

Forestry employment held up fairly well in Newfoundland during the 
first six months of the year but declined more than seasonally during the 
month under review as a result of a reduction in pulpwood cutting by the 
Anglo-Newfoundland Development Co. Ltd. The full effects of the reduction 
(estimated by the company to be as much as 120,000 cords or close to one- 
third of last year's total) will not be felt until later this year. Stockpiles 
of pulpwood were reported to be large enough to ensure steady production 
of newsprint. 

Employment in forestry continued to show a year-to-year decrease in 
New Brunswick, mainly because of reduced demand for lumber. On the 
domestic market, lumber sales were lower in the first seven months of 1957 
than last year owing to the decline in residential construction. The export 
market for lumber was also considerably weaker than last year with lower 
prices than in 1956. 



1037 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS— SEPTEMBER 


1, 1957 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


APPROXIMATE 
BALANCE 


LABOUR 
SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




Windsor 


HAMILTON «< — 
Quebec-Levis 


Calgary 
Edmonton 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Vancouver-New 


Montreal 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 




Westminster 


Ottawa-Hull 

>-ST. JOHN'S 

Toronto 
Winnipeg 






OSHAWA -< 


Brantford 
Cornwall 
Lac St. Jean 
Moncton 
New Glasgow 
Peterborough 


Corner Brook 
— ^FARNHAM-GRANBY 
Fort William- 
Port Arthur 
Guelph 
Halifax 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




Rouyn Val d'Or 


WOLIETTE 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 60 




Saint John 


Kingston 




per cent or more in non- 




Shawinigan Falls 


Kitchener 




agricultural activity) 




Sherbrooke 
Trois Rivieres 


London 

Niagara Peninsula 

Sarnia 

Sudbury 

Sydney 

Timmins- 

Kirkland Lake 
Victoria 








Chatham 


Barrie 








Thetford-Megantic- 


Brandon 








St. Georges 


Charlottetown 
Lethbridge 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 






Moose Jaw 




AREAS 






North Battleford 




(labour force 25,000-75,000: 40 






Prince Albert 




per cent or more in agriculture) 






Red Deer 

Regina 

Riviere du Loup 

Saskatoon 

Yorkton 








Bathurst 

Central Vancouver 

Island 
Campbellton 
Gaspe 

LINDSAY ■<-— 
Montmagny 
Newcastle 
Rimouski 
St. Stephen 
Victoriaville 


Beauharnois 

Belleville-Trenton 

Bracebridge 

Brampton 

Bridgewater 

Chilliwack 

Cranbrook 

Dauphin 

Dawson Creek 

Drumheller 

Drummondville 




MINOR AREAS 






Edmund3ton 




(labour force 10,000-25.000) 






Fredericton 
Gait 

Goderioh 
Grand Falls 
Kamloops 
Kentville 

L.achute-Ste. Therese 
Listowel 
Medicine Hat 
North Bay 
Okanagan Valley 
Owen Sound 
Pembroke 
Portage la Prairie 
Prince George 
Prince Rupert 
Quebec North Shore 
Sault Ste. Marie 
Simcoe 
— >-STE. AGATHE- 
ST. JEROME 
St. Hyacinthe 
Sorel 
St. Jean 
St. Thomas 
Stratford 
Summerside 

SWIFT CURRENT-*-— 
Trail-Nelson 
Truro 
Valleyfield 
Walkerton 

WEYBURN ■< 

Woodstock-Ingersoll 
Woodstock, N.B. 
Yarmouth 





-The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 
moved. 



1038 



Despite the weaknesses in construction and forestry, total employment 
in the region during August showed a moderate increase over a year ago. The 
principal gains occurred in the trade and service industries. Manufacturing 
employment showed little year-to-year change but was considerably higher 
than in 1955. 

Only one of the 21 areas in the region was reclassified during the month, 
from the moderate surplus to the balanced category. At September 1 the 
area classification was as follows (last year's figures in brackets) : in moderate 
surplus, 7 (0) ; in balance, 14 (20) ; in shortage, (1). 

Local Area Developments 

St. John's (metropolitan). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Unemploy- 
ment decreased during August but remained considerably higher than a year 
ago. Street and highway construction were curtailed during the month as a 
result of a strike at Concrete Projects Ltd., suppliers of asphalt. 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -QUEBEC 
1956 1957 



QUEBEC 

ECONOMIC activity showed signs of 
levelling off in both agricultural and 
non-agricultural industries in Quebec 
during August as slackness in the 
seasonal industries, vacations, and the 
results of bad weather in the early sum- 
mer coincided. At August 24, persons 
with jobs were estimated at 1,643,000, 
some 12,000 fewer than a month before 
but 45,000 more than a year earlier. 
Unemployment remained higher than 
last year and job vacancies on file at 
NES offices were nearly 50 per cent 
fewer than a year ago. 

While the prospects were good for 
the grain harvest, a smaller hay harvest 
than last year's and a much reduced 
tobacco crop lessened the demand for 
workers in agriculture so that the movement of farm labour from the region 
was much smaller than last summer. The summer wood cut was almost com- 
pleted and camps were opening for the winter, but wood quotas are smaller 
this year and fewer men are in the woods. 

Although employment in the construction of roads and bridges was below 
last year's record level, employment in the building and engineering sector 
showed a year-to-year increase of 10 per cent at July 1. During August, 
employment in construction rose with an increase in housing starts; registra- 
tions of construction workers at NES offices dropped during the month but 
were still higher than a year ago. In primary textiles, employment was 
steadier than a month earlier and, vacations apart, the manufacturing indus- 
tries generally were very active. On the basis of year-to-year comparisons 
at July, employment showed particular strength in the manufacture of iron 
and steel products, transportation equipment (gains have been constant in 




1039 



the aircraft industry), electrical apparatus and chemical products. However, 
employment was lower than last year in mining, textiles, and wood and paper 
products. 

Three labour market areas in the region were reclassified during the 
month. At September 1, the 24 areas in the region were classified as follows 
(last year's figures in brackets) : in moderate surplus, 11 (1) ; in balance, 
13 (23). 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Registrations for work at 
NES offices declined substantially during the month but remained much higher 
than a year ago in construction, transportation and metal-working occupa- 
tions and in the manufacture of electrical and transportation equipment. 
Registrations from clothing workers were slightly lower than last year, reflecting 
a strong seasonal recovery in the manufacture of clothing. In the port, 
shipping was less active than last year, owing to a reduction in grain move- 
ments. Railway equipment plants were extremely busy and prospects were 
better in this industry than a month ago. 

Quebec-Levis (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Registrations declined 
less than seasonally during the month, remaining well above last year's. 
A pulp and paper mill and a cotton mill were on short time. A layoff occurred, 
and more were anticipated, at a shipyard. The failure of the tobacco crop 
affected farm employment in Levis. Logging activities were below last year's 
level. 

Farnham-Granby (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 
Registrations dropped sharply to a level slightly under last year's. Employ- 
ment rose in the manufacture of clothing and in construction. Canning fac- 
tories were operating at capacity. 

Joliette (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. Textile 
plants were operating at capacity and registrations in textiles (both primary 
and secondary) showed a decline during the month. 

Ste. Agathe-St. Jerome (minor). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 3. 

ONTARIO 

EMPLOYMENT in Ontario increased slightly during August. The number 
of persons with jobs at August 24 was estimated at 2,193,000, an increase 
of 7,000 from last month and of 42,000 from last year. Employment in 
agriculture rose by 14,000 but was partly offset by a decline in the non- 
agricultural industries. Ontario's share of total unemployment increased over 
the year, but as a proportion of the labour force unemployment in the 
province was considerably lower than the national average. The decline in 
non-agricultural employment was due mainly to extensive seasonal layoffs 
in the automobile and allied industries, which almost tripled the number of 
automotive workers registered with the NES offices. Conditions in the steel 
industry varied. The drop in production of automobiles, railroad rolling stock, 
farm implements and other heavy industrial machinery caused a further 
reduction in primary steel output. On the other hand, production of fabricated 
and structural steel, stimulated largely by industrial and commercial con- 
struction, continued at a high level. The slow movement of grain from the 
Great Lake terminals adversely affected employment in Lake shipping. Con- 

1040 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -ONTARIO 
--■ 1956 1957 




Persons 
With Jobs 



struction employment increased slightly 
and was much higher than last year. 
While the high level of construction 
activity was due essentially to non- 
residential construction, the number of 
housing starts during July indicate an 
impending improvement in residential 
construction, particularly in larger areas. 
The approaching fall season gave the 
secondary textile industry some new 
impetus. Light manufacturing showed 
a slight improvement and feed mills and 
meat packing plants were operating at 
near capacity. 

Agricultural employment increased 
seasonally, but heavy hail damage to 
the tobacco crop greatly reduced the 
anticipated demand for extra farm 
labour and resulted in the cancellation of the usual annual movement of 
harvest workers from outlying areas to southern Ontario. Unfavourable 
weather also affected part of the canning industry. 

Three areas were reclassified during the month. At September 1, the 
classification of the 34 areas in the region was as follows (last year's figures 
in brackets): in substantial surplus, 2 (1) ; in moderate surplus, 6 (2); in 
balance, 26 (23) ; in shortage, (8). 



Persons Without Jobs 
and Seeking Work 



J j A S N 



Local Area Developments 

Metropolitan Areas: Hamilton — Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 
Curtailment in production of primary iron and steel and railroad rolling stock 
and small seasonal layoffs in the rubber and textile industries brought the 
area into the moderate surplus group. Employment in the automotive industry 
remained seasonally low. Heavy damage to the tobacco crop reduced employ- 
ment opportunities in agriculture. The construction industry improved con- 
siderably with prospects of steady employment in the months ahead. Ottawa- 
Hull — Remained in Group 3. Unemployment continued to decline, owing 
mainly to increased construction activity. Sawmills were working at capacity 
but activity in other wood products plants remained at a somewhat reduced 
level. Toronto — Remained in Group 3. A further slight decline occurred in 
unemployment. Light manufacturing, especially secondary textiles, showed 
increased seasonal activity. Heavy industry, with the exception of steel 
products and farm implements, continued active. Experienced industrial 
machine operators were in short supply. Windsor — Remained in Group 1. The 
closing of automobile manufacturing plants for model change-over and 
extended annual vacations resulted in extensive layoffs in this industry as 
well as in most feeder plants. Hail and heavy rains reduced the demand for 
farm labour. Construction employment showed some improvement. 

Oshawa (major industrial). Reclassified from Group 2 to Group 1. A layoff 
of more than 5,000 automobile workers as a result of model change-over 
caused a substantial labour surplus. Work on the new model is expected to 
begin during the second half of September. 

Lindsay (minor). Reclassified from Group 3 to Group 2. 



1041 




PRAIRIE 

AGRICULTURAL employment showed 
a further rise in the Prairie region dur- 
ing August as labour demands were 
strengthened by the annual manpower 
requirements for the grain harvest. By 
the end of the month, harvesting was 
fairly well advanced though unsettled 
weather had delayed operations in most 
areas. In contrast to last year's general 
farm labour scarcity, no shortages were 
reported during August. Fewer workers 
were needed for the harvest this year 
because of reduced grain acreage and 
a smaller-than-average yield. At the 
same time, available labour supplies 
were augmented by employment con- 
tractions in other industries. Oil drilling, 
for example, has decreased substantially 
throughout Saskatchewan and Alberta in recent months. Pipeline, highway 
and street construction also accounted for sizeable layoffs in some areas, 
releasing a substantial number of workers for the grain harvest. Harvest 
workers requested from Eastern Canada this year numbered fewer than 
150 workers, compared with almost 700 in 1956. 

With the increase in agricultural employment, persons with jobs in the 
region were estimated to have increased to 1,070,000 by August 24, an increase 
of 17,000 from the previous month and 22,000 from the previous year. 
Unemployment declined slightly during the month but remained slightly 
higher than a year before. Labour supply and demand were in much better 
balance in this region than in other parts of the country; registrations at NES 
offices in the Prairies represented 3.4 per cent of the paid workers, compared 
with 5.2 per cent for Canada as a whole. Moreover, the demand-supply 
situation was very similar throughout the region; in 18 of the 20 Prairie 
areas, registrations at NES offices amounted to between 2.3 and 4.1 per cent 
of the paid workers. 

Swift Current and Weyburn were reclassified from the shortage to the 
balanced category during the month and with these changes, all areas in 
the region were in balance by September 1. Last year at this time, the area 
classification was as follows: in balance 3; in shortage 17. 

Local Area Developments 

Calgary (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Employment changed very 
little during August. Business conditions remained more favourable than 
in most industrial areas in the country, though lacking much of the vigour 
that characterized the area last year. In contrast to last summer's widespread 
labour shortages, manpower requirements approximated labour supplies in 
almost all occupations. Year-to-year employment increases occurred in all 
major industries but the gains were not large enough to match the expansion 
of the labour force. The resultant increase in unemployment was fairly well 
spread over the various occupations. 



1042 



Edmonton (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Unemployment continued 
to decline but by the end of the month it still was substantially higher than 
a year before. While general industrial activity has continued to show year- 
to-year gains, it is apparent that much of the expansionary force of recent 
years has been lacking. Construction, for example, showed a sharp year-to- 
year decline, causing cut-backs in production and employment in other 
industries; building material plants and distributive outlets were the most 
severely affected. Development and production of oil also contributed little 
to employment expansion this year. In fact, the industry has not been as 
active in the past two months as in the comparable period last year. 

Winnipeg (metropolitan). Remained in Group 3. Unemployment declined 
moderately, largely because of increased hirings in seasonal industries. Con- 
struction showed the most improvement; fairly heavy demands existed for 
skilled and unskilled building workers. Manufacturing showed continuing 
strength during the month and there was evidence that certain types of 
skilled workers were in short supply. Machine shop workers, auto and body 
mechanics and skilled tradesmen for printing and publishing were reported 
very scarce. 

Swift Current and Weyburn (minor) . Labour shortages eased sufficiently in 
these areas to warrant reclassification from Group 4 to Group 3, but unem- 
ployment remained very low. 



PACIFIC 

EMPLOYMENT in the Pacific region 
reached its seasonal peak early in 
August and varied little during the 
remainder of the month. Persons with 
jobs at August 20 numbered 498,000, 
about 15,000 higher than a year earlier. 
Unemployment fell only slightly from 
the July level and continued to be much 
higher than in 1956. The main reasons 
for the year-to-year increase were re- 
duced lumber sales to domestic and 
foreign markets, decreased mining oper- 
ations and the greater number of immi- 
grants this year. 

The seasonal rise in manufactur- 
ing activity was smaller than last 
year. Nevertheless, total manufacturing 
employment was somewhat higher than 
a year ago, the decline in the wood products sector being more than offset 
by increases in other activities. The most recent figures indicate, however, 
that forestry employment is more than 20 per cent lower than a year ago. 
Construction employment was considerably higher than a year earlier but 
there were still substantial numbers of unemployed construction workers at 
most points. The value of construction contracts awarded for the first seven 
months of this year was about 20 per cent lower than for the same period in 
1956. Employment in mining was lower than a year ago, especially in base 
metals, but in transportation it was considerably higher. In agriculture, the 





-■ "-■■ 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS -PACIFIC 
1956 1957 


475,000 
450,000 




v"""* — Labour Fore* 




''""' 


Persons 








•^y 


L 




JFMAMJ J A S N D 



1043 



main demand for labour was for fruit pickers, and this was not so strong as 
last year. The supply of farm workers was better than usual because of the 
recent arrival of British immigrants with farm experience. Few occupational 
shortages existed during the month, in contrast to last year, when manpower 
was more fully utilized. 

All labour market areas remained in the same category during the 
month. At September 1, classification of the ten labour market areas in the 
region was as follows (last year's figures in brackets) : in moderate surplus, 
2 (1) ; in balance, 8 (8) ; in shortage, (1). 

Local Area Developments 

Vancouver-New Westminster (metropolitan). Remained in Group 2. Last 
year this area was in Group 3. Although employment was higher than in 
1956, labour supply far exceeded demand, in marked contrast to last year 
when various occupational shortages existed. Logging employment showed 
a year-to-year decline. Sawmill employment declined from July and was 
also considerably lower than last year. In manufacturing industries generally 
there was limited demand for labour, with one sizable layoff occurring in 
the pulp and paper industry because of high inventories and the weakened 
pulp market. Construction employment appeared to have reached its peak 
for the year, but the number of unemployed construction workers remained 
much higher than last August. There was less turnover of farm help than 
last year. Salmon and herring catches in August were considerably higher 
than a year ago. 

Victoria (major industrial). Remained in Group 3. Employment continued 
to be higher than last year but the steady influx of immigrants and persons 
from other areas also kept unemployment higher than in 1956. Logging em- 
ployment remained lower than a year earlier, with the demand for loggers light 
and the supply plentiful. Sawmill employment showed a year-to-year decline 
and lumber company officials did not expect any immediate improvement in 
markets. Some increase in the demand for construction workers occurred 
towards the end of August. Although a fair level of activity was maintained 
in this industry, the number of unemployed, especially carpenters, was larger 
than a year ago. Shipyards were active and no reduction in employment was 
expected during the remainder of the year. Some increase in lumber shipments 
to the United Kingdom provided additional work for longshoremen. There 
was little demand for farm workers. 



1044 






NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Minister Seehs Views on 
Labour Law Amendments 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister of Labour, 
last month wrote to the principal labour 
and management organizations in Canada 
requesting their views on the amendment 
of the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act. 

In his letter, dated August 12, the 
Minister said: 

''I am arranging with the officials of my 
Department for a review of the provisions 
of the Industrial Relations and Disputes Act 
to determine what changes are advisable 
in the provisions of the Act to make it 
more effective for the purposes for which 
it is designed in its application to the indus- 
tries which are covered thereby. 

"In this review I would appreciate 
receiving the benefit of any considered 
suggestions which your organization would 
like to put forward for the improvement 
of the legislation." 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force nine 
years ago, on September 1, 1948. Its prin- 
cipal clauses provide for the right of 
employees and employers to organize, for 
the certification of trade unions as bargain- 
ing agents, and for the appointment of 
conciliation officers, conciliation boards and 
industrial inquiry commissions to deal with 
industrial disputes. 

The Act combines the provisions for the 
settlement of disputes contained in the 
1907 Industrial Disputes Investigation Act 
and the representation and collective bar- 
gaining provisions of the 1944 Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations. 



Opening Moves TaUen in 
Winter Worh Campaign 

Moves of the Department of Labour and 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
in another campaign against seasonal unem- 
ployment this winter are well under way, 
and materials for promotion in their own 
districts have been sent to local Employ- 
ment Offices and local Employment Com- 
mittees. Community programs will start 
in many districts in October and November. 

For the past two winters campaigns in 
many centres across Canada have been 
conducted, with local support, to increase 



winter work and to get materials moving 
during the cold weather seasonal lull, by 
encouraging the carrying-out of all kinds 
of work that can be done just as well in the 
winter as in the summer. The main cam- 
paign, which is starting early in January 
and will continue throughout the winter, 
will use the slogan "Do It Now — Why Wait 
for Spring?" 

While it is difficult to estimate the results 
of previous campaigns from a national 
point of view, reports indicate that wherever 
local campaigns have been vigorously pur- 
sued they have been effective in increasing 
employment and business activity generally. 
The Department hopes that increased sup- 
port will be forthcoming this winter 
from businessmen, industrialists, and house- 
holders as the wisdom becomes apparent of 
taking advantage of the availability of men 
and materials during the winter, instead 
of competing for them in the summer 
when demand is at its highest. 

In past years, local campaigns have been 
well supported in the communities where 
they have been carried on. Reports show 
that newspaper adverti